Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
North Congregational Church in Farmington Hills, Michigan, United States.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
A Catalogue of the Several Sects and Opinions in England and other Nations: With a briefe Rehearsall of their false and dangerous Tenents, propaganda broadsheet denouncing English Dissenters from 1647.
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Elsternwick Congregational Church (1894–1977); Orrong Road, Elsternwick, Victoria, Australia
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
The London Missionary Society preaching to native peoples of Oceania
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
William Ellis preaching to the Natives, Hawaii, c. 1823
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
A Congregational church in Middlebury, Vermont
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

Congregational churches (also Congregationalist churches; Congregationalism) are Protestant churches in the Calvinist tradition practising congregationalist church governance, in which each congregation independently and autonomously runs its own affairs.

- Congregational church

The Reformed tradition is largely represented by the Continental Reformed, Presbyterian, Evangelical Anglican, Congregationalist, and Reformed Baptist denominations.

- Calvinism
Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

13 related topics

Alpha

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).

Presbyterianism

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).
Iona Abbey in Scotland was founded by Saint Columba
John Knox
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.
Celtic cross draped for Easter at a Presbyterian church
Snow-covered Celtic cross in a Presbyterian memorial garden
"Presbyterian Cross", used by the National Cemetery Administration of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs
Presbyterian catechising, 19th century
A Scottish Sacrament, by Henry John Dobson
Cold Spring Presbyterian Church near Cape May, New Jersey, rebuilt 1823
Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago), built 1914
An illegal conventicle, Covenanters in a Glen
Evolution of Presbyterianism in the United States
First Presbyterian Church in Phoenix, Arizona
Westminster Presbyterian Church Los Angeles
Rev Bruin Romkes Comingo, 1st Presbyterian Minister in Canada, St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church (Lunenburg)
Presbyterian Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Christ Presbyterian Church, Akropong, Ghana
Jowai Presbyterian Church, India
Timeline showing the Presbyterian denominations in Australia over the past 100 years, and the movement of congregations from one to another
Kaikorai Presbyterian Church, New Zealand

Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism that traces its origin to the Church of Scotland.

Some Presbyterian churches have entered into unions with other churches, such as Congregationalists, Lutherans, Anglicans, and Methodists.

The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.

Presbyterian polity

Method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.

Method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.

The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.
Presbytery flags of the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu
Huguenot Cross

It is strongly associated with French, Dutch, Swiss and Scottish Reformation movements, and the Reformed and Presbyterian churches.

Congregational churches are sometimes called "Presbyterian" if they are governed by a council of elders; but the difference is that every local congregation is independent, and its elders are accountable to its members, and congregationalism's wider assemblies are not ordinarily empowered to enforce discipline.

The Embarkation of the Pilgrims (1857) by American painter Robert Walter Weir at the United States Capitol in Washington, DC

Pilgrims (Plymouth Colony)

Today Plymouth, Massachusetts, named after the final departure port of Plymouth, Devon.

Today Plymouth, Massachusetts, named after the final departure port of Plymouth, Devon.

The Embarkation of the Pilgrims (1857) by American painter Robert Walter Weir at the United States Capitol in Washington, DC
Memorial at Immingham, England, to the departure of congregation members for Holland in 1608
Plymouth Rock commemorates the landing of the Mayflower in 1620
Title page of a pamphlet published by William Brewster in Leiden
Permission from the city council of Leiden, allowing the Pilgrims to settle there, dated February 12, 1609.
Model of a typical merchantman of the period, showing the cramped conditions that had to be endured
1620 place names mentioned by Bradford
Samuel de Champlain's 1605 map of Plymouth Harbor showing the Wampanoag village of Patuxet, with some modern place names added for reference. The star marks the approximate location of the Plymouth Colony.
1920 U.S. stamp celebrating the Pilgrim Tercentenary

They held many of the same Puritan Calvinist religious beliefs but, unlike most other Puritans, they maintained that their congregations should separate from the English state church, which led to them being labeled Separatists.

They established Plymouth Colony in 1620, where they erected Congregationalist churches.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.

