Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
Portrait by an unknown artist, German School
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
Map showing the two partitions that made up Saxony in green and pink. