Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
Martin Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
Title page of the Swedish Gustav Vasa Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
A Hundskirche replica
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
The University of Jena around 1600. Jena was the center of Gnesio-Lutheran activity during the controversies leading up to the Formula of Concord and afterwards was a center of Lutheran Orthodoxy.
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
Danish Queen Sophie Magdalene expressed her Pietist sentiment in 1737 by founding a Lutheran convent.
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
A nineteenth-century Haugean conventicle
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
The Olbers, one of the ships that carried Old Lutherans to the Western Hemisphere
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
Representing the continuation of the Finnish Awakening to the present, youth are confirmed at the site of Paavo Ruotsalainen's homestead.
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
Luther's translation of the Bible, from 1534
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
Moses and Elijah point the sinner looking for God's salvation to the cross to find it (Theology of the Cross).
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
Law and Grace, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. The left side shows humans' condemnation under God's law, while the right side presents God's grace in Christ.
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
Title page from the 1580 Dresden Book of Concord
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Lutherans believe that whoever has faith in Jesus alone will receive salvation from the grace of God and will enter eternity in heaven instead of eternity in hell after death or at the second coming of Jesus.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Lutherans believe in the Trinity.
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
A.C. Article IX: Of Confession
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Lutherans practice infant baptism.
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
Luther communing John the Steadfast
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
A.C. Article 18: Of Free Will
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866
"Even though I am a sinner and deserving of death and hell, this shall nonetheless be my consolation and my victory that my Lord Jesus lives and has risen so that He, in the end, might rescue me from sin, death, and hell."—Luther
Luther composed hymns and hymn tunes, including "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God").
Divine Service at the St. Nicholas church in Luckau, Germany
Ukrainian Lutheran Church of the Cross of the Lord in Kremenets, which uses the Byzantine Rite
Christ Lutheran Church, Narsapur in India
Resurrection Lutheran School is a parochial school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) in Rochester, Minnesota. The WELS school system is the fourth largest private school system in the United States.
Georg Calixtus taught at the University of Helmstedt during the Syncretistic controversy.
Stormtroopers holding German Christian propaganda during the church council elections on 23 July 1933 at St. Mary's Church, Berlin. After that, internal struggles, controversies, reorganization, and splits struck the German Evangelical Church.
LCMS pastor wearing a chasuble during communion
Confirmation in Lunder Church, Ringerike, Norway, 2012. The Church of Norway is a member of the Porvoo Communion, which means that these confirmands would be readily transferred into any Anglican church should they ever emigrate.
Læstadian lay preacher from Finnmark, Norway, 1898
Hallowed be Thy Name by Lucas Cranach the Elder illustrates a Lutheran pastor preaching Christ crucified. During the Reformation and afterwards, many churches did not have pews, so people would stand or sit on the floor. The elderly might be given a chair or stool.
Nathan Söderblom is ordained as archbishop of the Church of Sweden, 1914. Although the Swedish Lutherans boast of an unbroken line of ordinations going back prior to the Reformation, the bishops of Rome do not recognize such ordinations as valid.
Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in St. Petersburg
Schwäbisch Hall Church Order, 1543
The Pennsylvania Ministerium published this 1803 hymnal.
Lighthouse Lutheran Church, an LCMC congregation in Freedom, Pennsylvania
A church of the Batak Protestant Church in Balige, Indonesia, a merged denomination that includes a Lutheran element
View of the altar and the pulpit in the Church of the Ascension in Jerusalem
Faith Lutheran School in Hong Kong
The coat of arms of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
Countries with a member of the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference as of 2013

Calvinists differ from Lutherans (another major branch of the Reformation) on the spiritual real presence of Christ in the Lord's Supper, theories of worship, the purpose and meaning of baptism, and the use of God's law for believers, among other points.

- Calvinism

Unlike Calvinism, Lutheranism retains many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Western Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, though Eastern Lutheranism uses the Byzantine Rite.

