Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
19th-century engraving of Knox
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
Wishart Preaching against Mariolatry with Knox at his back
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Portrait of Knox from Theodore Beza's Icones
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
John Knox portrait bearing the date 1572
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
Statue of John Knox at the Reformation Wall monument in Geneva
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
The Auditoire de Calvin where Knox preached while in Geneva, 1556–1558
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
The title page of The First Blast from a 1766 edition with modernised spelling
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
Preaching of Knox before the Lords of the Congregation (in the Parish Church of St. Andrew's, 10 June 1559) by David Wilkie
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
Perth's St John's Kirk in modern times
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
Study for John Knox Dispensing the Sacrament at Calder House by David Wilkie. The work was intended as a companion to Wilkie's Preaching of Knox before the Lords of the Congregation above.
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
Stained glass window showing John Knox admonishing Mary, Queen of Scots
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
The High Kirk of Edinburgh, where Knox served as minister from 1560 to 1572. He preached with the help of a reader for the first two years until John Craig was appointed as a colleague, being transferred from Holyroodhouse in 1562; Craig ministered at St Giles' for 9 years.
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Bas-relief of John Knox preaching at St Giles in Edinburgh before the court of Mary Stuart. From left to right: James Stewart (Moray), James Hamilton (Châtellerault), Lord Darnley, Matthew Stewart (Lennox), William Maitland (Lethington), William Kirkcaldy (Grange), James Douglas (Morton), Knox, and George Buchanan. Located on the Reformers' Wall, Geneva.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Statue of Knox in New College, Edinburgh, by John Hutchison
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

1514 – 24 November 1572) was a Scottish minister, Reformed theologian, and writer who was a leader of the country's Reformation.

- John Knox

The most important Reformed theologians include Calvin, Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox.

- Calvinism
Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

7 related topics

Alpha

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).

Presbyterianism

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).
Iona Abbey in Scotland was founded by Saint Columba
John Knox
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.
Celtic cross draped for Easter at a Presbyterian church
Snow-covered Celtic cross in a Presbyterian memorial garden
"Presbyterian Cross", used by the National Cemetery Administration of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs
Presbyterian catechising, 19th century
A Scottish Sacrament, by Henry John Dobson
Cold Spring Presbyterian Church near Cape May, New Jersey, rebuilt 1823
Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago), built 1914
An illegal conventicle, Covenanters in a Glen
Evolution of Presbyterianism in the United States
First Presbyterian Church in Phoenix, Arizona
Westminster Presbyterian Church Los Angeles
Rev Bruin Romkes Comingo, 1st Presbyterian Minister in Canada, St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church (Lunenburg)
Presbyterian Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Christ Presbyterian Church, Akropong, Ghana
Jowai Presbyterian Church, India
Timeline showing the Presbyterian denominations in Australia over the past 100 years, and the movement of congregations from one to another
Kaikorai Presbyterian Church, New Zealand

Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism that traces its origin to the Church of Scotland.

Presbyterianism was especially influenced by the French theologian John Calvin, who is credited with the development of Reformed theology, and the work of John Knox, a Scottish Catholic Priest who studied with Calvin in Geneva.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Reformation

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Martin Luther's 1534 Bible translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Slovakia (Upper Hungary)
Huldrych Zwingli launched the Reformation in Switzerland. Portrait by Hans Asper.
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.
The seal of the Diocese of Turku (Finland) during the 16th and 17th centuries featured the finger of St Henry. The post-Reformation diocese included the relic of a pre-Reformation saint in its seal.
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with Protestant states.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
Contemporary illustration of the auto-da-fé of Valladolid, in which fourteen Protestants were burned at the stake for their faith, on 21 May 1559
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.
A devout Catholic, Mary I of England started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian Churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
Reformation in Moldova
Primož Trubar, a Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Religious fragmentation in Central Europe at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618).
The Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
The Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Treaty of Westphalia allowed Calvinism to be freely exercised, reducing the need for Crypto-Calvinism
Katharina von Bora played a role in shaping social ethics during the Reformation.

During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Anabaptist, Unitarian, etc.).

