Caloris Planitia

Caloris BasinCalorisCaloris impact
Caloris Planitia is a plain within a large impact basin on Mercury, informally named Caloris, about 1,550 km in diameter.wikipedia
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List of largest craters in the Solar System

larger craters in the Solar Systemlargest craters in the Solar Systemlargest impact crater in the Solar System
It is one of the largest impact basins in the Solar System.

Mercury (planet)

MercuryMercurioplanet Mercury
Caloris Planitia is a plain within a large impact basin on Mercury, informally named Caloris, about 1,550 km in diameter.
During this time Mercury was volcanically active; basins such as the Caloris Basin were filled by magma, producing smooth plains similar to the maria found on the Moon.

Caloris Montes

montes
The crater, discovered in 1974, is surrounded by the Caloris Montes, a ring of mountains approximately 2 km tall.
They are a system of linear hills and valleys that extend more than 1000 km to the northeast from the mountainous rim of Caloris Basin in the Shakespeare quadrangle (H-3).

Pantheon Fossae

The feature is named Pantheon Fossae.
The Pantheon Fossae are a radial set of troughs in a region in the middle of Caloris Basin on Mercury.

Caloris Group

Van Eyck FormationOdin Formation
Surrounding Caloris is a series of geologic formations thought to have been produced by the basin's ejecta, collectively called the Caloris Group.
McCauley and others have proposed the name “Caloris Group” to include the mappable units created by the impact that formed the Caloris Basin and have formally named four formations within the group, which were first recognized and named informally by Trask and Guest.

Impact crater

cratercratersimpact basin
Caloris Planitia is a plain within a large impact basin on Mercury, informally named Caloris, about 1,550 km in diameter.

Skinakas (hypothetical basin)

Skinakas BasinSkinakas
It appeared to be even larger than the Caloris basin on Mercury, which has been known since the Mariner 10 flybys of that planet.

Geology of Mercury

geologyMercury's geologycrustal modification
Some regions or massifs, a prominent one being the one that formed the Caloris Basin, were filled by magma eruptions from within the planet.

Plain

plainsplanitiallanos
Caloris Planitia is a plain within a large impact basin on Mercury, informally named Caloris, about 1,550 km in diameter.

Diameter

Ddiameters
Caloris Planitia is a plain within a large impact basin on Mercury, informally named Caloris, about 1,550 km in diameter.

Latin

Latin languageLat.la
"Calor" is Latin for "heat" and the basin is so-named because the Sun is almost directly overhead every second time Mercury passes perihelion.

Heat

heat energythermalhot
"Calor" is Latin for "heat" and the basin is so-named because the Sun is almost directly overhead every second time Mercury passes perihelion.

Sun

solarSolThe Sun
"Calor" is Latin for "heat" and the basin is so-named because the Sun is almost directly overhead every second time Mercury passes perihelion.

Apsis

perigeeperihelionapogee
"Calor" is Latin for "heat" and the basin is so-named because the Sun is almost directly overhead every second time Mercury passes perihelion.

Mountain

mountainsmountainouspeak
The crater, discovered in 1974, is surrounded by the Caloris Montes, a ring of mountains approximately 2 km tall.

Mariner 10

10first imagesMariner-Venus-Mercury
Caloris was discovered on images taken by the Mariner 10 probe in 1974.

Brian O'Leary

Its name was suggested by Brian O'Leary, astronaut and member of the Mariner 10 imagery team.

Terminator (solar)

terminatorterminator linelunar terminator
It was situated on the terminator—the line dividing the daytime and nighttime hemispheres—at the time the probe passed by, and so half of the crater could not be imaged.

MESSENGER

Mercury MessengerMErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry and RangingMESSENGER Mercury probe
Later, on January 15, 2008, one of the first photos of the planet taken by the MESSENGER probe revealed the crater in its entirety.

Lunar mare

marelunar mariamaria
Inside the crater walls, the floor of the crater is filled by lava plains, similar to the maria of the Moon.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
Inside the crater walls, the floor of the crater is filled by lava plains, similar to the maria of the Moon.

Extensional fault

extensionalextensional stressesExtensionally faulted
In the center of the basin is a region containing numerous radial troughs that appear to be extensional faults, with a 40 km crater located near the center of the pattern.

Mare Imbrium

ImbriumImbrium BasinSea of Rains
Similar impact basins on the Moon such as the Mare Imbrium and Mare Orientale are believed to have formed at about the same time, possibly indicating that there was a 'spike' of large impacts towards the end of the heavy bombardment phase of the early Solar System.

Mare Orientale

OrientaleOrientale BasinOrientale impact
Similar impact basins on the Moon such as the Mare Imbrium and Mare Orientale are believed to have formed at about the same time, possibly indicating that there was a 'spike' of large impacts towards the end of the heavy bombardment phase of the early Solar System.

Antipodal point

antipodeantipodalantipodal points
At the exact antipode of the basin is a large area of hilly, grooved terrain, with few small impact craters that are known as chaotic terrain (also "weird terrain").