A report on Islam and Caliphate

The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site
Rashidun Caliphate at its greatest extent, under Caliph Uthman's rule
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from the angel Gabriel. From the manuscript Jami' al-Tawarikh by Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, 1307.
The Caliphate, 622–750
The first chapter of the Quran, Al-Fatiha (The Opening), is seven verses
Mustansiriya Madrasah in Baghdad
A Persian miniature depicts Muhammad leading Abraham, Moses, Jesus and other prophets in prayer.
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000
Silver coin of the Mughal Emperor Akbar, inscribed with the Shahadah
The Almohad empire at its greatest extent, c. 1180–1212
Muslim men prostrating in prayer, at the Umayyad Mosque, Damascus.
Map of the Fatimid Caliphate at its largest extent in the early 11th century
A fast-breaking feast, known as Iftar, is served traditionally with dates
Ayyubid Sultanate (in pink) at the death of Saladin in 1193
Pilgrims at the Great Mosque of Mecca during the Hajj season
The Ottoman Empire at its greatest extent in 1683, under Sultan Mehmed IV
Muslim men reading the Quran
Abdulmejid II, the last caliph of Sunni Islam from the Ottoman dynasty, with his daughter Dürrüşehvar Sultan
Portrait of the Mughal Emperor Akbar supplicating to God.
Official portrait of Abdulmejid II as caliph
Rashidun and Umayyad expansion
Hafiz Muhiuddin Aurangzeb, unlike his predecessors, was considered to be a Caliph of India
Dome of the Rock built by caliph Abd al-Malik ibn Marwan; completed at the end of the Second Fitna
The Ahmadiyya flag, first designed in 1939, during the leadership of the Second Caliph
The eye, according to Hunain ibn Ishaq from a manuscript dated c. 1200
ISIL's territory, in grey, at the time of its greatest territorial extent in May 2015
Ghazan Khan, 7th Ilkhanate ruler of the Mongol Empire, converts to Islam
Military situation in Libya in early 2016:
Location dot grey.svg Ansar al-Sharia Location dot black.svg Islamic State
Abdülmecid II was the last Caliph of Islam from the Ottoman dynasty.
Map of the Caliphate of Cordoba c. 1000
World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014).
The nine volumes of Sahih Al-Bukhari, one of the six Sunni hadith books
The Imam Hussein Shrine in Iraq is a holy site for Shia Muslims
An overview of the major sects and madhahib of Islam
The Whirling Dervishes, or Mevlevi Order by the tomb of Sufi-mystic Rumi
Islamic schools of law in the Muslim world
Crimean Tatar Muslim students (1856)
Islamic veils represent modesty
John of Damascus, under the Umayyad Caliphate, viewed Islamic doctrines as a hodgepodge from the Bible.
Great Mosque of Djenné, in the west African country of Mali
Dome in Po-i-Kalyan, Bukhara, Uzbekistan
14th century Great Mosque of Xi'an in China
16th century Menara Kudus Mosque in Indonesia showing Indian influence
The phrase Bismillah in an 18th-century Islamic calligraphy from the Ottoman region.
Geometric arabesque tiling on the underside of the dome of Hafiz Shirazi's tomb in Shiraz, Iran
Ulu mosque in Utrecht, Netherlands

A caliphate or khilāfah (خِلَافَة, ) is an institution or public office governing a territory under Islamic rule.

- Caliphate

Through various caliphates, the religion later spread outside of Arabia shortly after Muhammad's death, and by the 8th century, the Umayyad Caliphate had imposed Islamic rule from the Iberian Peninsula in the west to the Indus Valley in the east.

