Calculator

pocket calculatorcalculatorselectronic calculatordesktop calculatorelectronic calculatorshandheld calculatormechanical calculatordesk calculatordesktop computerBowmar
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.wikipedia
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Scientific calculator

Scientificscientific calculatorshigher math
For example, there are scientific calculators which include trigonometric and statistical calculations.
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.

Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayliquid crystal displays
Calculators usually have liquid-crystal displays (LCD) as output in place of historical light-emitting diode (LED) displays and vacuum fluorescent displays (VFD); details are provided in the section Technical improvements.
Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, and mobile telephones, including smartphones.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorchip
Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom.
The first microprocessors emerged in the early 1970s and were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words.

Busicom

Busicom Corp.
Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom.
Busicom asked Intel to design a set of integrated circuits for a new line of programmable electronic calculators in 1969.

Push-button

buttonbuttonspush button
Electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations; some even contain "00" and "000" buttons to make larger or smaller numbers easier to enter.
The "push-button" has been utilized in calculators, push-button telephones, kitchen appliances, and various other mechanical and electronic devices, home and commercial.

Intel 4004

40044004 (MCS-4) projectfirst commercially available microprocessor (Intel 4004)
Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom.
Busicom had designed their own special-purpose LSI chipset for use in their Busicom 141-PF calculator with integrated printer.

Keypad

keyboardkeypadsnumeric keypad
Keypad (input device) – consists of keys used to input numbers and function commands (addition, multiplication, square-root, etc.)
Numeric keypads are found on alphanumeric keyboards and on other devices which require mainly numeric input such as calculators, push-button telephones, vending machines, ATMs, Point of Sale devices, combination locks, and digital door locks.

Arithmetic

arithmetic operationsarithmeticsarithmetic operation
Electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations; some even contain "00" and "000" buttons to make larger or smaller numbers easier to enter. An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics. In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator (by Wilhelm Schickard and several decades later Blaise Pascal ), a device that was at times somewhat over-promoted as being able to perform all four arithmetic operations with minimal human intervention.
At present, they have been supplanted by electronic calculators and computers.

Programmable calculator

Programmablecalculatorsprogrammable calculators
The fundamental difference between a calculator and computer is that a computer can be programmed in a way that allows the program to take different branches according to intermediate results, while calculators are pre-designed with specific functions (such as addition, multiplication, and logarithms) built in. The distinction is not clear-cut: some devices classed as programmable calculators have programming functions, sometimes with support for programming languages (such as RPL or TI-BASIC).
Programmable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under control of a stored program, much like a computer.

Electronics

electronicelectronic deviceelectronic equipment
Electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations; some even contain "00" and "000" buttons to make larger or smaller numbers easier to enter. An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market.

RPL (programming language)

RPLnewRPLReverse Polish Lisp
The fundamental difference between a calculator and computer is that a computer can be programmed in a way that allows the program to take different branches according to intermediate results, while calculators are pre-designed with specific functions (such as addition, multiplication, and logarithms) built in. The distinction is not clear-cut: some devices classed as programmable calculators have programming functions, sometimes with support for programming languages (such as RPL or TI-BASIC).
RPL (derived from Reverse Polish Lisp according to its original developers, whilst for a short while in 1987 HP marketing attempted to coin the backronym ROM-based Procedural Language for it ) is a handheld calculator operating system and application programming language used on Hewlett-Packard's scientific graphing RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) calculators of the HP 28, 48, 49 and 50 series, but it is also usable on non-RPN calculators, such as the 38, 39 and 40 series.

Calculation

calculationscalculatingcalculate
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
Calculator

Division (mathematics)

divisiondividinginteger division
The obelus is also used alone to represent the division operation itself, as for instance as a label on a key of a calculator.

Abacus

abaciabacusescounting frame
The first known tools used to aid arithmetic calculations were: bones (used to tally items), pebbles, and counting boards, and the abacus, known to have been used by Sumerians and Egyptians before 2000 BC. Except for the Antikythera mechanism (an "out of the time" astronomical device), development of computing tools arrived near the start of the 17th century: the geometric-military compass (by Galileo), logarithms and Napier bones (by Napier), and the slide rule (by Edmund Gunter).
Although today many use calculators and computers instead of abacuses to calculate, abacuses still remain in common use in some countries.

