Calvinism

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

Major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

- Calvinism
Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

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Portrait by an unknown artist, German School

Martin Bucer

Portrait by an unknown artist, German School
Map showing the two partitions that made up Saxony in green and pink. Saxony had long been divided into two principalities, one of which, with its capital at Wittenberg, was an electorate. Charles V transferred the electorate and much of its territory to Albertine Saxony in 1547 after the defeat of the Schmalkaldic League and John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony. Hesse was to the west of Saxony. Important cities that Bucer visited are shown in red.
Franz von Sickingen was the protector and defender of Martin Bucer during his early years.
Matthew Zell was the first major reformer in Strasbourg and supported Bucer on his arrival in the city.
Bucer tried to mediate between Martin Luther (left) and Huldrych Zwingli (right) on doctrinal matters.
The Church of the Penitent Magdalens' steeple behind timber-framed houses extant since the time of Martin Bucer
Philipp Melanchthon worked closely with Bucer on many theological documents to advance the reformed cause.
Charles V attempted to win back Protestant princes through a series of colloquies and imperial diets. When reconciliation failed, he sought to suppress Protestant resistance in the Schmalkaldic War.
Thomas Cranmer gave Martin Bucer refuge in England, where he lived his final years.
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Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.

Portrait of Theodore Beza at age 58, 1577

Theodore Beza

Portrait of Theodore Beza at age 58, 1577
Beza at age 24, 16th-century portrait
Portrait of Theodore Beza, by English School, 17th century
The Reformation Wall in Geneva. From left: William Farel, John Calvin, Beza, and John Knox
Woodcut of Theodore Beza
Théodore De Beza by an unknown artist, inscribed in 1605

Theodore Beza (Theodorus Beza; Théodore de Bèze or de Besze; June 24, 1519 – October 13, 1605) was a French Calvinist Protestant theologian, reformer and scholar who played an important role in the Protestant Reformation.

19th-century engraving of Knox

John Knox

John Knox (Iain Knox), born (c.

John Knox (Iain Knox), born (c.

19th-century engraving of Knox
Wishart Preaching against Mariolatry with Knox at his back
Portrait of Knox from Theodore Beza's Icones
John Knox portrait bearing the date 1572
Statue of John Knox at the Reformation Wall monument in Geneva
The Auditoire de Calvin where Knox preached while in Geneva, 1556–1558
The title page of The First Blast from a 1766 edition with modernised spelling
Preaching of Knox before the Lords of the Congregation (in the Parish Church of St. Andrew's, 10 June 1559) by David Wilkie
Perth's St John's Kirk in modern times
Study for John Knox Dispensing the Sacrament at Calder House by David Wilkie. The work was intended as a companion to Wilkie's Preaching of Knox before the Lords of the Congregation above.
Stained glass window showing John Knox admonishing Mary, Queen of Scots
The High Kirk of Edinburgh, where Knox served as minister from 1560 to 1572. He preached with the help of a reader for the first two years until John Craig was appointed as a colleague, being transferred from Holyroodhouse in 1562; Craig ministered at St Giles' for 9 years.
Bas-relief of John Knox preaching at St Giles in Edinburgh before the court of Mary Stuart. From left to right: James Stewart (Moray), James Hamilton (Châtellerault), Lord Darnley, Matthew Stewart (Lennox), William Maitland (Lethington), William Kirkcaldy (Grange), James Douglas (Morton), Knox, and George Buchanan. Located on the Reformers' Wall, Geneva.
Statue of Knox in New College, Edinburgh, by John Hutchison

1514 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, Reformed theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.

Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism

Lutheranism

One of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying with the theology of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Roman Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation.

One of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying with the theology of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Roman Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation.

Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Martin Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Title page of the Swedish Gustav Vasa Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae
A Hundskirche replica
The University of Jena around 1600. Jena was the center of Gnesio-Lutheran activity during the controversies leading up to the Formula of Concord and afterwards was a center of Lutheran Orthodoxy.
Danish Queen Sophie Magdalene expressed her Pietist sentiment in 1737 by founding a Lutheran convent.
A nineteenth-century Haugean conventicle
The Olbers, one of the ships that carried Old Lutherans to the Western Hemisphere
Representing the continuation of the Finnish Awakening to the present, youth are confirmed at the site of Paavo Ruotsalainen's homestead.
Luther's translation of the Bible, from 1534
Moses and Elijah point the sinner looking for God's salvation to the cross to find it (Theology of the Cross).
Law and Grace, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. The left side shows humans' condemnation under God's law, while the right side presents God's grace in Christ.
Title page from the 1580 Dresden Book of Concord
Lutherans believe that whoever has faith in Jesus alone will receive salvation from the grace of God and will enter eternity in heaven instead of eternity in hell after death or at the second coming of Jesus.
Lutherans believe in the Trinity.
A.C. Article IX: Of Confession
Lutherans practice infant baptism.
Luther communing John the Steadfast
A.C. Article 18: Of Free Will
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866
"Even though I am a sinner and deserving of death and hell, this shall nonetheless be my consolation and my victory that my Lord Jesus lives and has risen so that He, in the end, might rescue me from sin, death, and hell."—Luther
Luther composed hymns and hymn tunes, including "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God").
Divine Service at the St. Nicholas church in Luckau, Germany
Ukrainian Lutheran Church of the Cross of the Lord in Kremenets, which uses the Byzantine Rite
Christ Lutheran Church, Narsapur in India
Resurrection Lutheran School is a parochial school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) in Rochester, Minnesota. The WELS school system is the fourth largest private school system in the United States.
Georg Calixtus taught at the University of Helmstedt during the Syncretistic controversy.
Stormtroopers holding German Christian propaganda during the church council elections on 23 July 1933 at St. Mary's Church, Berlin. After that, internal struggles, controversies, reorganization, and splits struck the German Evangelical Church.
LCMS pastor wearing a chasuble during communion
Confirmation in Lunder Church, Ringerike, Norway, 2012. The Church of Norway is a member of the Porvoo Communion, which means that these confirmands would be readily transferred into any Anglican church should they ever emigrate.
Læstadian lay preacher from Finnmark, Norway, 1898
Hallowed be Thy Name by Lucas Cranach the Elder illustrates a Lutheran pastor preaching Christ crucified. During the Reformation and afterwards, many churches did not have pews, so people would stand or sit on the floor. The elderly might be given a chair or stool.
Nathan Söderblom is ordained as archbishop of the Church of Sweden, 1914. Although the Swedish Lutherans boast of an unbroken line of ordinations going back prior to the Reformation, the bishops of Rome do not recognize such ordinations as valid.
Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in St. Petersburg
Schwäbisch Hall Church Order, 1543
The Pennsylvania Ministerium published this 1803 hymnal.
Lighthouse Lutheran Church, an LCMC congregation in Freedom, Pennsylvania
A church of the Batak Protestant Church in Balige, Indonesia, a merged denomination that includes a Lutheran element
View of the altar and the pulpit in the Church of the Ascension in Jerusalem
Faith Lutheran School in Hong Kong
The coat of arms of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
Countries with a member of the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference as of 2013

Unlike Calvinism, Lutheranism retains many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Western Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, though Eastern Lutheranism uses the Byzantine Rite.

Barth in 1956

Karl Barth

Barth in 1956
1984 West German postage stamp commemorating the Barmen Declaration's 50th. anniversary
Karl Barth's Kirchliche Dogmatik: The original 'white whale' edition of the Church Dogmatics from Barth's study that features a custom binding from the publisher.
Karl Barth's Church Dogmatics in English translation
Photo of Barth on the jacket cover of ''Karl Barth Letters
A desk in Karl Barth's old office with a painting of Matthias Grünewald's crucifixion scene

Karl Barth (May 10, 1886 – December 10, 1968) was a Swiss Calvinist theologian.

