Calculator

pocket calculatorcalculatorselectronic calculatordesktop calculatorhandheld calculatorelectronic calculatorsmechanical calculatorpocket calculatorsdesk calculatordesktop computer
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.wikipedia
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Scientific calculator

Scientificscientific calculatorshigher math
For example, there are scientific calculators which include trigonometric and statistical calculations.
A scientific calculator is a type of electronic calculator, usually but not always handheld, designed to calculate problems in science, engineering, and mathematics.

Intel 4004

4004MCS-4first commercially available microprocessor (Intel 4004)
Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom.
The first commercial sale of the fully operational 4004 occurred in March 1971 to Busicom Corp. of Japan for its 141-PF electronic calculator, for which it was originally designed and built as a custom chip.

Liquid-crystal display

LCDliquid crystal displayLCD screen
Calculators usually have liquid-crystal displays (LCD) as output in place of historical light-emitting diode (LED) displays and vacuum fluorescent displays (VFD); details are provided in the section Technical improvements.
Small LCD screens are common in portable consumer devices such as digital cameras, watches, calculators, and mobile telephones, including smartphones.

Busicom

Busicom Corp.
Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom.
Busicom asked Intel to design a set of integrated circuits for a new line of programmable electronic calculators in 1969.

Microprocessor

microprocessorsprocessorprocessors
Pocket-sized devices became available in the 1970s, especially after the Intel 4004, the first microprocessor, was developed by Intel for the Japanese calculator company Busicom.
The first microprocessors that emerged in the early 1970s were used for electronic calculators, using binary-coded decimal (BCD) arithmetic on 4-bit words.

Push-button

Push buttonbuttonbuttons
Electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations; some even contain "00" and "000" buttons to make larger or smaller numbers easier to enter.
The "push-button" has been utilized in calculators, push-button telephones, kitchen appliances, and various other mechanical and electronic devices, home and commercial.

Keypad

keypadsnumeric keypad
Numeric keypads are found on alphanumeric keyboards and on other devices which require mainly numeric input such as calculators, push-button telephones, vending machines, ATMs, Point of Sale devices, combination locks, and digital door locks.

Arithmetic

arithmetic operationsarithmeticsarithmetic operation
Electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations; some even contain "00" and "000" buttons to make larger or smaller numbers easier to enter. An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics. In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator (by Wilhelm Schickard and several decades later Blaise Pascal ), a device that was at times somewhat over-promoted as being able to perform all four arithmetic operations with minimal human intervention.
At present, they have been supplanted by electronic calculators and computers.

Programmable calculator

Programmableprogrammable calculatorscalculators
The distinction is not clear-cut: some devices classed as programmable calculators have programming functions, sometimes with support for programming languages (such as RPL or TI-BASIC).
Programmable calculators are calculators that can automatically carry out a sequence of operations under control of a stored program, much like a computer.

Electronics

electronicelectronic equipmentelectronic device
Electronic calculators contain a keyboard with buttons for digits and arithmetical operations; some even contain "00" and "000" buttons to make larger or smaller numbers easier to enter. An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.
In April 1955, the IBM 608 was the first IBM product to use transistor circuits without any vacuum tubes and is believed to be the first all-transistorized calculator to be manufactured for the commercial market.

RPL (programming language)

RPLReverse Polish LispSystem RPL
The distinction is not clear-cut: some devices classed as programmable calculators have programming functions, sometimes with support for programming languages (such as RPL or TI-BASIC).
RPL (derived from Reverse Polish Lisp according to its original developers, whilst for a short while in 1987 HP marketing attempted to coin the backronym ROM-based Procedural Language for it ) is a handheld calculator operating system and application programming language used on Hewlett-Packard's scientific graphing RPN (Reverse Polish Notation) calculators of the HP 28, 48, 49 and 50 series, but it is also usable on non-RPN calculators, such as the 38, 39 and 40 series.

Calculation

calculationscalculatingcalculate
An electronic calculator is typically a portable electronic device used to perform calculations, ranging from basic arithmetic to complex mathematics.

