Caller ID spoofing

spoofspoofedCaller IDdisplay a false source phone numberspoof caller ID informationspoofed or blockedspoofing
Caller ID spoofing is the practice of causing the telephone network to indicate to the receiver of a call that the originator of the call is a station other than the true originating station.wikipedia
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Swatting

swattedfalse report about a stabbingplay it for a 911 operator
In December 2007, a hacker used a caller ID spoofing service and was arrested for sending a SWAT team to a house of an unsuspecting victim.
Caller ID spoofing, social engineering, TTY, prank calls, and phone phreaking techniques may be variously combined by swatting perpetrators.

Caller ID

caller line identificationCaller-IDCalling Line Identification
This can lead to a caller ID display might display a phone number different from that of the telephone from which the call was placed.
Legislation in the United States in made caller ID spoofing illegal for fraudulent purposes.

List of confidence tricks

grandparent scambig storebig stores
Bogus caller ID has also been used in grandparent scams, which target the elderly by impersonating family members and requesting wire transfer of money.
That agency then launches into a series of harassing phone calls at all hours (often to the victim's workplace), attempts to obtain bank account numbers (allowing the account to be drained through direct withdrawal) or impersonates police (sometimes with caller ID spoofing) to threaten the victim with arrest.

Prank call

prank callsprank phone callsprank phone call
Frequently, caller ID spoofing is used for prank calls.

Primary Rate Interface

PRIprimary rateISDN30
Caller ID spoofing has been available for years to people with a specialized digital connection to the telephone company, called an ISDN PRI circuit.

Robocall

robocallsrobo-callrobocalling
In the Canadian federal election of May 2, 2011, both live calls and robocalls are alleged to have been placed with false caller ID, either to replace the caller's identity with that of a fictitious person (Pierre Poutine of Joliette, Quebec) or to disguise calls from an Ohio call centre as Peterborough, Ontario, domestic calls.
A major problem for the use of both blacklisting and whitelisting techniques is the practice of caller ID spoofing, which is prevalent as a result of the low barrier to entry in the VoIP services market.

Denial-of-service attack

DDoSdenial of servicedistributed denial of service
On January 7, 2013, the Internet Crime Complaint Center issued a scam alert for various telephony denial of service attacks by which fraudsters were using spoofed caller ID to impersonate police in an attempt to collect bogus payday loans, then placing repeated harassing calls to police with the victim's number displayed.
Voice over IP has made abusive origination of large numbers of telephone voice calls inexpensive and readily automated while permitting call origins to be misrepresented through caller ID spoofing.

VoIP phone

IP phoneSIP phoneIP Phones
If the caller name is sent with the call (instead of being generated from the number by a database lookup at destination) it may be configured as part of the settings on a client-owned analog telephone adapter or SIP phone.

STIR/SHAKEN

SHAKEN/STIR
Starting in mid-2017, and with intended culmination in 2019, the FCC pushed forward Caller ID certification implemented via a methodology of STIR/SHAKEN.
STIR/SHAKEN, or SHAKEN/STIR, is a suite of protocols and procedures intended to combat caller ID spoofing on public telephone networks.

SIP URI scheme

SIP addresssips
In rare cases, a destination number served by voice-over-IP is reachable directly at a known SIP address (which may be published through ENUM telephone number mapping, a .tel DNS record or located using an intermediary such as SIP Broker).

Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009

Truth in Caller ID Act
The relevant federal statute, the Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009, does make exceptions for certain law-enforcement purposes.
Caller ID spoofing is generally illegal in the United States if done "with the intent to defraud, cause harm, or wrongfully obtain anything of value".

Skype

SkypingSkype PreviewJosh Silverman
A carrier which doesn't follow established hardware standards (such as Skype) or locks subscribers out of configuration settings on hardware which the subscriber owns outright (such as Vonage) is more restrictive.