- Lutheranism
Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism

26 related topics

Alpha

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Protestantism

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
A Lutheran depiction of the Last Supper by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1547
Execution of Jan Hus in 1415
Spread of Lollardy in medieval England and medieval Scotland
Wessel Gansfort
Distribution of Protestantism and Catholicism in Central Europe on the eve of the Thirty Years' War (1618)
1839 Methodist camp meeting during the Second Great Awakening in the U.S.
Dissatisfaction with the outcome of a disputation in 1525 prompted Swiss Brethren to part ways with Huldrych Zwingli
Glass window in the town church of Wiesloch (Stadtkirche Wiesloch) with Martin Luther and John Calvin commemorating the 1821 union of Lutheran and Reformed churches in the Grand Duchy of Baden
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
Indonesian Reformed Evangelical Church megachurch
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Hillsong Church Konstanz, Germany, an evangelical charismatic church
Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch Reformed theologian, whose views influenced parts of Protestantism. A small Remonstrant community remains in the Netherlands.
Karl Barth, often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century
Columbia University, established by the Church of England
Enlightenment philosopher John Locke argued for individual conscience, free from state control
St. Peter's Church (1612), the oldest surviving Protestant church in the "New World" (the Americas and certain Atlantic Ocean islands), the first of nine Parish churches established in Bermuda by the Church of England. Bermuda also has the oldest Presbyterian church outside the British Isles, the Church of Scotland's Christ Church (1719).
James Springer White and his wife, Ellen G. White founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
An Adventist pastor baptizes a young man in Mozambique.
Loma Linda University Seventh-day Adventist Church in Loma Linda, California, United States.
Dirk Willems saves his pursuer. This act of mercy led to his recapture, after which he was burned at the stake.
An Amish family in a horse-drawn square buggy.
Alexanderwohl Mennonite Church in rural Goessel, Kansas, United States.
Thomas Cranmer, one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity.
The various editions of the Book of Common Prayer contain the words of structured services of worship in the Anglican Church.
British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey, a royal peculiar under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch.
Roger Williams was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers.
The First Baptist Church in America. Baptists are roughly one-third of U.S. Protestants.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/appendix-b-classification-of-protestant-denominations/|title=Appendix B: Classification of Protestant Denominations|date=12 May 2015}}</ref>
John Calvin's theological thought influenced a variety of Congregational, Continental Reformed, United, Presbyterian, and other Reformed churches.
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891.
A Congregational church in Cheshire, Connecticut, United States.
Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Luther composed hymns still used today, including "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"
Moses and Elijah direct the sinner looking for salvation to the cross in this painting illustrating Luther's Theology of the Cross (as opposed to a Theology of Glory).
John Wesley, the primary founder of the Methodism.
A United Methodist elder celebrating the Eucharist.
Methodist Central Hall in Westminster, London.
Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit.
Contemporary Christian worship in Rock Harbor Church, Costa Mesa, United States.
A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany.
George Fox was an English dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
Friedensthal Moravian Church Christiansted, St Croix, USVI founded in 1755.
A night shelter of The Salvation Army in Geneva, Switzerland.
William Wilberforce, a British evangelical abolitionist.
Billy Graham, a prominent evangelical revivalist, preaching in Duisburg, Germany in 1954.
Worship service at Église Nouvelle vie, an evangelical Pentecostal church in Longueuil, Canada.
An Evangelical Protestant church in Hämeenlinna, Finland.
Philipp Jakob Spener, German pioneer and founder of Pietism.
Pietism has been a strong cultural influence in Scandinavia.
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866.
John Cotton, who sparked the Antinomian Controversy with his free grace theology.
Pilgrim Fathers landing at Plymouth Rock in 1620.
Built in 1681, the Old Ship Church in Hingham, Massachusetts is the oldest church in America in continuous ecclesiastical use.<ref>{{Cite news|last = Butterfield|first = Fox|title = The Perfect New England Town|url = https://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/14/travel/the-perfect-new-england-village.html?sec=&spon=|newspaper = The New York Times|date = 14 May 1989|access-date = 30 May 2010}}</ref>
Luther Monument in Worms, which features some of the Reformation's crucial figures.
The International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Adoration of the Trinity  by Albrecht Dürer.
The Crucifixion of Christ by Lucas Cranach the Elder.
The Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Younger.
A Huguenot, on St. Bartholomew's Day, Refusing to Shield Himself from Danger by Wearing the Roman Catholic Badge by John Everett Millais.
The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669 by Rembrandt.
The Church at Auvers, 1890. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. By Vincent van Gogh.
Protestant majority countries in 2010.
Countries by percentage of Protestants.