- Islam
The Kaaba at Masjid al-Haram in Mecca, Saudi Arabia, the holiest Islamic site

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Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")

Shia Islam

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Kalema at Qibla of the Mosque of Ibn Tulun in Cairo, Egypt, displaying the phrase Ali-un-Waliullah (علي ولي الله: "ʿAlī is the Wali (custodian) of God")
ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib, cousin and son-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, is credited as the first male convert to Islam.
Jamkaran Mosque in Qom, Iran is a popular pilgrimage site for Shīʿa Muslims. Local belief holds that the 12th Shīʿīte Imam—the promised Mahdi according to Twelvers—once appeared and offered prayers at Jamkaran.
Shīʿa Muslims gathered in prayer at the Shrine of Imam Ḥusayn in Karbala, Iraq
Islam by country
 Sunnī
 Shīʿa
 Ibadi
Map of the Muslim world's schools of jurisprudence.
Names of the 12 Imams (descendants of Imam ʿAlī) written in the calligraphic form of the name ʿAlī in علي
Calligraphic representation of the 12 Imams along with the name of the Islamic prophet Muhammad.
Shāh Karim al-Husayni, known as the Aga Khan IV, is the 49th and current Imam of Nizārī Ismāʿīlīs.
Gold dinar of al-Ḥādī ila'l-Ḥaqq Yaḥyā, the first Zaydī Imam of Yemen, minted in 910–911 CE.
The Zaydī State of Yemen under the rule of Imam Al-Mutawakkil Ismāʿīl bin al-Qāsim (1644–1676)
The investiture of ʿAlī ibn Abī Ṭālib at Ghadir Khumm (MS Arab 161, fol. 162r, 1308-1309 CE, Ilkhanid manuscript illustration)
Great Mosque of Kufa, site of ʿAlī's assassination (661 CE)
Ḍarīẖ over ʿAlī's qabr (grave), Sanctuary of Imām ʿAlī, Najaf (present-day Iraq)
Battle of Karbala, painting by the Isfahan-based Persian artist Abbas Al-Mousavi, Brooklyn Museum (between 1868 and 1933).
Zulfiqar with and without the shield. The Fatimid depiction of ʿAlī's sword is carved on the gates of Old Cairo, namely Bab al-Nasr (shown below). Two swords were captured from the temple of the pre-Islamic Arabian deity Manāt during the Raid of Sa'd ibn Zaid al-Ashhali. Muhammad gave them to ʿAlī, saying that one of them was "Zulfiqar", which became famously known as the sword of ʿAlī and a later symbol of Shīʿīsm.
Depiction of ʿAlī's sword and shield carved on the Bab al-Nasr gate wall in Cairo, Egypt
Sanctuary of Imam Reza in Mashhad, Iran, is a complex which contains the mausoleum of Imam Reza, the 8th Imam of Twelver Shīʿas.
Ghazan and his brother Öljaitü both were tolerant of sectarian differences within the boundaries of Islam, in contrast to the traditions of Genghis Khan.
The Fatimid Caliphate at its peak
Al Hakim Mosque, Islamic Cairo.
One of Shah Ismail I of Safavid dynasty first actions was the proclamation of the Twelver sect of Shia Islam to be the official religion of his newly formed state, causing sectarian tensions in the Middle East when he destroyed the tombs of Abū Ḥanīfa and the Sufi Abdul Qadir Gilani in 1508. In 1533, Ottomans, upon their conquest of Iraq, rebuilt various important Sunni shrines.
Shrine of Imam ʿAlī in Najaf, Iraq
The declaration of Shiism as the state religion of the Safavid dynasty in Persia.
Monument commemorating the Battle of Chaldiran, where more than 7000 Muslims of Shia and Sunni sects were killed in battle.
Battle of Chaldiran in 1514, was a major sectarian crisis in the Middle East.

Shīʿa Islam or Shīʿīsm is the second-largest branch of Islam.

This view primarily contrasts with that of Sunnī Islam, whose adherents believe that Muhammad did not appoint a successor before his death and consider Abū Bakr, who was appointed caliph by a group of senior Muslims at Saqifah, to be the first rightful (rāshidūn) caliph after Muhammad.

The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).

