Caller ID spoofingwikipedia
caller ID spoofingspoofspoofeda false origin is displayedspoof caller ID informationCaller IDspoofingspoofed or blocked

Swatting

swattingswattersending
In December 2007, a hacker used a caller ID spoofing service and was arrested for sending a SWAT team to a house of an unsuspecting victim.
Caller ID spoofing, social engineering, TTY, prank calls and phone phreaking techniques may be variously combined by swatting perpetrators.

List of confidence tricks

grandparent scamfraud and scamsList of confidence tricks: Online scams
Bogus caller ID has also been used in grandparent scams which target the elderly by impersonating family members and requesting wire transfer of money.
That agency then launches into a series of harassing phone calls at all hours (often to the victim's workplace), attempts to obtain bank account numbers (allowing the account to be drained through direct withdrawal) or impersonates police (sometimes with caller ID spoofing) to threaten the victim with arrest.

Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009

The relevant federal statute, the Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009, does make exceptions for certain law-enforcement purposes.
Caller ID spoofing is generally illegal in the United States if done "with the intent to defraud, cause harm, or wrongfully obtain anything of value".

Orange box

orange boxOrange Orange Box
This method, informally called orange boxing, uses software that generates the audio signal which is then coupled to the telephone line during the call.
An orange box is a piece of hardware or software that generates caller ID frequency-shift keying (FSK) signals to spoof caller ID information on the target's caller ID terminal.

Caller ID

caller IDcaller line identificationCLI
For example, a caller ID display might display a phone number different from that of the telephone from which the call was placed.
Legislation in the United States in made caller ID spoofing illegal for fraudulent purposes.

Denial-of-service attack

denial-of-service attackdenial of servicedistributed denial of service
On January 7, 2013, the Internet Crime Complaint Center issued a scam alert for various telephony denial of service attacks by which fraudsters were using spoofed caller ID to impersonate police in an attempt to collect bogus payday loans, then placing repeated harassing calls to police with the victim's number displayed.
Voice over IP has made abusive origination of large numbers of telephone voice calls inexpensive and readily automated while permitting call origins to be misrepresented through caller ID spoofing.

Prank call

prank callprank callsprank phone calls
Frequently, caller ID spoofing is used for prank calls.

Robocall

robocallrobocallsrobocalling
In the Canadian federal election of May 2, 2011, both live calls and robocalls are alleged to have been placed with false caller ID, either to replace the caller's identity with that of a fictitious person (Pierre Poutine of Joliette, Quebec) or to disguise calls from an Ohio call centre as Peterborough, Ontario domestic calls.
A major problem for the use of both blacklisting and whitelisting techniques is the practice of caller ID spoofing, which is prevalent as a result of the low barrier to entry in the VoIP services market.

Primary Rate Interface

PRIprimary rate interfaceprimary rate
Caller ID spoofing has been available for years to people with a specialized digital connection to the telephone company, called an ISDN PRI circuit.

VoIP phone

IP PhoneIP phonesEthernet-based phone
If the caller name is sent with the call (instead of being generated from the number by a database lookup at destination) it may be configured as part of the settings on a client-owned analog telephone adapter or SIP phone.

SIP URI scheme

In rare cases, a destination number served by voice-over-IP is reachable directly at a known SIP address (which may be published through ENUM telephone number mapping, a .tel DNS record or located using an intermediary such as SIP Broker).

Skype

SkypeSkypingSkypes
A carrier which doesn't follow established hardware standards (such as Skype) or locks subscribers out of configuration settings on hardware which the subscriber owns outright (such as Vonage) is more restrictive.

Vermilion box

vermilion box
Its function is to spoof not only caller ID but every other aspect of an incoming telephone call, including ringing and DC line voltage.

Voice phishing

vishingvoice phishing
Features such as caller ID spoofing (to display a number of their choosing on the recipients phone line), and automated systems (IVR).

Phone hacking

phone hackingvoicemail hackinghacked into her mobile phone
A hacker could use caller ID spoofing to impersonate a target's handset caller ID and thereby gain access to the associated voicemail without a PIN.

VoIP vulnerabilities

VOIP users can change their Caller ID (a.k.a. Caller ID spoofing), allowing caller to represent himself as relative, colleague, or part of the family, in order to extract information, money or benefits form the target.

911 (Law & Order: Special Victims Unit)

911911" (''Law & Order: Special Victims Unit'')
Morales suggests Richard could have spoofed Garcia's phone number, making the task of tracing the call harder.

VoIP spam

SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony)SPIT
In a Public switched telephone network (PSTN), the Caller ID permits caller identification, but at least the displayed caller ID can be spoofed.

Matthew Weigman

Weigman also extensively employed the use of Caller ID spoofing by purchasing commercial services such as spoof cards.

Eliot Engel

Eliot EngelEliot L. EngelEngel, Eliot
The new law cracks down on the use of caller ID spoofing, often used by criminals to trick their victims into giving out personal information.

Nuisance call

nuisance calltelephone harassmentnuisance calls
However, these do not provide complete protection: harassers can use payphones and, in some cases, caller ID (but not necessarily automatic number identification itself) can be spoofed or blocked.

Soundboard (computer program)

Soundboardsoundboard (computer program)
Soundboard prank-calling is often done with caller ID spoofing or masking, to provide a high level of anonymity or impersonation.

9-1-1

9-1-1911911 call
The U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation has warned of an increase in deliberate false alarms in which a false origin is displayed on calls to emergency services to send SWAT teams or heavily armed police to unsuspecting citizens' doorsteps.