Callisto (moon)

CallistoAtmosphere of Callistofourth Galilean moon of JupiterJupiter IV
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.wikipedia
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Io (moon)

IoAtmosphere of IoIo torus
It is not in an orbital resonance like the three other Galilean satellites—Io, Europa, and Ganymede—and is thus not appreciably tidally heated.
This extreme geologic activity is the result of tidal heating from friction generated within Io's interior as it is pulled between Jupiter and the other Galilean satellites—Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.

Moons of Jupiter

moon of JupiterJovian systemJupiter's moons
Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
Even so, the names Marius assigned are used today: Ganymede; Callisto; Io; and Europa.

Ganymede (moon)

GanymedeNicholson RegioAtmosphere of Ganymede
It is not in an orbital resonance like the three other Galilean satellites—Io, Europa, and Ganymede—and is thus not appreciably tidally heated. Callisto (Jupiter IV) is the second-largest moon of Jupiter, after Ganymede.
On January 7, 1610, Galileo Galilei observed what he thought were three stars near Jupiter, including what turned out to be Ganymede, Callisto, and one body that turned out to be the combined light from Io and Europa; the next night he noticed that they had moved.

Titan (moon)

TitanSaturn's moon Titanatmosphere
It is the third-largest moon in the Solar System after Ganymede and Saturn's largest moon Titan, and the largest object in the Solar System not to be properly differentiated.
Titan's diameter and mass (and thus its density) are similar to those of the Jovian moons Ganymede and Callisto.

Europa (moon)

EuropaEuropanLife on Europa
It is not in an orbital resonance like the three other Galilean satellites—Io, Europa, and Ganymede—and is thus not appreciably tidally heated.
Europa, along with Jupiter's three other large moons, Io, Ganymede, and Callisto, was discovered by Galileo Galilei on 8 January 1610, and possibly independently by Simon Marius.

Galileo (spacecraft)

GalileoGalileo spacecraftGalileo'' spacecraft
Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km. The analysis of high-resolution, near-infrared and UV spectra obtained by the Galileo spacecraft and from the ground has revealed various non-ice materials: magnesium- and iron-bearing hydrated silicates, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and possibly ammonia and various organic compounds. Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied Callisto.
The data Galileo collected supported the theory of a liquid ocean under the icy surface of Europa, and there were indications of similar liquid-saltwater layers under the surfaces of Ganymede and Callisto.

Impact crater

cratercratersimpact basin
The surface of Callisto is the oldest and most heavily cratered in the Solar System. Many fresh impact craters like Lofn also show enrichment in carbon dioxide. Prominent surface features include multi-ring structures, variously shaped impact craters, and chains of craters (catenae) and associated scarps, ridges and deposits.
Impact craters are the dominant geographic features on many solid Solar System objects including the Moon, Mercury, Callisto, Ganymede and most small moons and asteroids.

Galileo Galilei

GalileoGalileanGalilei
Callisto was discovered in 1610 by Galileo Galilei.
These satellites were independently discovered by Simon Marius on 8 January 1610 and are now called Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, the names given by Marius in his Mundus Iovialis published in 1614.

Callisto (mythology)

CallistoCalistoKallisto
Callisto was a nymph (or, according to some sources, the daughter of Lycaon) who was associated with the goddess of the hunt, Artemis.
The fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter is named after Callisto.

Extraterrestrial life

alienextraterrestrialaliens
The likely presence of an ocean within Callisto leaves open the possibility that it could harbor life.
Scientists have indications that heated subsurface oceans of liquid water may exist deep under the crusts of the three outer Galilean moons—Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

Jupiter

JovianGioveplanet Jupiter
At 4821 km in diameter, Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1883000 km.
It was Marius's names for the four major moons, however, that stuck—Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto.

Galilean moons

Galilean satellitesGalilean moonmoons of Jupiter
At 4821 km in diameter, Callisto has about 99% the diameter of the planet Mercury but only about a third of its mass. It is the fourth Galilean moon of Jupiter by distance, with an orbital radius of about 1883000 km.
The Galilean moons (or Galilean satellites) are the four largest moons of Jupiter—Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto.

Lofn (crater)

Lofn
Many fresh impact craters like Lofn also show enrichment in carbon dioxide.
Lofn is a large relatively young impact crater on Jupiter's Galilean satellite Callisto.

Orbital resonance

1:1 resonanceresonancemean-motion resonance
It is not in an orbital resonance like the three other Galilean satellites—Io, Europa, and Ganymede—and is thus not appreciably tidally heated.

Sulfur dioxide

sulphur dioxideSO 2 SO2
The analysis of high-resolution, near-infrared and UV spectra obtained by the Galileo spacecraft and from the ground has revealed various non-ice materials: magnesium- and iron-bearing hydrated silicates, carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and possibly ammonia and various organic compounds.
As an ice, it is thought to exist in abundance on the Galilean moons—as subliming ice or frost on the trailing hemisphere of Io, and in the crust and mantle of Europa, Ganymede, and Callisto, possibly also in liquid form and readily reacting with water.

Pioneer 11

11PioneerPioneer Saturn
Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied Callisto.
The probe obtained detailed images of the Great Red Spot, transmitted the first images of the immense polar regions, and determined the mass of Jupiter's moon Callisto.

Ocean

marineoceansmaritime
Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km.
A global layer of liquid water thick enough to decouple the crust from the mantle is thought to be present on the natural satellites Titan, Europa, Enceladus and, with less certainty, Callisto, Ganymede and Triton.

Valhalla (crater)

ValhallaEgdirMimir
The bright, smooth plains constitute a small fraction of Callisto's surface and are found in the ridge and trough zones of the Valhalla and Asgard formations and as isolated spots in the cratered plains.
Located on Jupiter's moon Callisto, Valhalla is the largest multi-ring impact crater in the Solar System.

Tidal locking

tidally lockedsynchronoussynchronous rotation
Callisto's rotation is tidally locked to its orbit around Jupiter, so that the same hemisphere always faces inward; Jupiter appears to stand nearly still in Callisto's sky.

Water

H 2 OHOliquid water
Investigation by the Galileo spacecraft revealed that Callisto may have a small silicate core and possibly a subsurface ocean of liquid water at depths greater than 100 km.

Pioneer 10

10PioneerPioneers 10
Various space probes from Pioneers 10 and 11 to Galileo and Cassini have studied Callisto.

Atmosphere

atmosphericatmospheresplanetary atmospheres
Callisto is surrounded by an extremely thin atmosphere composed of carbon dioxide and probably molecular oxygen, as well as by a rather intense ionosphere.

Simon Marius

[Simon] MayrMarius, SimonMundus Iovialis
The name was suggested by Simon Marius soon after Callisto's discovery.
Regardless of priority, the mythological names by which these satellites are known today (Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto) are those given them by Marius:

Multi-ringed basin

multi-ring basinsmulti-ringedMulti-ring impact basin
Prominent surface features include multi-ring structures, variously shaped impact craters, and chains of craters (catenae) and associated scarps, ridges and deposits.

Hár (crater)

Hár
The largest craters with diameters over 60 km can have central domes, which are thought to result from central tectonic uplift after an impact; examples include Doh and Hár craters.
Hár is a crater on Jupiter's moon Callisto.