Sunni Islam

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The calligraphic representation of religious Sunni Islamic figures, such as Muhammad, Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, Ali, Hasan ibn Ali and Husayn ibn Ali, along with Allah (God).
The Kaaba mosque in Mecca is the largest and most important mosque in the world.
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan (also known as the Mosque of Uqba) in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia, was, particularly from the 9th—11th century, an important center of Islamic learning with an emphasis on the Maliki Madh'hab.
Muhammed accompanied by the archangels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil und Azrael. Turkish Siyer-i-Nebi-work, 1595
Süleymaniye Mosque in Istanbul.
TRT Diyanet kurumsal logo
Ahmed el-Tayeb, Great-Imam of Azhar, was one of the most important participants of the Sunni-conference in Grosny, distanced himself from the declaration
Countries with more than 95% Muslim population. 
Sunni
Shias
Ibadi

Sunni Islam is the largest branch of Islam, followed by 85–90% of the world's Muslims.

According to Sunni traditions, Muhammad left no successor and the participants of the Saqifah event appointed Abu Bakr as the next-in-line (the first caliph).

Medina

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8th century rock inscription discovered in Madinah, refers to the city as 'Taybah'
17th century CE bronze token depicting prophet's Mosque, the inscription below reads 'Madinah Shareef' (Noble City)
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Three of the Seven Mosques at the site of the Battle of the Trench were combined into the modern Masjid al-Fath, here pictured with Jabal Sal'aa in the background and a shop selling local goods in the foreground.
The Green Dome was built in 1297 CE over Muhammad's rawdhah (residence) and site of burial.
The Gold dinar of Umar II, also known as 'Umar ibn Abdulaziz or the Fifth of the Rightly Guided Caliphs.
Tomb of Salahuddin al-Ayyubi, who started a tradition of greatly funding Medina and protecting pilgrims visiting the holy city.
The Medina sanctuary and Green Dome, photographed in 1880 by Muhammad Sadiq. The dome was built during the Mamluk period, but given its signature color by the Ottomans nearly 600 years later.
Muhammad Ali Pasha, who kept Medina in a peaceful and prosperous state for around 30 years after taking it from the First Saudi State.
The Hejaz railway track near Wadi Rum in Jordan. Jordan uses the railway today for transporting phosphate.
Medina from International Space Station, 2017. Note that North is to the right.
The train which Fakhri Pasha used to transport the Sacred Relics from Medina to Istanbul.
Mount Uhud at night. The mountain is currently the highest peak in Medina and stands at 1,077 m (3,533 ft) of elevation.
Panoramic view of the Prophet's Mosque, from the east at sunset.
Medina Sex Pyramid Chart as of 2018
Madinah Arts Center
Panel representing the Mosque of Medina. Found in İznik, Turkey, 18th century. Composite body, silicate coat, transparent glaze, underglaze painted.
Prince Mohammed bin Abdulaziz Airport
A government-run bus in Medina at Salam Rd. Station
Haramain high-speed railway station at Medina

Medina, officially Al Madinah Al Munawwarah (المدينة المنورة, ) and also commonly simplified as Madīnah or Madinah (المدينة, ), is the second-holiest city in Islam, and the capital of the Medina Province of Saudi Arabia.

Medina was the capital of a rapidly-increasing Muslim caliphate under Muhammad's leadership, serving as its base of operations and as the cradle of Islam, where Muhammad's Ummah —composed of Medinan citizens (Ansar) as well as those who immigrated with Muhammad (Muhajirun), who were collectively known as the Sahabah—gained huge influence.