Pietro Vermigli, by Hans Asper, 1560

Peter Martyr Vermigli

Pietro Vermigli, by Hans Asper, 1560
The Badia Fiesolana, where Vermigli entered religious life
Basilica of San Frediano, where Vermigli was appointed prior in 1541
Engraving after a woodcut by Jos Murer
Painting of Vermigli (left) and Theodor Bibliander (right), who strongly disagreed with Vermigli's doctrine of predestination
Title page of the 1576 Loci Communes
1599 engraving by Hendrik HondiusI

Peter Martyr Vermigli (8 September 149912 November 1562) was an Italian-born Calvinist theologian.

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).

Presbyterianism

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).
Iona Abbey in Scotland was founded by Saint Columba
John Knox
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.
Celtic cross draped for Easter at a Presbyterian church
Snow-covered Celtic cross in a Presbyterian memorial garden
"Presbyterian Cross", used by the National Cemetery Administration of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs
Presbyterian catechising, 19th century
A Scottish Sacrament, by Henry John Dobson
Cold Spring Presbyterian Church near Cape May, New Jersey, rebuilt 1823
Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago), built 1914
An illegal conventicle, Covenanters in a Glen
Evolution of Presbyterianism in the United States
First Presbyterian Church in Phoenix, Arizona
Westminster Presbyterian Church Los Angeles
Rev Bruin Romkes Comingo, 1st Presbyterian Minister in Canada, St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church (Lunenburg)
Presbyterian Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Christ Presbyterian Church, Akropong, Ghana
Jowai Presbyterian Church, India
Timeline showing the Presbyterian denominations in Australia over the past 100 years, and the movement of congregations from one to another
Kaikorai Presbyterian Church, New Zealand

Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism that traces its origin to the Church of Scotland.

Huldrych Zwingli as depicted by Hans Asper in an oil portrait from 1531 (Kunstmuseum Winterthur)

Huldrych Zwingli

Leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system.

Leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system.

Huldrych Zwingli as depicted by Hans Asper in an oil portrait from 1531 (Kunstmuseum Winterthur)
Map of the Swiss Confederation in 1515
House where Zwingli was born in Wildhaus in what is now the Canton of St. Gallen
The Grossmünster in the centre of the medieval town of Zürich (Murerplan, 1576)
Relief of Zwingli preaching at the pulpit, Otto Münch, 1935
Above the entrance to the Grossmünster doors is inscribed Matthew 11:28, "Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest."
Statue of Zwingli in front of the Wasserkirche church in Zürich
1549 painting by Hans Asper
Coloured woodcut of the Marburg Colloquy, anonymous, 1557
The Battle of Kappel, 11 October 1531, from Chronik by Johannes Stumpf, 1548
"The murder of Zwingli", by Karl Jauslin (1842–1904).
A rendition of Huldrych Zwingli from the 1906 edition of the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon
Painting of Zwingli by Hans Asper

His legacy lives on in the confessions, liturgy, and church orders of the Reformed churches of today.

Kuyper in 1905

Abraham Kuyper

The Prime Minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist theologian and a journalist.

The Prime Minister of the Netherlands between 1901 and 1905, an influential neo-Calvinist theologian and a journalist.

Kuyper in 1905
Caricature of Kuyper by Albert Hahn, from a 1904 edition of the satirical magazine De Ware Jacob.

He established the Reformed Churches in the Netherlands, which upon its foundation became the second largest Calvinist denomination in the country behind the state-supported Dutch Reformed Church.

North Congregational Church in Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States.

Congregational church

North Congregational Church in Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States.
A Catalogue of the Several Sects and Opinions in England and other Nations: With a briefe Rehearsall of their false and dangerous Tenents, propaganda broadsheet denouncing English Dissenters from 1647.
Elsternwick Congregational Church (1894–1977); Orrong Road, Elsternwick, Victoria, Australia
The London Missionary Society preaching to native peoples of Oceania
William Ellis preaching to the Natives, Hawaii, c. 1823
A Congregational church in Middlebury, Vermont

Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Calvinist tradition practising congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.