Calcium chloride

CaCl 2 calciumanhydrous calcium chlorideCaCl 2 )CaCl 2 ·2H 2 Ocalcium chloridCalcium chloride hexahydratecalcium dichlorideDe-icing saltS
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl 2.wikipedia
297 Related Articles

Freezing-point depression

freezing point depressioncryoscopyfreezing point depressant
By depressing the freezing point of water, calcium chloride is used to prevent ice formation and is used to de-ice.
Commonly used sodium chloride can depress the freezing point of water to about -21 C. If the road surface temperature is lower, NaCl becomes ineffective and other salts are used, such as calcium chloride, magnesium chloride or a mixture of many.

Water of crystallization

hydrateshydratedhydrate
Calcium chloride is commonly encountered as a hydrated solid with generic formula CaCl 2 (H 2 O) x, where x = 0, 1, 2, 4, and 6.
This notation is used when the compound only contains lattice water or when the crystal structure is undetermined. For example Calcium chloride: CaCl2 ·2H2 O

Desiccant

drying agentdehydration agentdesiccants
Because the anhydrous salt is hygroscopic, it is used as a desiccant.
Other common desiccants include activated charcoal, calcium sulfate, calcium chloride, and molecular sieves (typically, zeolites).

Hygroscopy

hygroscopicdeliquescenthygroscopicity
Because the anhydrous salt is hygroscopic, it is used as a desiccant.
Zinc chloride and calcium chloride, as well as potassium hydroxide and sodium hydroxide (and many different salts), are so hygroscopic that they readily dissolve in the water they absorb: this property is called deliquescence.

Tofu

bean curdbeancurdsilken tofu
As a firming agent, calcium chloride is used in canned vegetables, in firming soybean curds into tofu and in producing a caviar substitute from vegetable or fruit juices.
It is high in iron, and can have a high calcium or magnesium content depending on the coagulants used in manufacturing (e.g. calcium chloride, calcium sulfate, magnesium sulfate).

Deicing

de-icinganti-icingde-ice
By depressing the freezing point of water, calcium chloride is used to prevent ice formation and is used to de-ice.
More recent snowmelters use other salts, such as calcium chloride and magnesium chloride, which not only depress the freezing point of water to a much lower temperature, but also produce an exothermic reaction.

Spherification

substitute from vegetable or fruit juices
As a firming agent, calcium chloride is used in canned vegetables, in firming soybean curds into tofu and in producing a caviar substitute from vegetable or fruit juices.
Spherification is a culinary process that employs sodium alginate and either calcium chloride or calcium glucate lactate to shape a liquid into squishy spheres, which visually and texturally resemble roe.

Calcium hydroxide

slaked limelimehydrated lime
Calcium hydroxide (kalkwasser mix) or a calcium reactor can also be used.
In the laboratory it can be prepared by mixing aqueous solutions of calcium chloride and sodium hydroxide.

Salt (chemistry)

saltsaltspotassium salt
Calcium chloride is an inorganic compound, a salt with the chemical formula CaCl 2.
A metal and a non-metal, e.g., Ca + Cl 2 → CaCl 2

Sequestrant

sequestering
Calcium chloride is permitted as a food additive in the European Union for use as a sequestrant and firming agent with the E number E509. It is considered as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Calcium chloride (E509)

E number

EE numbersE223
Calcium chloride is permitted as a food additive in the European Union for use as a sequestrant and firming agent with the E number E509. It is considered as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

Firming agent

As a firming agent, calcium chloride is used in canned vegetables, in firming soybean curds into tofu and in producing a caviar substitute from vegetable or fruit juices. Calcium chloride is permitted as a food additive in the European Union for use as a sequestrant and firming agent with the E number E509. It is considered as generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
Calcium chloride (E509)

Drying tube

guard tube
Drying tubes are frequently packed with calcium chloride.
In use, the drying tube is filled with a rechargeable desiccant such as calcium chloride, and the open end of drying tube is partially blocked (e.g. with wool, glasswool or a bung/cork which has a small bore made in it) and the drying tube is connected to the apparatus to be kept dry via the ground glass joint.