Eucharist

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.
A Kremikovtsi Monastery fresco (15th century) depicting the Last Supper celebrated by Jesus and his disciples. The early Christians too would have celebrated this meal to commemorate Jesus' death and subsequent resurrection.
Eucharistic window (1898–1900) by Józef Mehoffer
Christ with the Eucharist, Vicente Juan Masip, 16th century.
Early Christian painting of an Agape feast.
At a Solemn Tridentine Mass, the Host is displayed to the people before Communion.
Eucharistic celebration at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima.
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates a Mass.
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The serving of elements individually, to be taken in unison, is common among Baptists.
Table set for the Eucharist in an ELCA service
Many Presbyterian churches historically used communion tokens to provide entrance to the Lord's Supper.
A United Methodist minister consecrating the elements
Communion elements: matzo is sometimes used for bread, emphasising the "re-creation" of the Last Supper.
In the Western Catholic Church, the administration of the Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion.
Worshippers kneel and bow in the street during the Eucharist Procession, London, England.
The Eucharist displayed in a monstrance, flanked by candles
Illuminated title of "The Holy Communion" from the 1845 illustrated Book of Common Prayer.

Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

In the Reformed tradition (which includes the Continental Reformed Churches, the Presbyterian Churches, and the Congregationalist Churches), the Eucharist is variously administered.

Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Roman Catholic church

Infant baptism

Practice of baptising infants or young children.

Practice of baptising infants or young children.

Water is poured on the head of an infant held over the baptismal font of a Roman Catholic church
Baptism by immersion in the Eastern Orthodox Church
(Sophia Cathedral, 2005).
Christening photograph showing the oil moment and Baptism in Greek Orthodox Church.
German reformer Philipp Melanchthon baptizing an infant
A baptistry in a Methodist church
Baptism of a Yazidi child in Lalish

Branches of Christianity that practice infant baptism include Catholics, Eastern and Oriental Orthodox, and among Protestants, several denominations: Anglicans, Lutherans, Presbyterians, Congregationalists and other Reformed denominations, Methodists, Nazarenes, Moravians, and United Protestants.

Title page of a 1647 printing of the confession

Westminster Confession of Faith

Reformed confession of faith.

Reformed confession of faith.

Title page of a 1647 printing of the confession
The Assertion of Liberty of Conscience by the Independents at the Westminster Assembly of Divines, painted by John Rogers Herbert, c. 1844

The Westminster Confession of Faith was modified and adopted by Congregationalists in England in the form of the Savoy Declaration (1658).

Chapter 25 addresses Reformed ecclesiology or the teachings about the Christian Church.

Gallery of famous 17th-century Puritan theologians: Thomas Gouge, William Bridge, Thomas Manton, John Flavel, Richard Sibbes, Stephen Charnock, William Bates, John Owen, John Howe and Richard Baxter

Puritans

The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant.

The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been fully reformed and should become more Protestant.

Gallery of famous 17th-century Puritan theologians: Thomas Gouge, William Bridge, Thomas Manton, John Flavel, Richard Sibbes, Stephen Charnock, William Bates, John Owen, John Howe and Richard Baxter
The Westminster Assembly, which saw disputes on Church polity in England (Victorian history painting by John Rogers Herbert).
Interior of the Old Ship Church, a Puritan meetinghouse in Hingham, Massachusetts. Puritans were Calvinists, so their churches were unadorned and plain.
Death's head, Granary Burial Ground. A typical example of early Funerary art in Puritan New England
Polemical popular print with a Catalogue of Sects, 1647.
The Snake in the Grass or Satan Transform'd to an Angel of Light, title page engraved by Richard Gaywood, ca. 1660
Pilgrims Going to Church by George Henry Boughton (1867)
Cotton Mather, influential New England Puritan minister, portrait by Peter Pelham
1659 public notice in Boston deeming Christmas illegal
Quaker Mary Dyer led to execution on Boston Common, 1 June 1660, by an unknown 19th century artist
Second version of The Puritan, a late 19th-century sculpture by Augustus Saint-Gaudens
Oliver Cromwell, Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland, and Ireland

Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and, in that sense, were Calvinists (as were many of their earlier opponents).

Many continued to practice their faith in nonconformist denominations, especially in Congregationalist and Presbyterian churches.

Ecumenism symbol from a plaque in St. Anne's Church, Augsburg, Germany. It shows Christianity as a boat at sea with the cross serving as the mast.

Ecumenism

Concept and principle that Christians who belong to different Christian denominations should work together to develop closer relationships among their churches and promote Christian unity.

Concept and principle that Christians who belong to different Christian denominations should work together to develop closer relationships among their churches and promote Christian unity.