"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina

Muhammad

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"Muhammad, the Messenger of God."
inscribed on the gates of the Prophet's Mosque in Medina
"Muhammad" written in Thuluth, a script variety of Islamic calligraphy
A folio from an early Quran, written in Kufic script (Abbasid period, 8th–9th centuries)
Main tribes and settlements of Arabia in Muhammad's lifetime
Miniature from Rashid-al-Din Hamadani's Jami al-Tawarikh,, illustrating the story of Muhammad's role in re-setting the Black Stone in 605. (Ilkhanate period)
The cave Hira in the mountain Jabal al-Nour where, according to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his first revelation
Muhammad receiving his first revelation from Gabriel in Jami' al-tawarikh by Rashīd al-Dīn Ṭabīb (1307)
The last verse from An-Najm: "So prostrate to Allah and worship." Muhammad's message of monotheism challenged the traditional order
The Al-Aqsa Mosque, part of the al-Haram ash-Sharif complex in Jerusalem and built in 705, was named the "farthest mosque" to honor the possible location to which Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Quranic inscriptions on the Dome of the Rock. It marks the spot Muhammad is believed by Muslims to have ascended to heaven.
"The Prophet Muhammad and the Muslim Army at the Battle of Uhud", from a 1595 edition of the Mamluk-Turkic Siyer-i Nebi
The Masjid al-Qiblatayn, where Muhammad established the new Qibla, or direction of prayer
The Kaaba in Mecca long held a major economic and religious role for the area. Seventeen months after Muhammad's arrival in Medina, it became the Muslim Qibla, or direction for prayer (salat). The Kaaba has been rebuilt several times; the present structure, built in 1629, is a reconstruction of an earlier building dating to 683.
A depiction of Muhammad (with veiled face) advancing on Mecca from Siyer-i Nebi, a 16th-century Ottoman manuscript. The angels Gabriel, Michael, Israfil and Azrail, are also shown.
Conquests of Muhammad (green lines) and the Rashidun caliphs (black lines). Shown: Byzantine empire (North and West) & Sassanid-Persian empire (Northeast).
Anonymous illustration of al-Bīrūnī's The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries, depicting Muhammad prohibiting Nasī’ during the Farewell Pilgrimage, 17th-century Ottoman copy of a 14th-century (Ilkhanate) manuscript (Edinburgh codex).
A hilya containing a description of Muhammad, by Ottoman calligrapher Hâfiz Osman (1642–1698)
The tomb of Muhammad is located in the quarters of his third wife, Aisha. (Al-Masjid an-Nabawi, Medina)
The Muslim profession of faith, the Shahadah, illustrates the Muslim conception of the role of Muhammad: "There is no god except the God; Muhammad is the Messenger of God." in Topkapı Palace, Istanbul, Turkey
Calligraphic rendering of "may God honor him and grant him peace", customarily added after Muhammad's name, encoded as a ligature at Unicode code point U+FDFA..
Muhammad's entry into Mecca and the destruction of idols. Muhammad is shown as a flame in this manuscript. Found in Bazil's Hamla-i Haydari, Jammu and Kashmir, India, 1808.
Muhammad in La vie de Mahomet by M. Prideaux (1699). He holds a sword and a crescent while trampling on a globe, a cross, and the Ten Commandments.
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid
The Masjid Al-Aqsa in Jerusalem, also known as the Haram ash-Sharif or the Temple Mount, takes its name from the "farthest mosque" described in Surah 17, where Muhammad travelled in his night journey.
Expansion of the caliphate, 622–750 CE.
Muhammad, 622–632 CE.
Rashidun caliphate, 632–661 CE.
Umayyad caliphate, 661–750 CE.

Muhammad ibn Abdullah (مُحَمَّد ٱبن عَبْد ٱللَّٰه, Classical Arabic pronunciation: ; c. undefined 570 – 8 June 632 CE) was an Arab religious, social, and political leader and the founder of the world religion of Islam.

With additional support Abu Bakr was confirmed as the first caliph.

Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq's name in Arabic calligraphy

Abu Bakr

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The senior companion and was, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as the first caliph of Islam.

The senior companion and was, through his daughter Aisha, a father-in-law of the Islamic prophet Muhammad, as well as the first caliph of Islam.

Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq's name in Arabic calligraphy
Abū Bakr al-Ṣiddīq
The Mount Thawr in Mecca, where Abu Bakr and Muhammad refuged for three days
Modern view of Saqifah where Abu Bakr was elected
Abu Bakr's caliphate at its territorial peak in August 634.
The Green Dome in Al-Masjid an-Nabawi where Abu Bakr is buried
The name of Abu Bakr, inscribed in Islamic calligraphy at the Hagia Sophia in Turkey
Abu Bakr Abdallah stops Meccan Mobs, who are against Muslims.
Caliph Abu Bakr's caliphate at its territorial peak in August 634.
Abu Bakr dying beside Ali

Abu Bakr became one of the first converts to Islam and extensively contributed his wealth in support of Muhammad's work.

Following Muhammad's death in 632, Abu Bakr succeeded the leadership of the Muslim community as the first Rashidun Caliph.

World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)

Muslim world

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World Muslim population by percentage (Pew Research Center, 2014)
A Seljuq, shatranj (chess) set, glazed fritware, 12th century.
Ibn Rushd (Averroes) Muslim polymath from Al Andalus.
The Spinning wheel is believed to have been invented in the medieval era (of what is now the Greater Middle East), it is considered to be an important device that contributed greatly to the advancement of the Industrial Revolution. (scene from Al-Maqamat, painted by al-Wasiti 1237)
The Tabula Rogeriana, drawn by Al-Idrisi of Sicily in 1154, one of the most advanced ancient world maps. Al-Idrisi also wrote about the diverse Muslim communities found in various lands. Note: the map is here shown upside-down from the original to match current North/Up, South/Down map design
Map of colonial powers throughout the world in the year 1914 (note colonial powers in the pre-modern Muslim world).
Indonesia is currently the most populous Muslim-majority country.
Benazir Bhutto, the former prime minister of Pakistan became the first woman elected to lead a Muslim-majority country.
Islamic schools of law across the Muslim world
Muslim Rohingya refugees in Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh.
Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni receiving a richly decorated robe of honor from the caliph al-Qadir in 1000. Miniature from the Rashid al-Din's Jami‘ al-Tawarikh
Battle between Ismail of the Safaviyya and the ruler of Shirvan, Farrukh Yassar
Shah of Safavid Empire Abbas I meet with Vali Muhammad Khan
Mir Sayyid Ali, a scholar writing a commentary on the Quran, during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan
Portrait of a painter during the reign of Ottoman Sultan Mehmet II
A Persian miniature of Shah Abu'l Ma‘ali, a scholar
Ilkhanate Empire ruler, Ghazan, studying the Quran
Layla and Majnun studying together, from a Persian miniature painting
Hadiqatus-suada by Oghuz Turkic poet Fuzûlî
The story of Princess Parizade and the Magic Tree.<ref>The Thousand and One Nights; Or, The Arabian Night's Entertainments - David Claypoole Johnston - Google Books {{Webarchive|url=https://web.archive.org/web/20200517214353/https://books.google.com/books?id=ATkQAAAAYAAJ&pg=PA543&dq=princess+parizade#v=onepage&q=princess%20parizade&f=false |date=17 May 2020 }}. Books.google.com.pk. Retrieved on 23 September 2013.</ref>
Cassim in the Cave by Maxfield Parrish.
The Magic carpet.
Nasir al-Din al-Tusi's ''Astrolabe. (13th century)
One of Mansur ibn Ilyas (Ak Koyunlu era) colored illustrations of human anatomy.
Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's Kitab al-Tasrif
A self-trimming lamp from Banū Mūsā's work On Mechanical Devices on Automation.
An illustration from al-Biruni's astronomical works, explains the different phases of the moon.
The Elephant Clock was one of the most famous inventions of Al-Jazari.
"Cubic equations and intersections of conic sections", of Omar Khayyam.
Lagâri Hasan Çelebi's rocket flight depicted in a 17th-century engraving.