Seven-segment display

7-segment displayseven segment displayseven-segment
This matches much more closely the physical reality of display hardware—a designer might choose to use a series of separate identical seven-segment displays to build a metering circuit, for example.
However, the high common recognition factor of 7-segment displays, and the comparatively high visual contrast obtained by such displays relative to dot-matrix digits, makes seven-segment multiple-digit LCD screens very common on basic calculators.

Division (mathematics)

divisiondividingdivided
The obelus is also used alone to represent the division operation itself, as for instance as a label on a key of a calculator.

Abacus

abaciCounting frameabacuses
The first known tools used to aid arithmetic calculations were: bones (used to tally items), pebbles, and counting boards, and the abacus, known to have been used by Sumerians and Egyptians before 2000 BC.
Although today many use calculators and computers instead of abacuses to calculate, abacuses still remain in common use in some countries.

Mechanical calculator

calculating machinemechanical computercalculating machines
In 1642, the Renaissance saw the invention of the mechanical calculator (by Wilhelm Schickard and several decades later Blaise Pascal ), a device that was at times somewhat over-promoted as being able to perform all four arithmetic operations with minimal human intervention.
Most mechanical calculators were comparable in size to small desktop computers and have been rendered obsolete by the advent of the electronic calculator.

Multiplication

productmultipliermultiplying
The fundamental difference between a calculator and computer is that a computer can be programmed in a way that allows the program to take different branches according to intermediate results, while calculators are pre-designed with specific functions (such as addition, multiplication, and logarithms) built in.
Beginning in the early 20th century, mechanical calculators, such as the Marchant, automated multiplication of up to 10 digit numbers.

Slide rule

slide rulescircular slide ruleslide-rule
Except for the Antikythera mechanism (an "out of the time" astronomical device), development of computing tools arrived near the start of the 17th century: the geometric-military compass (by Galileo), logarithms and Napier bones (by Napier), and the slide rule (by Edmund Gunter).
Before the advent of the electronic calculator, it was the most commonly used calculation tool in science and engineering.

Decimal separator

decimal pointdecimal markthousands separator
Large-sized figures are often used to improve readability; while using decimal separator (usually a point rather than a comma) instead of or in addition to vulgar fractions.
It is useful because the number can be copied and pasted into calculators (including a web browser's omnibox) and parsed by the computer as-is (without the user manually purging the extraneous characters).

Square root

square rootssquareradical
It is the first calculator in the world which includes the square root function.
Most pocket calculators have a square root key.

Comptometer

ComptographComptometer Corporationcomptometrist
The Arithmometer, invented in 1820 as a four-operation mechanical calculator, was released to production in 1851 as an adding machine and became the first commercially successful unit; forty years later, by 1890, about 2,500 arithmometers had been sold plus a few hundreds more from two arithmometer clone makers (Burkhardt, Germany, 1878 and Layton, UK, 1883) and Felt and Tarrant, the only other competitor in true commercial production, had sold 100 comptometers.
A key-driven calculator is extremely fast because each key adds or subtracts its value to the accumulator as soon as it is pressed and a skilled operator can enter all of the digits of a number simultaneously, using as many fingers as required, making them sometimes faster to use than electronic calculators.

Computer memory

memorymemoriesmain memory
Calculators also have the ability to store numbers into computer memory.
Toshiba introduced bipolar DRAM memory cells for its Toscal BC-1411 electronic calculator in 1965.

Sumlock ANITA calculator

ANITAANITA Mark VIIANITA Mk VII
In October 1961, the world's first all-electronic desktop calculator, the British Bell Punch/Sumlock Comptometer ANITA (A New Inspiration To Arithmetic/Accounting) was announced.
The ANITA Mark VII and ANITA Mark VIII calculators were launched simultaneously in late 1961 as the world's first all-electronic desktop calculators.

Transistor

transistorstransistorizedsilicon transistor
The first mainframe computers, using firstly vacuum tubes and later transistors in the logic circuits, appeared in the 1940s and 1950s.
Transistors revolutionized the field of electronics, and paved the way for smaller and cheaper radios, calculators, and computers, among other things.

Casio

Casio ComputerCasio Computer Co., LtdCASIO Computer Co.
The Casio Computer Company, in Japan, released the Model 14-A calculator in 1957, which was the world's first all-electric (relatively) compact calculator.
Its products include calculators, mobile phones, digital cameras, electronic musical instruments, and analogue and digital watches.