In the 16th century, Lutheranism spread from Germany into Denmark, Norway, Sweden, Finland, Latvia, Estonia, and Iceland.

Calvinist churches spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by Protestant Reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and John Knox.

John Calvin

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
William Farel was the reformer who persuaded Calvin to stay in Geneva. 16th-century painting. In the Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral, the main church in Geneva.
Idelette and Calvin had no children survive infancy.
Sixteenth-century portrait of John Calvin by an unknown artist. From the collection of the Bibliothèque de Genève (Library of Geneva)
Michael Servetus exchanged many letters with Calvin until he was denounced by Calvin and executed.
John Calvin at 53 years old in an engraving by René Boyvin
The Collège Calvin is now a college preparatory school for the Swiss Maturité.
Traditional grave of Calvin in the Cimetière de Plainpalais in Geneva; the exact location of his grave is unknown.
Title page from the final edition of Calvin's magnum opus, Institutio Christiane Religionis, which summarises his theology.
Joachim Westphal disagreed with Calvin's theology on the eucharist.
Calvin wrote many letters to religious and political leaders throughout Europe, including this one sent to Edward VI of England.
Portrait of Calvin by Titian
The last moments of Calvin (Barcelona: Montaner y Simón, 1880–1883)
John Calvin memorial medal by László Szlávics, Jr., 2008

He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, including its doctrines of predestination and of God's absolute sovereignty in the salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation.

Calvin actively participated in the polemics that were exchanged between the Lutheran and Reformed branches of the Reformation movement.

Martin Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder

Martin Luther

German priest, theologian, author and hymnwriter.

German priest, theologian, author and hymnwriter.

Martin Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Portraits of Hans and Margarethe Luther by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1527
Former monks' dormitory, St Augustine's Monastery, Erfurt
Luther as a friar, with tonsure
Luther's accommodation in Wittenberg
A posthumous portrait of Luther as an Augustinian friar
Luther's theses are engraved into the door of All Saints' Church, Wittenberg. The Latin inscription above informs the reader that the original door was destroyed by a fire, and that in 1857, King Frederick William IV of Prussia ordered a replacement be made.
The Catholic sale of indulgences shown in A Question to a Mintmaker, woodcut by Jörg Breu the Elder of Augsburg, c. 1530
Luther at Erfurt, which depicts Martin Luther discovering the doctrine of sola fide (by faith alone). Painting by Joseph Noel Paton, 1861.
Pope Leo X's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther, 1521, commonly known as Exsurge Domine
The meeting of Martin Luther (right) and Cardinal Cajetan (left, holding the book)
Luther Before the Diet of Worms by Anton von Werner (1843–1915)
Luther Monument in Worms. His statue is surrounded by the figures of his lay protectors and earlier Church reformers including John Wycliffe, Jan Hus and Girolamo Savonarola.
Wartburg Castle, Eisenach
The Wartburg room where Luther translated the New Testament into German. An original first edition is kept in the case on the desk.
Luther disguised as "Junker Jörg", 1521
Lutherhaus, Luther's residence in Wittenberg
The Twelve Articles, 1525
Katharina von Bora, Luther's wife, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1526
Martin Luther at his desk with family portraits (17th century)
Church orders, Mecklenburg 1650
Lutheran church liturgy and sacraments
A stained glass portrayal of Luther
Luther's 1534 Bible
An early printing of Luther's hymn "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott"
Luther on the left with Lazarus being raised by Jesus from the dead, painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1558
Statue of Martin Luther outside St. Mary's Church, Berlin
The battle between the Turks and the Christians, in the 16th century
Pulpit of St. Andreas Church, Eisleben, where Agricola and Luther preached
The original title page of On the Jews and Their Lies, written by Martin Luther in 1543
Luther on his deathbed, painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Martin Luther's grave, Schlosskirche, Wittenberg
Worldwide Protestantism in 2010
Luther Monument in Eisenach, Germany
Martin Luther College in New Ulm, Minnesota, United States
Various books of the Weimar Edition of Luther's works
Martin Luther's Death House, considered the site of Luther's death since 1726. However the building where Luther actually died (at Markt 56, now the site of Hotel Graf von Mansfeld) was torn down in 1570.<ref>Dorfpredigten: Biblische Einsichten aus Deutschlands 'wildem Süden'. Ausgewählte Predigten aus den Jahren 1998 bis 2007 Teil II 2002–2007 by Thomas O.H. Kaiser, p. 354</ref>
Casts of Luther's face and hands at his death, in the Market Church in Halle<ref>Martin Luther's Death Mask on View at Museum in Halle, Germany artdaily.com</ref>
Schlosskirche in Wittenberg, where Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses, is also his gravesite.
Luther's tombstone beneath the pulpit in the Castle Church in Wittenberg
Close-up of the grave with inscription in Latin
Luther with a swan (painting in the church at Strümpfelbach im Remstal, Weinstadt, Germany, by J. A. List)
Swan weather vane, Round Lutheran Church, Amsterdam
Altar in St Martin's Church, Halberstadt, Germany. Luther and the swan are toward the top on the right.
Coin commemorating Luther (engraving by Georg Wilhelm Göbel, Saxony, 1706)