Ecumenism symbol from a plaque in St. Anne's Church, Augsburg, Germany. It shows Christianity as a boat at sea with the cross serving as the mast.
Te Deum Ecuménico 2009 in the Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral, Chile. An ecumenical gathering of clergy from different denominations.
The consecration of Reginald Heber Weller as an Anglican bishop at the Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac, with the Rt. Rev. Anthony Kozlowski of the Polish National Catholic Church and the Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow (along with his chaplains John Kochurov, and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich) of the Russian Orthodox Church present
Bishop John M. Quinn of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Winona and Bishop Steven Delzer of Evangelical Lutheran Southeastern Minnesota Synod leading a Reformation Day service in 2017
Ecumenical worship service at the monastery of Taizé.
The Christian flag

Protestantism, for example, includes such diverse groups as Adventists, Anabaptists, Baptists, Congregationalists, Evangelicals, Hussites, Irvingians, Lutherans, Messianic Jews, Methodists (inclusive of the Holiness movement), Moravians, Pentecostals, Presbyterians, Reformed, and Waldensians.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904

Evangelicalism

Worldwide interdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "born again", in which an individual experiences personal conversion, the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity , and in spreading the Christian message.

Worldwide interdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "born again", in which an individual experiences personal conversion, the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity , and in spreading the Christian message.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904
Baptistery in the Pentecostal church (Pingstförsamlingen) of Västerås, in Sweden, 2018
A worship service at Hillsong Church UK, London
Hong Kong Baptist Theological Seminary, in Hong Kong, 2008
Worship service at Christ's Commission Fellowship Pasig affiliated to the Christ's Commission Fellowship in 2014, in Pasig, Philippines
Chümoukedima Ao Baptist Church building in Chümoukedima, Nagaland, affiliated with the Nagaland Baptist Church Council (India).
College of Nursing, Central Philippine University in Iloilo City, affiliated with the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches, 2018
Wedding ceremony at First Baptist Church of Rivas, Baptist Convention of Nicaragua, 2011
Ark Encounter in Williamstown, Kentucky, United States
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention, in São José dos Campos, Brazil, 2017
Together for the Gospel, an evangelical pastors' conference held biennially. A panel discussion with (from left to right) Albert Mohler, Ligon Duncan, C. J. Mahaney, and Mark Dever.
The Prayer Book of 1662 included the Thirty-Nine Articles emphasized by evangelical Anglicans.
Jonathan Edwards' account of the revival in Northampton was published in 1737 as A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton
When forbidden from preaching from the pulpits of parish churches, John Wesley began open-air preaching.
William Wilberforce was a politician, philanthropist and an evangelical Anglican, who led the British movement to abolish the slave trade.
The evangelical revivalist Billy Graham in Duisburg, Germany, 1954
Worship service in a Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in Russia
Worship at El Lugar de Su Presencia, affiliated with Hillsong Family, in Bogotá, in Colombia, 2019
Temple of Solomon replica built by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in São Paulo
American pastor Johannes Maas preaching in Andhra Pradesh, India in 1974. Spreading the revival is an essential part of work done by evangelical missionaries.
Evangelical Free Church at Kirkkokatu street in Vanhatulli neighbourhood in Oulu, Finland
TheCall rally in 2008, Washington, D.C. United States Capitol in the background.
Socially conservative evangelical Protestantism plays a major role in the Bible Belt, an area covering almost all of the Southern United States. Evangelicals form a majority in the region.
Emergency food distribution in a disaster area in Indonesia by World Vision International, in 2009.

As a trans-denominational coalition, evangelicals can be found in nearly every Protestant denomination and tradition, particularly within the Reformed (Calvinist), Baptist, Methodist (Wesleyan-Arminian), Moravian, Mennonite, Pentecostal and charismatic churches.

It took root in the colonies of New England, where the Congregational church became an established religion.

"Scripture...sets before us Christ alone as mediator, atoning sacrifice, high priest, and intercessor."—Augsburg Confession Art. XXI.

Priesthood of all believers

Biblical principle in most branches of Christianity which predates and is distinct from the institution of the ministerial priesthood found in some other branches, including the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox.

Biblical principle in most branches of Christianity which predates and is distinct from the institution of the ministerial priesthood found in some other branches, including the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox.

"Scripture...sets before us Christ alone as mediator, atoning sacrifice, high priest, and intercessor."—Augsburg Confession Art. XXI.

This combination of presbyteries and synods was taken over by all Reformed churches, except the Congregationalists, who had no synods.