These missionaries dispersed Calvinism widely, and formed the French Huguenots in Calvin's own lifetime and spread to Scotland under the leadership of John Knox in 1560.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Protestantism

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
A Lutheran depiction of the Last Supper by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1547
Execution of Jan Hus in 1415
Spread of Lollardy in medieval England and medieval Scotland
Wessel Gansfort
Distribution of Protestantism and Catholicism in Central Europe on the eve of the Thirty Years' War (1618)
1839 Methodist camp meeting during the Second Great Awakening in the U.S.
Dissatisfaction with the outcome of a disputation in 1525 prompted Swiss Brethren to part ways with Huldrych Zwingli
Glass window in the town church of Wiesloch (Stadtkirche Wiesloch) with Martin Luther and John Calvin commemorating the 1821 union of Lutheran and Reformed churches in the Grand Duchy of Baden
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
Indonesian Reformed Evangelical Church megachurch
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Hillsong Church Konstanz, Germany, an evangelical charismatic church
Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch Reformed theologian, whose views influenced parts of Protestantism. A small Remonstrant community remains in the Netherlands.
Karl Barth, often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century
Columbia University, established by the Church of England
Enlightenment philosopher John Locke argued for individual conscience, free from state control
St. Peter's Church (1612), the oldest surviving Protestant church in the "New World" (the Americas and certain Atlantic Ocean islands), the first of nine Parish churches established in Bermuda by the Church of England. Bermuda also has the oldest Presbyterian church outside the British Isles, the Church of Scotland's Christ Church (1719).
James Springer White and his wife, Ellen G. White founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
An Adventist pastor baptizes a young man in Mozambique.
Loma Linda University Seventh-day Adventist Church in Loma Linda, California, United States.
Dirk Willems saves his pursuer. This act of mercy led to his recapture, after which he was burned at the stake.
An Amish family in a horse-drawn square buggy.
Alexanderwohl Mennonite Church in rural Goessel, Kansas, United States.
Thomas Cranmer, one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity.
The various editions of the Book of Common Prayer contain the words of structured services of worship in the Anglican Church.
British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey, a royal peculiar under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch.
Roger Williams was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers.
The First Baptist Church in America. Baptists are roughly one-third of U.S. Protestants.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/appendix-b-classification-of-protestant-denominations/|title=Appendix B: Classification of Protestant Denominations|date=12 May 2015}}</ref>
John Calvin's theological thought influenced a variety of Congregational, Continental Reformed, United, Presbyterian, and other Reformed churches.
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891.
A Congregational church in Cheshire, Connecticut, United States.
Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Luther composed hymns still used today, including "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"
Moses and Elijah direct the sinner looking for salvation to the cross in this painting illustrating Luther's Theology of the Cross (as opposed to a Theology of Glory).
John Wesley, the primary founder of the Methodism.
A United Methodist elder celebrating the Eucharist.
Methodist Central Hall in Westminster, London.
Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit.
Contemporary Christian worship in Rock Harbor Church, Costa Mesa, United States.
A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany.
George Fox was an English dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
Friedensthal Moravian Church Christiansted, St Croix, USVI founded in 1755.
A night shelter of The Salvation Army in Geneva, Switzerland.
William Wilberforce, a British evangelical abolitionist.
Billy Graham, a prominent evangelical revivalist, preaching in Duisburg, Germany in 1954.
Worship service at Église Nouvelle vie, an evangelical Pentecostal church in Longueuil, Canada.
An Evangelical Protestant church in Hämeenlinna, Finland.
Philipp Jakob Spener, German pioneer and founder of Pietism.
Pietism has been a strong cultural influence in Scandinavia.
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866.
John Cotton, who sparked the Antinomian Controversy with his free grace theology.
Pilgrim Fathers landing at Plymouth Rock in 1620.
Built in 1681, the Old Ship Church in Hingham, Massachusetts is the oldest church in America in continuous ecclesiastical use.<ref>{{Cite news|last = Butterfield|first = Fox|title = The Perfect New England Town|url = https://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/14/travel/the-perfect-new-england-village.html?sec=&spon=|newspaper = The New York Times|date = 14 May 1989|access-date = 30 May 2010}}</ref>
Luther Monument in Worms, which features some of the Reformation's crucial figures.
The International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Adoration of the Trinity  by Albrecht Dürer.
The Crucifixion of Christ by Lucas Cranach the Elder.
The Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Younger.
A Huguenot, on St. Bartholomew's Day, Refusing to Shield Himself from Danger by Wearing the Roman Catholic Badge by John Everett Millais.
The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669 by Rembrandt.
The Church at Auvers, 1890. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. By Vincent van Gogh.
Protestant majority countries in 2010.
Countries by percentage of Protestants.

