Caller ID spoofing

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Caller ID spoofing is the practice of causing the telephone network to indicate to the receiver of a call that the originator of the call is a station other than the true originating station.wikipedia
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played it for a 911 operatora false report from an anonymous caller claiming that there was a hostage situation in Hogg's family home.false report about a stabbing
In December 2007, a hacker used a caller ID spoofing service and was arrested for sending a SWAT team to a house of an unsuspecting victim.
Caller ID spoofing, social engineering, TTY, prank calls and phone phreaking techniques may be variously combined by swatting perpetrators.

List of confidence tricks

grandparent scambig storebig stores
Bogus caller ID has also been used in grandparent scams which target the elderly by impersonating family members and requesting wire transfer of money.
That agency then launches into a series of harassing phone calls at all hours (often to the victim's workplace), attempts to obtain bank account numbers (allowing the account to be drained through direct withdrawal) or impersonates police (sometimes with caller ID spoofing) to threaten the victim with arrest.

Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009

The relevant federal statute, the Truth in Caller ID Act of 2009, does make exceptions for certain law-enforcement purposes.
Caller ID spoofing is generally illegal in the United States if done "with the intent to defraud, cause harm, or wrongfully obtain anything of value".

Orange box

Orange Orange Box
This method, informally called orange boxing, uses software that generates the audio signal which is then coupled to the telephone line during the call.
An orange box is a piece of hardware or software that generates caller ID frequency-shift keying (FSK) signals to spoof caller ID information on the target's caller ID terminal.

Caller ID

caller line identificationCLIcall display
For example, a caller ID display might display a phone number different from that of the telephone from which the call was placed.
Legislation in the United States in made caller ID spoofing illegal for fraudulent purposes.

Denial-of-service attack

denial of servicedistributed denial of serviceDDoS
On January 7, 2013, the Internet Crime Complaint Center issued a scam alert for various telephony denial of service attacks by which fraudsters were using spoofed caller ID to impersonate police in an attempt to collect bogus payday loans, then placing repeated harassing calls to police with the victim's number displayed.
Voice over IP has made abusive origination of large numbers of telephone voice calls inexpensive and readily automated while permitting call origins to be misrepresented through caller ID spoofing.

Prank call

prank callsprank phone callsprank phone call
Frequently, caller ID spoofing is used for prank calls.
Caller ID spoofing


In the Canadian federal election of May 2, 2011, both live calls and robocalls are alleged to have been placed with false caller ID, either to replace the caller's identity with that of a fictitious person (Pierre Poutine of Joliette, Quebec) or to disguise calls from an Ohio call centre as Peterborough, Ontario domestic calls.
A major problem for the use of both blacklisting and whitelisting techniques is the practice of caller ID spoofing, which is prevalent as a result of the low barrier to entry in the VoIP services market.

Primary Rate Interface

PRIprimary ratePRA or PRI
Caller ID spoofing has been available for years to people with a specialized digital connection to the telephone company, called an ISDN PRI circuit.
Caller ID spoofing

VoIP phone

IP PhoneIP PhonesEthernet-based phone
If the caller name is sent with the call (instead of being generated from the number by a database lookup at destination) it may be configured as part of the settings on a client-owned analog telephone adapter or SIP phone.
Caller ID display

SIP URI scheme

In rare cases, a destination number served by voice-over-IP is reachable directly at a known SIP address (which may be published through ENUM telephone number mapping, a .tel DNS record or located using an intermediary such as SIP Broker).
SIP is vulnerable to Caller ID spoofing as the displayed name and number, much like the return address on e-mail, is supplied by the sender and not authenticated.


SkypingSkype PreviewMicrosoft Skype
A carrier which doesn't follow established hardware standards (such as Skype) or locks subscribers out of configuration settings on hardware which the subscriber owns outright (such as Vonage) is more restrictive.
Caller ID spoofing

Vermilion box

Its function is to spoof not only caller ID but every other aspect of an incoming telephone call, including ringing and DC line voltage.

Voice phishing

Now however, vishing fraudsters often use modern Voice over IP (VoIP) features such as caller ID spoofing and automated systems (IVR) to make it difficult for legal authorities to monitor, trace or block.

Phone hacking

voicemail hackinghacked into her mobile phonehacking
A hacker could use caller ID spoofing to impersonate a target's handset caller ID and thereby gain access to the associated voicemail without a PIN.

VoIP vulnerabilities

VOIP users can change their Caller ID (a.k.a. Caller ID spoofing), allowing caller to represent himself as relative, colleague, or part of the family, in order to extract information, money or benefits form the target.

911 (Law & Order: Special Victims Unit)

911911" (''Law & Order: Special Victims Unit'')
Morales suggests Richard could have spoofed Garcia's phone number, making the task of tracing the call harder.

Soundboard (computer program)

Soundboard prank-calling is often done with caller ID spoofing or masking, to provide a high level of anonymity or impersonation.

VoIP spam

SPIT (SPam over Internet Telephony)SPIT
In a Public switched telephone network (PSTN), the Caller ID permits caller identification, but at least the displayed caller ID can be spoofed.

Matthew Weigman

Weigman also extensively employed the use of caller ID spoofing by purchasing commercial services such as spoof cards.

Eliot Engel

Congressman Eliot EngelEliot L. EngelEngel, Eliot
The new law cracks down on the use of caller ID spoofing, often used by criminals to trick their victims into giving out personal information.

Phone fraud

telephone fraudtoll fraudcramming
Caller ID spoofing can be used to fraudulently impersonate a trusted vendor (such as a bank or credit union), a law enforcement agency or another subscriber. These calls may be used for vishing, where a scammer impersonates a trusted counterparty in order to fraudulently obtain financial or personal information.

Nuisance call

telephone harassmentcallsnuisance calls
However, these do not provide complete protection: harassers can use payphones and, in some cases, caller ID (but not necessarily automatic number identification itself) can be spoofed or blocked.

Motor Insurers' Bureau

The MIB has issued a warning about scammers who spoof the MIB's telephone number and make cold calls encouraging people to make false insurance claims.