A former Augustinian friar, he is best known among Christians as the seminal figure in the Protestant Reformation and as the namesake of Lutheranism.

Luther is honored in various ways by Christian traditions coming out directly from the Protestant Reformation, i.e. Lutheranism, the Reformed tradition, and Anglicanism.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Reformation

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Martin Luther's 1534 Bible translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Slovakia (Upper Hungary)
Huldrych Zwingli launched the Reformation in Switzerland. Portrait by Hans Asper.
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.
The seal of the Diocese of Turku (Finland) during the 16th and 17th centuries featured the finger of St Henry. The post-Reformation diocese included the relic of a pre-Reformation saint in its seal.
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with Protestant states.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
Contemporary illustration of the auto-da-fé of Valladolid, in which fourteen Protestants were burned at the stake for their faith, on 21 May 1559
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.
A devout Catholic, Mary I of England started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian Churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
Reformation in Moldova
Primož Trubar, a Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Religious fragmentation in Central Europe at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618).
The Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
The Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Treaty of Westphalia allowed Calvinism to be freely exercised, reducing the need for Crypto-Calvinism
Katharina von Bora played a role in shaping social ethics during the Reformation.

Key events of the period include: Diet of Worms (1521), formation of the Lutheran Duchy of Prussia (1525), English Reformation (1529 onwards), the Council of Trent (1545–63), the Peace of Augsburg (1555), the excommunication of Elizabeth I (1570), Edict of Nantes (1598) and Peace of Westphalia (1648).

During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Anabaptist, Unitarian, etc.).

Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1543

Philip Melanchthon

Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1543
Melanchthon and Luther with Christ crucified in the middle
Loci Communes, 1521 edition
Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1530–1535
Portrait of Philip Melanchthon, 1537, by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Melanchton's house in Wittenberg
Melanchthon with Luther behind, by Johann Gottfried Schadow, Melanchthon House Museum, Wittenberg
The room in which Melanchthon died, Melanchthon's house. Wittenberg
Portrait of Philip Melanchthon by Lucas Cranach the Younger, c. 1562
The Melanchthon window attributed to the Quaker City Stained Glass Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina
Detail from Unterricht der Visitatorn, an die Pfarherrn in Hertzog Heinrichs zu Sachsen Fürstenthum, Gleicher form der Visitation im Kurfürstenthum gestellet, woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Younger, Wittenberg, 1539
Crest of Philip Melanchthon, featuring the bronze serpent of Moses
Anonymous Netherlands, Portrait of Melanchthon, early 18th century, engraving and etching
Melanchthon's room in Wittenberg
Head of Melanchton statue at Lessing-Gymnasium (Frankfurt), whose founder had been influenced by personal contacts with Melanchton
Engraving of Melanchthon in 1526 by Albrecht Dürer captioned, "Dürer was able to draw the living Philip's face, but the learned hand could not paint his spirit" (translated from Latin)

Philip Melanchthon (born Philipp Schwartzerdt; 16 February 1497 – 19 April 1560) was a German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

The renewal of this dispute was due to the victory in the Reformed Church of the Calvinistic doctrine and its influence upon Germany.

Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples taught the doctrine of justification by faith alone before Martin Luther

Sola fide

Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples taught the doctrine of justification by faith alone before Martin Luther
Jovinian has been argued to have taught similar views of justification as the Protestant reformers.
It is often argued that Clement of Rome is a witness to the doctrine of faith alone. However there is much controversy about his views
1861 painting of Luther discovering the Sola fide doctrine at Erfurt

Justificatio sola fide (or simply sola fide), meaning justification by faith alone, is a Christian theological doctrine commonly held to distinguish the Lutheran and Reformed traditions of Protestantism, among others, from the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox and Assyrian churches.

This painting depicts baptism by affusion. The artist may have chosen an archaic form for this depiction of baptism by St. Peter.

Baptism

Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

Christian sacrament of admission and adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity.

This painting depicts baptism by affusion. The artist may have chosen an archaic form for this depiction of baptism by St. Peter.
Catacombs of San Callisto: baptism in a 3rd-century painting
Al-Maghtas ruins on the Jordanian side of the Jordan River are the location for the Baptism of Jesus and the ministry of John the Baptist.
Excavated mikveh in Qumran, Israel
Christening photograph in Orthodox Church. The moment of Catechism.
Baptism by submersion in the Eastern Orthodox Church (Sophia Cathedral, 2005)
Men lined up to be baptized by immersion in the River Jordan
Baptism of a child by affusion
Fresco of a baptism from the Catacombs of Marcellinus and Peter.
Long laced gown worn at a typical Lutheran baptism in Sweden in 1948
Baptism of Augustine of Hippo as represented in a sculptural group in Troyes cathedral (1549)
The baptistry at St. Raphael's Cathedral, Dubuque, Iowa. This particular font was expanded in 2005 to include a small pool to provide for immersion baptism of adults. Eight-sided font architectures are common symbology of the day of Christ's Resurrection: the "Eighth Day".
Baptism Jar, used in Portuguese Ceylon.
Russian Orthodox priest greeting an infant and its godparents on the steps of the church at the beginning of the Sacred Mystery of Baptism.
A river baptism in North Carolina at the turn of the 20th century. Full-immersion (submersion) baptism continues to be a common practice in many African-American Christian congregations today.
Engraving from William G. Brownlow's book The Great Iron Wheel Examined, showing a Baptist minister changing clothes in front of horrified women after administering a baptism by immersion.
A baptistry in a Methodist church
Syro-Malabar Major Archbishop crowning a baby after baptism
An Orthodox baptism
A Mormon baptism, circa the 1850s
Christening of USS Dewey (DDG-105)
Mandaeans undergoing baptism (masbuta) in the Karun River, Ahvaz, Iran
Baptism of a Yazidi child in Lalish

In certain Christian denominations, such as the Lutheran Churches, baptism is the door to church membership, with candidates taking baptismal vows.

Reformed and Methodist Protestants maintain a link between baptism and regeneration, but insist that it is not automatic or mechanical, and that regeneration may occur at a different time than baptism.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.

Eucharist

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.
A Kremikovtsi Monastery fresco (15th century) depicting the Last Supper celebrated by Jesus and his disciples. The early Christians too would have celebrated this meal to commemorate Jesus' death and subsequent resurrection.
Eucharistic window (1898–1900) by Józef Mehoffer
Christ with the Eucharist, Vicente Juan Masip, 16th century.
Early Christian painting of an Agape feast.
At a Solemn Tridentine Mass, the Host is displayed to the people before Communion.
Eucharistic celebration at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima.
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates a Mass.
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The serving of elements individually, to be taken in unison, is common among Baptists.
Table set for the Eucharist in an ELCA service
Many Presbyterian churches historically used communion tokens to provide entrance to the Lord's Supper.
A United Methodist minister consecrating the elements
Communion elements: matzo is sometimes used for bread, emphasising the "re-creation" of the Last Supper.
In the Western Catholic Church, the administration of the Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion.
Worshippers kneel and bow in the street during the Eucharist Procession, London, England.
The Eucharist displayed in a monstrance, flanked by candles
Illuminated title of "The Holy Communion" from the 1845 illustrated Book of Common Prayer.

Lutherans believe the true body and blood of Christ are really present "in, with, and under" the forms of the bread and wine (sacramental union).

Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.

Ecumenism symbol from a plaque in St. Anne's Church, Augsburg, Germany. It shows Christianity as a boat at sea with the cross serving as the mast.