Calvinist churches spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by Protestant Reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and John Knox.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.

Eucharist

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.
A Kremikovtsi Monastery fresco (15th century) depicting the Last Supper celebrated by Jesus and his disciples. The early Christians too would have celebrated this meal to commemorate Jesus' death and subsequent resurrection.
Eucharistic window (1898–1900) by Józef Mehoffer
Christ with the Eucharist, Vicente Juan Masip, 16th century.
Early Christian painting of an Agape feast.
At a Solemn Tridentine Mass, the Host is displayed to the people before Communion.
Eucharistic celebration at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima.
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates a Mass.
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The serving of elements individually, to be taken in unison, is common among Baptists.
Table set for the Eucharist in an ELCA service
Many Presbyterian churches historically used communion tokens to provide entrance to the Lord's Supper.
A United Methodist minister consecrating the elements
Communion elements: matzo is sometimes used for bread, emphasising the "re-creation" of the Last Supper.
In the Western Catholic Church, the administration of the Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion.
Worshippers kneel and bow in the street during the Eucharist Procession, London, England.
The Eucharist displayed in a monstrance, flanked by candles
Illuminated title of "The Holy Communion" from the 1845 illustrated Book of Common Prayer.

Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

Many, on the other hand, follow John Knox in celebration of the Lord's supper on a quarterly basis, to give proper time for reflection and inward consideration of one's own state and sin.

John Calvin

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
William Farel was the reformer who persuaded Calvin to stay in Geneva. 16th-century painting. In the Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral, the main church in Geneva.
Idelette and Calvin had no children survive infancy.
Sixteenth-century portrait of John Calvin by an unknown artist. From the collection of the Bibliothèque de Genève (Library of Geneva)
Michael Servetus exchanged many letters with Calvin until he was denounced by Calvin and executed.
John Calvin at 53 years old in an engraving by René Boyvin
The Collège Calvin is now a college preparatory school for the Swiss Maturité.
Traditional grave of Calvin in the Cimetière de Plainpalais in Geneva; the exact location of his grave is unknown.
Title page from the final edition of Calvin's magnum opus, Institutio Christiane Religionis, which summarises his theology.
Joachim Westphal disagreed with Calvin's theology on the eucharist.
Calvin wrote many letters to religious and political leaders throughout Europe, including this one sent to Edward VI of England.
Portrait of Calvin by Titian
The last moments of Calvin (Barcelona: Montaner y Simón, 1880–1883)
John Calvin memorial medal by László Szlávics, Jr., 2008

He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, including its doctrines of predestination and of God's absolute sovereignty in the salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation.

Under the city's protection, they were able to form their own reformed church under John Knox and William Whittingham and eventually carried Calvin's ideas on doctrine and polity back to England and Scotland.

The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.

Presbyterian polity

Method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.

Method of church governance ("ecclesiastical polity") typified by the rule of assemblies of presbyters, or elders.

The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.
Presbytery flags of the Presbyterian Church of Vanuatu
Huguenot Cross

This theory of governance developed in Geneva under John Calvin and was introduced to Scotland by John Knox after his period of exile in Geneva.

It is strongly associated with French, Dutch, Swiss and Scottish Reformation movements, and the Reformed and Presbyterian churches.

Motto: ""
"Yet it was not consumed"

Church of Scotland

National church in Scotland.

National church in Scotland.

Motto: ""
"Yet it was not consumed"
Iona Abbey in Scotland was founded by Saint Columba.
John Knox, who in 1559 returned from ministering in Geneva to lead the Reformation in Scotland.
Timeline of the evolution of the churches of Scotland from the Reformation
Older rectangular logo of the Church of Scotland.
Stained glass showing the burning bush and the motto "nec tamen consumebatur", St. Mungo's Cathedral, Glasgow.
Flag of the Church of Scotland
Arms of the Moderator of the General Assembly
The Burning Bush emblem of the Church of Scotland, above the entrance to the Church Offices in Edinburgh
Church of Scotland Offices, George Street, Edinburgh 2013

The Church of Scotland's identity was principally shaped by John Knox, in the Reformation of 1560, when it split from the Catholic Church and established itself as a church in the reformed tradition.

The church is Calvinist Presbyterian, having no head of faith or leadership group and believing that God invited the church's adherents to worship Jesus.