The city of Baghdad being besieged during the Mongolian invasions.
Mongol armies capture of the Alamut, Persian miniature.
Safavid Empire's Zamburak.
Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Mughal Emperor Akbar's Siege of Ranthambore Fort in 1568.<ref>{{cite web|last=Unknown|url=http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|title=Bullocks dragging siege-guns up hill during Akbar's attack on Ranthambhor Fort|date=1590–95|website=the Akbarnama|access-date=19 May 2014|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140519132308/http://warfare2.likamva.in/Moghul/Akbar/1568-Bullocks_dragging_siege-guns_up_hill_during_the_attack_on_Ranthambhor_Fort.htm|archive-date=19 May 2014|url-status=dead}}</ref>
The Mughal Army under the command of Islamist Aurangzeb recaptures Orchha in October 1635.
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries in combat against the Knights of Saint John at the Siege of Rhodes in 1522.
Cannons and guns belonging to the Aceh Sultanate (in modern Indonesia).
Mughal Emperor Shah Alam II negotiates with the East India Company after being defeated during the Battle of Buxar.
East India Company's Robert Clive meeting the Nawabs of Bengal before the Battle of Plassey
Siege of Ochakov (1788), an armed conflict between the Ottomans and the Russian Tsardom.
Combat during the Russo-Persian Wars.
French campaign in Egypt and Syria against the Mamluks and Ottomans
The Java War between the Netherlands and Javanese aristocracy led by Prince Diponegoro, from 1825 to 1830
The French conquest of Algeria, from 1830 to 1903
The Hispano-Moroccan War between Spain and Morocco, from 1859 to 1860
The Italo-Turkish War between Italy and the Ottoman Empire from 1911 to 1912
The Christian reconquest of Buda, Ottoman Hungary, 1686, painted by Frans Geffels
French conquest of Algeria (1830–1857)
Anglo-Egyptian invasion of Sudan 1896–1899
The Melilla War between Spain and Rif Berbers of Morocco in 1909
Turkish Muslims at the Eyüp Sultan Mosque on Eid al-Adha
Shi'a Muslims in Iran commemorate Ashura
Friday prayer for Sunni Muslims in Dhaka, Bangladesh
A Sufi dervish drums up the Friday afternoon crowd in Omdurman, Sudan
Druze dignitaries celebrating the Nabi Shu'ayb festival at the tomb of Muhammad in Hittin
Ibadis living in the M'zab valley in Algerian Sahara
Zaydi Imams ruled in Yemen until 1962
Most of the inhabitants of the Hunza Valley in Pakistan are Ismaili Muslims
Young school girls in Paktia Province of Afghanistan.
A primary classroom in Niger.
Schoolgirls in Gaza lining up for class, 2009.
Medical students of anatomy, before an exam in moulage, Iran
Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem
Taj Mahal in Agra city of India was constructed during the Mughal Empire
Sultan Ahmed Mosque in Istanbul, Turkey
Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Mosque in Selangor, Malaysia
Great Mosque of Córdoba in Spain is a Moorish-style mosque.
The Charminar in Hyderabad, India
"Tower of Introspection" (省心楼) at the Great Mosque of Xi'an, China
The design of Faisal Mosque in Islamabad, Pakistan is inspired by Bedouin's tent.
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Example of an Arabesque
Girih tiles
The subdivision rule used to generate the Girih pattern on the spandrel.
Girih pattern that can be drawn with compass and straight edge.
Kufic script from an early Qur'an manuscript, 7th century. (Surah 7: 86–87)
Bismallah calligraphy.
Islamic calligraphy represented for amulet of sailors in the Ottoman Empire.
Islamic calligraphy praising Ali.
Modern Islamic calligraphy representing various planets.
A Kazakh wedding ceremony in a mosque
A group of marabouts – West African religious leaders and teachers of the Quran.
Muslim girls at Istiqlal Mosque in Jakarta
A tribal delegation in Chad
Minangkabau people (Padang, Western Sumatra) reciting Al-Qur'an
Muslim girls walking for school in Bangladesh

The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic community, which is also known as the Ummah.