Ecumenism

Concept and principle that Christians who belong to different Christian denominations should work together to develop closer relationships among their churches and promote Christian unity.

Concept and principle that Christians who belong to different Christian denominations should work together to develop closer relationships among their churches and promote Christian unity.

Ecumenism symbol from a plaque in St. Anne's Church, Augsburg, Germany. It shows Christianity as a boat at sea with the cross serving as the mast.
Te Deum Ecuménico 2009 in the Santiago Metropolitan Cathedral, Chile. An ecumenical gathering of clergy from different denominations.
The consecration of Reginald Heber Weller as an Anglican bishop at the Cathedral of St. Paul the Apostle in the Protestant Episcopal Diocese of Fond du Lac, with the Rt. Rev. Anthony Kozlowski of the Polish National Catholic Church and the Patriarch Tikhon of Moscow (along with his chaplains John Kochurov, and Fr. Sebastian Dabovich) of the Russian Orthodox Church present
Bishop John M. Quinn of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Winona and Bishop Steven Delzer of Evangelical Lutheran Southeastern Minnesota Synod leading a Reformation Day service in 2017
Ecumenical worship service at the monastery of Taizé.
The Christian flag

Protestantism, for example, includes such diverse groups as Adventists, Anabaptists, Baptists, Congregationalists, Evangelicals, Hussites, Irvingians, Lutherans, Messianic Jews, Methodists (inclusive of the Holiness movement), Moravians, Pentecostals, Presbyterians, Reformed, and Waldensians.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904

Evangelicalism

Worldwide interdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "born again", in which an individual experiences personal conversion, the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity , and in spreading the Christian message.

Worldwide interdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "born again", in which an individual experiences personal conversion, the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity , and in spreading the Christian message.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904
Baptistery in the Pentecostal church (Pingstförsamlingen) of Västerås, in Sweden, 2018
A worship service at Hillsong Church UK, London
Hong Kong Baptist Theological Seminary, in Hong Kong, 2008
Worship service at Christ's Commission Fellowship Pasig affiliated to the Christ's Commission Fellowship in 2014, in Pasig, Philippines
Chümoukedima Ao Baptist Church building in Chümoukedima, Nagaland, affiliated with the Nagaland Baptist Church Council (India).
College of Nursing, Central Philippine University in Iloilo City, affiliated with the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches, 2018
Wedding ceremony at First Baptist Church of Rivas, Baptist Convention of Nicaragua, 2011
Ark Encounter in Williamstown, Kentucky, United States
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention, in São José dos Campos, Brazil, 2017
Together for the Gospel, an evangelical pastors' conference held biennially. A panel discussion with (from left to right) Albert Mohler, Ligon Duncan, C. J. Mahaney, and Mark Dever.
The Prayer Book of 1662 included the Thirty-Nine Articles emphasized by evangelical Anglicans.
Jonathan Edwards' account of the revival in Northampton was published in 1737 as A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton
When forbidden from preaching from the pulpits of parish churches, John Wesley began open-air preaching.
William Wilberforce was a politician, philanthropist and an evangelical Anglican, who led the British movement to abolish the slave trade.
The evangelical revivalist Billy Graham in Duisburg, Germany, 1954
Worship service in a Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in Russia
Worship at El Lugar de Su Presencia, affiliated with Hillsong Family, in Bogotá, in Colombia, 2019
Temple of Solomon replica built by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in São Paulo
American pastor Johannes Maas preaching in Andhra Pradesh, India in 1974. Spreading the revival is an essential part of work done by evangelical missionaries.
Evangelical Free Church at Kirkkokatu street in Vanhatulli neighbourhood in Oulu, Finland
TheCall rally in 2008, Washington, D.C. United States Capitol in the background.
Socially conservative evangelical Protestantism plays a major role in the Bible Belt, an area covering almost all of the Southern United States. Evangelicals form a majority in the region.
Emergency food distribution in a disaster area in Indonesia by World Vision International, in 2009.

As a trans-denominational coalition, evangelicals can be found in nearly every Protestant denomination and tradition, particularly within the Reformed (Calvinist), Baptist, Methodist (Wesleyan-Arminian), Moravian, Mennonite, Pentecostal and charismatic churches.

Some Anabaptist denominations (such as the Brethren Church) are evangelical, and some Lutherans self-identify as evangelicals.