Orange box

Orange Orange Box
This method, informally called orange boxing, uses software that generates the audio signal which is then coupled to the telephone line during the call.
An orange box is a piece of hardware or software that generates caller ID frequency-shift keying (FSK) signals to spoof caller ID information on the target's caller ID terminal.

Integrated Services Digital Network

ISDN ISDNISDN30
Caller ID spoofing has been available for years to people with a specialized digital connection to the telephone company, called an ISDN PRI circuit.

Paris Hilton

ParisMy BFFHeiress Records
In August 2006, Paris Hilton was accused of using caller ID spoofing to break into a voicemail system that used caller ID for authentication.

White House

The White HouseExecutive MansionPresident's House
For example, someone might call a friend and arrange for "The White House" to appear on the recipient's caller display.

SWAT

SWAT teamSpecial Weapons and TacticsS.W.A.T.
In December 2007, a hacker used a caller ID spoofing service and was arrested for sending a SWAT team to a house of an unsuspecting victim.

Collegeville, Pennsylvania

CollegevilleCollegeville, PABorough of Collegeville
In February 2008, a Collegeville, Pennsylvania, man was arrested for making threatening phone calls to women and having their home numbers appear "on their caller ID to make it look like the call was coming from inside the house."

Wilmington, Delaware

WilmingtonWilmington, DEWilmington Country Club
In March 2008, several residents in Wilmington, Delaware, reported receiving telemarketing calls during the early morning hours, when the caller had apparently spoofed the caller ID to evoke Tommy Tutone’s 1981 hit "867-5309/Jenny“. By 2014, an increase in illegal telemarketers displaying the victim's own number, either verbatim or with a few digits randomised, was observed as an attempt to evade caller ID-based blacklists.

Tommy Tutone

National Emotion
In March 2008, several residents in Wilmington, Delaware, reported receiving telemarketing calls during the early morning hours, when the caller had apparently spoofed the caller ID to evoke Tommy Tutone’s 1981 hit "867-5309/Jenny“. By 2014, an increase in illegal telemarketers displaying the victim's own number, either verbatim or with a few digits randomised, was observed as an attempt to evade caller ID-based blacklists.

867-5309/Jenny

867-5309867-5309 (Jenny)867-5309 and asking for Jenny
In March 2008, several residents in Wilmington, Delaware, reported receiving telemarketing calls during the early morning hours, when the caller had apparently spoofed the caller ID to evoke Tommy Tutone’s 1981 hit "867-5309/Jenny“. By 2014, an increase in illegal telemarketers displaying the victim's own number, either verbatim or with a few digits randomised, was observed as an attempt to evade caller ID-based blacklists.

2011 Canadian federal election

2011 federal election2011 election2011
In the Canadian federal election of May 2, 2011, both live calls and robocalls are alleged to have been placed with false caller ID, either to replace the caller's identity with that of a fictitious person (Pierre Poutine of Joliette, Quebec) or to disguise calls from an Ohio call centre as Peterborough, Ontario, domestic calls.

Joliette

Joliette, QuebecJoliette, QCCity of Joliette
In the Canadian federal election of May 2, 2011, both live calls and robocalls are alleged to have been placed with false caller ID, either to replace the caller's identity with that of a fictitious person (Pierre Poutine of Joliette, Quebec) or to disguise calls from an Ohio call centre as Peterborough, Ontario, domestic calls.

Ohio

OHState of OhioOhio, USA
In the Canadian federal election of May 2, 2011, both live calls and robocalls are alleged to have been placed with false caller ID, either to replace the caller's identity with that of a fictitious person (Pierre Poutine of Joliette, Quebec) or to disguise calls from an Ohio call centre as Peterborough, Ontario, domestic calls.

Peterborough, Ontario

PeterboroughPeterborough, ONPeterborough, Canada West
In the Canadian federal election of May 2, 2011, both live calls and robocalls are alleged to have been placed with false caller ID, either to replace the caller's identity with that of a fictitious person (Pierre Poutine of Joliette, Quebec) or to disguise calls from an Ohio call centre as Peterborough, Ontario, domestic calls.