After Muhammad died in 632, his successors (the Caliphs) continued to lead the Muslim community based on his teachings and guidelines of the Quran.

Mecca

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Panorama of Mecca, 1845, from the Khalili Collection of Hajj and the Arts of Pilgrimage
The area surrounding the Haram Shareef.
The Hajj involves pilgrims visiting Al-Haram Mosque, but mainly camping and spending time in the plains of Mina and Arafah
Jabal al-Nour, the mountain atop which is the Hira cave, where it is believed Muhammad received his first revelation.
The Quran Gate
Mecca as seen from the International Space Station
The al-'Aziziyah district of Mecca
Kaaba in July 2021, during COVID-19 restrictions.
Al-Haram Mosque and the Kaaba
Kaaba during expansion in 2013
Hajj terminal
Entry Gate of Mecca on Highway 40
Mecca Metro Route Map
Mecca, {{circa}} 1718 CE
Mecca, c. 1778 CE
Mecca, in the 1880s
Mecca in 1910
Pilgrims surround the Ka'bah in 1910
Makkah Al Mukarramah Library (21.425°N, 39.83°W) is believed to stand on the spot where Muhammad was born, so it is also known as Bayt al-Mawlid

Mecca, officially Makkah al-Mukarramah (مكة المكرمة, ) and commonly shortened to Makkah (مكة, ), is a city and administrative center of the Mecca Province of Saudi Arabia, and the holiest city in Islam.

Mecca was never the capital of any of the Islamic states.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.

History of Islam

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The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

The history of Islam concerns the political, social, economic, military, and cultural developments of the Islamic civilization.

