Calibration

calibratedcalibratecalibratingcalibrationsinstrument calibrationzerozeroingrecalibrationcalibrated dataCalibration – checking the airways
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.wikipedia
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Traceability

traceablefood traceabilityproduct identity and traceability
In many countries a National Metrology Institute (NMI) will exist which will maintain primary standards of measurement (the main SI units plus a number of derived units) which will be used to provide traceability to customer's instruments by calibration. Establishing traceability is accomplished by a formal comparison to a standard which is directly or indirectly related to national standards (such as NIST in the USA), international standards, or certified reference materials.
Calibration to a traceable standard can be used to determine an instrument's bias, precision, and accuracy.

Certified reference materials

reference materialsreference materialcertified reference material
Establishing traceability is accomplished by a formal comparison to a standard which is directly or indirectly related to national standards (such as NIST in the USA), international standards, or certified reference materials.
Certified Reference Materials (CRMs) are ‘controls’ or standards used to check the quality and metrological traceability of products, to validate analytical measurement methods, or for the calibration of instruments.

Measurement uncertainty

uncertaintyerroruncertainties
This definition states that the calibration process is purely a comparison, but introduces the concept of measurement uncertainty in relating the accuracies of the device under test and the standard.
The particular relationship between extension and mass is determined by the calibration of the scale.

Metrology

metrologicalmetrologistlegal metrology
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy. Quality management systems call for an effective metrology system which includes formal, periodic, and documented calibration of all measuring instruments.
Traceability is most often obtained by calibration, establishing the relationship between an indication on a measuring instrument (or secondary standard) and the value of the standard.

Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt

PTBPhysikalisch-Technische ReichsanstaltGerman National Metrology Institute
Examples of National Metrology Institutes are NPL in the UK, NIST in the United States, PTB in Germany and many others.
Not only its scientific metrological profile was extended, but also its palette of services rendered to industry, in particular in the form of calibrations of measuring instruments.

Weighing scale

scalesscalebalance
The term "calibration" was likely first associated with the precise division of linear distance and angles using a dividing engine and the measurement of gravitational mass using a weighing scale.
Some scales can be calibrated to read in units of force (weight) such as newtons instead of units of mass such as kilograms.

Quality management system

quality systemQuality Systemsacademic quality management system
Quality management systems call for an effective metrology system which includes formal, periodic, and documented calibration of all measuring instruments.
calibrations,

Operational definition

operationaloperationally definedoperationally
For example, a thermometer could be calibrated so the error of indication or the correction is determined, and adjusted (e.g. via calibration constants) so that it shows the true temperature in Celsius at specific points on the scale.
One such is the electrical resistance of a thermistor, with specified construction, calibrated against operationally defined fixed points.

Calibration (statistics)

calibratedcalibrationcalibration weighting
Calibration (statistics)
In addition, "calibration" is used in statistics with the usual general meaning of calibration.

Oscilloscope

oscilloscopesoscillographcathode ray oscilloscope
A good example is a common modern oscilloscope.
This is very frequently used in broadcast engineering to plot the left and right stereophonic channels, to ensure that the stereo generator is calibrated properly.

Test method

testingtesttests
All of the information above is collected in a calibration procedure, which is a specific test method.
required calibrations and metrology systems

Deadweight tester

Deadweight tester
A dead weight tester (DWT) is a calibration standard method that uses a piston cylinder on which a load is placed to make an equilibrium with an applied pressure underneath the piston.

Precision measurement equipment laboratory

precision measurement equipment laboratories2P0X1324X0
Precision measurement equipment laboratory
A Precision Measurement Equipment Laboratory (PMEL) is a United States Air Force (USAF) facility in which the calibration and repair of test equipment takes place.

Mass

inertial massgravitational massweight
The term "calibration" was likely first associated with the precise division of linear distance and angles using a dividing engine and the measurement of gravitational mass using a weighing scale.
In simple spring scales, for example, the force F is proportional to the displacement of the spring beneath the weighing pan, as per Hooke's law, and the scales are calibrated to take g into account, allowing the mass M to be read off.

Measurement

measuremeasuringmeasured
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.

Device under test

DUTdevices under testcapacitor under test
Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.

Standard (metrology)

standardstandardscalibration standard
Establishing traceability is accomplished by a formal comparison to a standard which is directly or indirectly related to national standards (such as NIST in the USA), international standards, or certified reference materials. Calibration in measurement technology and metrology is the comparison of measurement values delivered by a device under test with those of a calibration standard of known accuracy.

Voltage

potential differenceVvoltages
Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, sound tone, or a physical artefact, such as a metre ruler.

Sound

audiosound wavesound waves
Such a standard could be another measurement device of known accuracy, a device generating the quantity to be measured such as a voltage, sound tone, or a physical artefact, such as a metre ruler.

International Bureau of Weights and Measures

BIPMInternational Conference on Weights and MeasuresBIPM spelling
The formal definition of calibration by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures (BIPM) is the following: "Operation that, under specified conditions, in a first step, establishes a relation between the quantity values with measurement uncertainties provided by measurement standards and corresponding indications with associated measurement uncertainties (of the calibrated instrument or secondary standard) and, in a second step, uses this information to establish a relation for obtaining a measurement result from an indication."

International System of Units

SISI unitsSI unit
In many countries a National Metrology Institute (NMI) will exist which will maintain primary standards of measurement (the main SI units plus a number of derived units) which will be used to provide traceability to customer's instruments by calibration.

United Kingdom

British🇬🇧UK
Examples of National Metrology Institutes are NPL in the UK, NIST in the United States, PTB in Germany and many others.

United States

American🇺🇸U.S.
Examples of National Metrology Institutes are NPL in the UK, NIST in the United States, PTB in Germany and many others.

Germany

🇩🇪GermanGER
Examples of National Metrology Institutes are NPL in the UK, NIST in the United States, PTB in Germany and many others.

National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom)

National Physical LaboratoryNPLNational Physical Laboratory (NPL)
Examples of National Metrology Institutes are NPL in the UK, NIST in the United States, PTB in Germany and many others.