Mechanical calculator

calculating machinemechanical computercalculating machines
In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator (by Wilhelm Schickard and several decades later Blaise Pascal ), a device that was at times somewhat over-promoted as being able to perform all four arithmetic operations with minimal human intervention.
Most mechanical calculators were comparable in size to small desktop computers and have been rendered obsolete by the advent of the electronic calculator.

Square root

square rootssquareradical
Keypad (input device) – consists of keys used to input numbers and function commands (addition, multiplication, square-root, etc.)
Most pocket calculators have a square root key.

Multiplication

productmultipliermultiplying
Keypad (input device) – consists of keys used to input numbers and function commands (addition, multiplication, square-root, etc.) The fundamental difference between a calculator and computer is that a computer can be programmed in a way that allows the program to take different branches according to intermediate results, while calculators are pre-designed with specific functions (such as addition, multiplication, and logarithms) built in. The distinction is not clear-cut: some devices classed as programmable calculators have programming functions, sometimes with support for programming languages (such as RPL or TI-BASIC).
Beginning in the early 20th century, mechanical calculators, such as the Marchant, automated multiplication of up to 10 digit numbers.

Slide rule

slide rulescircular slide ruleslide-rule
The first known tools used to aid arithmetic calculations were: bones (used to tally items), pebbles, and counting boards, and the abacus, known to have been used by Sumerians and Egyptians before 2000 BC. Except for the Antikythera mechanism (an "out of the time" astronomical device), development of computing tools arrived near the start of the 17th century: the geometric-military compass (by Galileo), logarithms and Napier bones (by Napier), and the slide rule (by Edmund Gunter).
Before the advent of the electronic calculator, it was the most commonly used calculation tool in science and engineering.

Decimal separator

decimal pointdecimal markthousands separator
Large-sized figures are often used to improve readability; while using decimal separator (usually a point rather than a comma) instead of or in addition to vulgar fractions.
It is useful because the number can be copied and pasted into calculators (including a web browser's omnibox) and parsed by the computer as-is (without the user manually purging the extraneous characters).

Comptometer

comptometristcomptographComptometer Corporation
The Arithmometer, invented in 1820 as a four-operation mechanical calculator, was released to production in 1851 as an adding machine and became the first commercially successful unit; forty years later, by 1890, about 2,500 arithmometers had been sold plus a few hundreds more from two arithmometer clone makers (Burkhardt, Germany, 1878 and Layton, UK, 1883) and Felt and Tarrant, the only other competitor in true commercial production, had sold 100 comptometers.
A key-driven calculator is extremely fast because each key adds or subtracts its value to the accumulator as soon as it is pressed and a skilled operator can enter all of the digits of a number simultaneously, using as many fingers as required, making them sometimes faster to use than electronic calculators.

Sumlock ANITA calculator

ANITAANITA Mark VIIANITA Mk VII
In October 1961, the world's first all-electronic desktop calculator, the British Bell Punch/Sumlock Comptometer ANITA (A New Inspiration To Arithmetic/Accounting) was announced.
The ANITA Mark VII and ANITA Mark VIII calculators were launched simultaneously in late 1961 as the world's first all-electronic desktop calculators.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizeddiscrete transistor
The first mainframe computers, using firstly vacuum tubes and later transistors in the logic circuits, appeared in the 1940s and 1950s.
The transistor revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.

Casio

Casio Computer Co., LtdCasio ComputerCASIO Computer Co.
The Casio Computer Company, in Japan, released the Model 14-A calculator in 1957, which was the world's first all-electric (relatively) compact calculator.
Its products include calculators, mobile phones, digital cameras, electronic musical instruments, and digital watches.

Leibniz wheel

famous stepped drum mechanismLeibniz cylinderLeibniz stepped cylinder
) Schickard and Pascal were followed by Gottfried Leibniz who spent forty years designing a four-operation mechanical calculator, the stepped reckoner, inventing in the process his leibniz wheel, but who couldn't design a fully operational machine.
Invented by Leibniz in 1673, it was used for three centuries until the advent of the electronic calculator in the mid-1970s.

Amorphous silicon

amorphous semiconductorshydrogenated amorphous siliconthin-film silicon
Power sources of calculators are: batteries, solar cells or mains electricity (for old models), turning on with a switch or button.
Amorphous silicon (a-Si) has been used as a photovoltaic solar cell material for devices which require very little power, such as pocket calculators, because their lower performance compared to conventional crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells is more than offset by their simplified and lower cost of deposition onto a substrate.