Calligraphy

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Calligraphy (from Greek: καλλιγραφία) is a visual art related to writing.wikipedia
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Parchment

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High quality paper, which has good consistency of absorption, enables cleaner lines, although parchment or vellum is often used, as a knife can be used to erase imperfections and a light-box is not needed to allow lines to pass through it.
Some authorities have sought to observe these distinctions strictly: for example, lexicographer Samuel Johnson in 1755, and master calligrapher Edward Johnston in 1906.

Wedding invitation

invitationinvitationswedding invitations
Calligraphy continues to flourish in the forms of wedding invitations and event invitations, font design and typography, original hand-lettered logo design, religious art, announcements, graphic design and commissioned calligraphic art, cut stone inscriptions, and memorial documents.
Families of means would commission monks, skilled in the art of Calligraphy, to hand-craft their notices.

Japanese calligraphy

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For example, Japanese calligraphy go out of the set of CJK strokes to also include local alphabets such as hiragana and katakana, with specific problematics such as new curves and moves, and specific materials (Japanese paper, 和紙, and Japanese ink).
Japanese calligraphy also called shūji is a form of calligraphy, or artistic writing, of the Japanese language.

Four Treasures of the Study

highly valued writing implementsStudio implements
Traditional East Asian writing uses the Four Treasures of the Study : the ink brushes known as máobǐ to write Chinese characters, Chinese ink, paper, and inkstone, known as the Four Friends of the Study in Korea.
Four Treasures of the Study, Four Jewels of the Study or Four Friends of the Study is an expression used to denote the brush, ink, paper and ink stone used in Chinese and other East Asian calligraphic traditions.

Cursive script (East Asia)

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Cursive styles such as [[Semi-cursive script|]] (semi-cursive or running script) and [[Grass script|]] (cursive, rough script, or grass script) are less constrained and faster, where more movements made by the writing implement are visible.
Cursive script, often mistranslated as grass script, is a script style used in Chinese and East Asian calligraphy.

Korean painting

Korean ArtKoreanpainting
Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia, including ink and wash painting, a style of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean based entirely on calligraphy.
Calligraphy rarely occurs in oil paintings and is dealt with in the brushwork entry, Korean calligraphy.

Stroke (CJK character)

strokesstrokeCJK strokes
For example, Japanese calligraphy go out of the set of CJK strokes to also include local alphabets such as hiragana and katakana, with specific problematics such as new curves and moves, and specific materials (Japanese paper, 和紙, and Japanese ink).
CJK strokes are the calligraphic strokes needed to write the Chinese characters in regular script used in East Asian calligraphy.

Ruled paper

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This is the case with litterea unciales (hence the name), and college-ruled paper often acts as a guideline well.
Many different line layouts support handwriting, calligraphy, plotting data on graphs, musical notation or help teach students to write in a particular language or script.

History of China

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In ancient China, the oldest Chinese characters existing are Jiǎgǔwén characters carved on ox scapulae and tortoise plastrons, because the dominators in Shang Dynasty carved pits on such animals' bones and then baked them to gain auspice of military affairs, agricultural harvest, or even procreating and weather.
They had to demonstrate skill at calligraphy, and had to know Confucian philosophy.

Ink wash painting

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Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia, including ink and wash painting, a style of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean based entirely on calligraphy. Calligraphy has influenced ink and wash painting, which is accomplished using similar tools and techniques.
Ink wash painting (undefined; 水墨画; 수묵화), or sumi-e, is a type of East Asian brush painting that uses black ink – as used in East Asian calligraphy – in different concentrations.

Dip pen

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Dip pens were generally used before the development of fountain pens in the later 19th century, and are now mainly used in illustration, calligraphy, and comics.

Korean calligraphy

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In the case of Korean calligraphy, the Hangeul and the existence of the circle required the creation of a new technique which usually confuses Chinese calligraphers.
Korean calligraphy, also known as Seoye, is the Korean tradition of artistic writing.

Typography

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Classical calligraphy differs from typography and non-classical hand-lettering, though a calligrapher may practice both.

Brahmic scripts

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The script is derived from Indic scripts.
The art of Siddham calligraphy survives today in Japan.

Chinese painting

paintingpainterChinese painter
Calligraphy has influenced most major art styles in East Asia, including ink and wash painting, a style of Chinese, Japanese, and Korean based entirely on calligraphy.
In imperial times (beginning with the Eastern Jin dynasty), painting and calligraphy in China were among the most highly appreciated arts in the court and they were often practiced by amateurs—aristocrats and scholar-officials—who had the leisure time necessary to perfect the technique and sensibility necessary for great brushwork.

Uncial script

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In the second and third centuries the uncial lettering style developed.
Uncial is a majuscule script (written entirely in capital letters) commonly used from the 4th to 8th centuries AD by Latin and Greek scribes.

Roman cursive

minusculeminuscule cursiveOld Roman cursive
The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, and by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, and Roman cursive for daily use.
Roman cursive (or Latin cursive) is a form of handwriting (or a script) used in ancient Rome and to some extent into the Middle Ages.

Visigothic script

VisigothicVisigothic minuscule
Each region developed its own standards following the main monastery of the region (i.e. Merovingian script, Laon script, Luxeuil script, Visigothic script, Beneventan script), which are mostly cursive and hardly readable.
Visigothic script was a type of medieval script that originated in the Visigothic kingdom in Hispania (the Iberian Peninsula, modern Spain and Portugal).

Rustic capitals

capitalis rusticarustic capital
The Latin alphabet appeared about 600 BC, in Rome, and by the first century developed into Roman imperial capitals carved on stones, Rustic capitals painted on walls, and Roman cursive for daily use.
Rustic capitals (littera capitalis rustica) is an ancient Roman calligraphic script.

Pen

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The principal tools for a calligrapher are the pen and the brush.

Islamic calligraphy

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As with Chinese or Islamic calligraphy, Western calligraphic script employed the use of strict rules and shapes.
Islamic calligraphy is the artistic practice of handwriting and calligraphy, based upon the alphabet in the lands sharing a common Islamic cultural heritage.

Xu Bing

Since late 1980s, a few Chinese artists have branched out traditional Chinese calligraphy to a new territory by mingling Chinese characters with English letters; notable new forms of calligraphy are Xu Bing's square calligraphy and DanNie's coolligraphy or cooligraphy.
He received a MacArthur Foundation grant in July 1999, presented to him for "originality, creativity, self-direction, and capacity to contribute importantly to society, particularly in printmaking and calligraphy."

Blackletter

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In the eleventh century, the Caroline evolved into the Gothic script, which was more compact and made it possible to fit more text on a page.
New universities were founded, each producing books for business, law, grammar, history, and other pursuits, not solely religious works for which earlier scripts typically had been used.

Western calligraphy

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Sacred Western calligraphy has some unique features, such as the illumination of the first letter of each book or chapter in medieval times.
as practiced in the Western world, especially using the Latin alphabet (but also including calligraphic use of the Cyrillic and Greek alphabets, as opposed to "Eastern" traditions such as Turko-Perso-Arabic, Chinese or Indian calligraphy).

Fountain pen

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Oblique, reverse oblique, stub, and italic nibs may be used for calligraphic purposes or for general handwritten compositions.