Heating pad

heat packsChemical heating padheat pad
The exothermic dissolution of calcium chloride is used in self-heating cans and heating pads.
Another type contains separate compartments within the pad; when the user squeezes the pad, a barrier ruptures and the compartments mix, producing heat such as the enthalpy change of solution of calcium chloride dissolving.

Sodium

NaNa + sodium ion
The extremely salty taste of calcium chloride is used to flavor pickles without increasing the food's sodium content.
This is done in a Downs cell in which the NaCl is mixed with calcium chloride to lower the melting point below 700 °C. As calcium is less electropositive than sodium, no calcium will be deposited at the cathode.

Bitter pit

Calcium chloride is used to prevent cork spot and bitter pit on apples by spraying on the tree during the late growing season.
Several decades of research in several countries with many cultivars showed that moderate levels of bitter pit could be controlled with the spraying of the trees with calcium chloride or calcium nitrate during the growing season.

Cement accelerator

accelerateaccelerators
Calcium chloride is used in concrete mixes to accelerate the initial setting, but chloride ions lead to corrosion of steel rebar, so it should not be used in reinforced concrete.
Calcium chloride (CaCl 2 ) is the most efficient and least expensive accelerator and was formerly very popular but is corrosive to reinforcement bars so its use is not recommended and in many countries is actually prohibited.

Reinforced concrete

ferro-concreteferroconcretesteel-reinforced concrete
Calcium chloride is used in concrete mixes to accelerate the initial setting, but chloride ions lead to corrosion of steel rebar, so it should not be used in reinforced concrete.
It was once common for calcium chloride to be used as an admixture to promote rapid set-up of the concrete.

Ethanol

alcoholbioethanolethyl alcohol
Calcium chloride dihydrate (20% by weight) dissolved in ethanol (95% ABV) has been used as a sterilant for male animals.
The polar nature of the hydroxyl group causes ethanol to dissolve many ionic compounds, notably sodium and potassium hydroxides, magnesium chloride, calcium chloride, ammonium chloride, ammonium bromide, and sodium bromide.

Activated carbon

activated charcoalactive carbonactive charcoal
Calcium chloride is also used in the production of activated charcoal.
4) Chemical activation: Prior to carbonization, the raw material is impregnated with certain chemicals. The chemical is typically an acid, strong base, or a salt (phosphoric acid, potassium hydroxide, sodium hydroxide, calcium chloride, and zinc chloride 25%). Then, the raw material is carbonized at lower temperatures (450–900 °C). It is believed that the carbonization / activation step proceeds simultaneously with the chemical activation. Chemical activation is preferred over physical activation owing to the lower temperatures and shorter time needed for activating material.

Self-heating can

self-heating cans
The exothermic dissolution of calcium chloride is used in self-heating cans and heating pads.
Anhydrous calcium chloride is often used as well.

Alkaline earth metal

alkaline earthalkaline earth metalsgroup 2
As with most bulk commodity salt products, trace amounts of other cations from the alkali metals and alkaline earth metals (groups 1 and 2) and other anions from the halogens (group 17) typically occur, but the concentrations are trifling.
The alkaline earth metals all react with the halogens to form ionic halides, such as calcium chloride, as well as reacting with oxygen to form oxides such as strontium oxide . Calcium, strontium, and barium react with water to produce hydrogen gas and their respective hydroxides, and also undergo transmetalation reactions to exchange ligands.

Sodium carbonate

soda ashsodaNa 2 CO 3
Kelp is dried with calcium chloride for use in producing sodium carbonate.
It consumes only brine and limestone and calcium chloride is its only waste product.

Calcium

CaCa 2+ calcium ion
Molten calcium chloride can be electrolysed to give calcium metal and chlorine gas:
In Russia and China, Davy's method of electrolysis is still used, but is instead applied to molten calcium chloride.

Brine

salt watersalt brinebrine water
In the US, most of calcium chloride is obtained by purification from brine.
Most commonly used brines are based on inexpensive calcium chloride and sodium chloride.