Page from the Sanaa manuscript. The "subtexts" revealed using UV light are very different from today's standard edition of the Quran. The German scholar of Quranic palaeography Gerd R. Puin affirms that these textual variants indicate an evolving text. A similar view has been expressed by the British historian of Near Eastern studies Lawrence Conrad regarding the early biographies of Muhammad; according to him, Islamic views on the birth date of Muhammad until the 8 century CE had a diversity of 85 years span.
Arabia united under Muhammad (7th century CE)
Close-up of one leave showing chapter division and verse-end markings written in Hijazi script from the Birmingham Quran manuscript, dated between c. 568 and 645, held by the University of Birmingham.
Empire of the Rāshidūn Caliphate at its peak under the third rāshidūn caliph ʿUthmān (654 CE)
The rāshidūn caliphs used symbols of the Sassanid Empire (crescent-star, fire temple, depictions of the last Sasanian emperor Khosrow II) by adding the Arabic expression bismillāh on their coins, instead of designing new ones.
Coin of the Rāshidūn Caliphate (632–675 CE). Pseudo-Byzantine type with depictions of the Byzantine emperor Constans II holding the cross-tipped staff and globus cruciger.
Eastern territories of the Byzantine Empire invaded by the Arab Muslims during the Arab–Byzantine wars (650 CE)
Territories of the Umayyad Caliphate
The Mosque of Uqba (Great Mosque of Kairouan), founded by the Umayyad general Uqba Ibn Nafi in 670, is the oldest and most prestigious mosque in the Muslim West; its present form dates from the 9th century, Kairouan, Tunisia.
Umayyad army invades France after conquering the Iberian Peninsula
Abbasid caliphate
Gold dinar of Abbasid caliph Al-Mansur (r. 754–775) the founder of Baghdad, patron of art and science
An Arabic manuscript written under the second half of the Abbasid Era.
Regional powers born out of the fragmentation of the Abbasid caliphate
Minaret at the Great Mosque of Samarra.
Dirham of Al-Muttaqi
Fatimid Caliphate
Ayyubid empire
The Mongol ruler, Ghazan, depicted studying the Quran inside a tent. Illustration of Rashid-ad-Din, first quarter of the 14th century, Staatsbibliothek, Berlin.
Goharshad Mosque built by the Timurid Empire
Tamerlane chess, invented by Amir Timur. The pieces approximate the appearance of the chess pieces in 14th century Persia.
Map of the Mamluk Sultanate (in red) and the Mongol Ilkhanate (in blue) (1250–1382)
The interiors of the Alhambra in Granada, Spain decorated with arabesque designs.
The exterior of the Mezquita.
The Great Mosque of Kairouan also known as the Mosque of Uqba was established in 670 by the Arab general and conqueror Uqba ibn Nafi, it is the oldest mosque in the Maghreb, situated in the city of Kairouan, Tunisia.
Ruins of Zeila (Saylac), Somalia.
The Great Mosque of Kilwa
Qutub Minar is the world's tallest brick minaret, commenced by Qutb-ud-din Aybak of the Slave dynasty; 1st dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate.
Grand Mosque of Demak, the first Muslim state in Java
The Huaisheng Mosque of China, built by Sa'd ibn Abi Waqqas.
Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire. Ottoman miniature, 1579–1580, Topkapı Sarayı Müzesi, Istanbul.
The Ottoman Empire and sphere of influence at its greatest extent (1683)
The Süleymaniye Mosque (Süleymaniye Camii) in Istanbul was built on the order of sultan Suleiman the Magnificent by the Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan in 1557.
The Safavid Empire at its greatest extent under Shah Ismail I (1501-1524)
Shah Suleiman I and his courtiers, Isfahan, 1670. Painter is Ali Qoli Jabbador, and is kept at The St. Petersburg Institute of Oriental Studies in Russia, ever since it was acquired by Tsar Nicholas II. Note the two Georgian figures with their names at the top left.
Mughal India at its greatest extent, at the sharia apogee of Muhammad Aurangzeb Alamgir.
Taj Mahal is a mausoleum built by Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan to house the tomb of his favourite wife, Mumtaz Mahal.
Ottoman army in World War I
Gold dinar of Abbasid caliph al-Mu'tasim (r. 833–842) the founder of Samarra, patron of art and science

Most historians believe that Islam originated in Mecca and Medina at the start of the 7th century CE.

Polities such as those ruled by the Umayyad and Abbasid caliphates (in the Middle East and later in Spain and Southern Italy), the Fatimids, Seljuks, Ayyubids, and Mamluks were among the most influential powers in the world.

A Persian miniature illustrating the vowing to Abu Bakr at Saqifah

Succession to Muhammad

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A Persian miniature illustrating the vowing to Abu Bakr at Saqifah
Battle of Karbala, an oil painting by Abbas Al-Musavi
The Skies Fell, an oil painting by Hassan Rouholamin that portrays the final hours of Husayn's life.
The Investiture of Ali at Ghadir Khumm, an illustration from Al-Biruni's Chronology of Ancient Nations

The succession to Muhammad is the central issue that split the Muslim community into several divisions in the first century of Islamic history, with the most prominent among these sects being the Shia and Sunni branches of Islam.

Madelung, on the other hand, believes that Ali himself was firmly convinced of his legitimacy for the caliphate based on his close kinship with Muhammad, his knowledge of Islam, and his merits in serving its cause.

Silver or gold coinage is one way of granting zakat.

Zakat

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Form of almsgiving, often collected by the Muslim Ummah.

Form of almsgiving, often collected by the Muslim Ummah.

Silver or gold coinage is one way of granting zakat.
A slot for giving zakat at the Zaouia Moulay Idriss II in Fez, Morocco
Zakat donation box at Taipei Grand Mosque in Taipei, Taiwan

It is considered in Islam as a religious obligation, and by Quranic ranking, is next after prayer (salat) in importance.

The caliph Abu Bakr, believed by Sunni Muslims to be Muhammad's successor, was the first to institute a statutory zakat system.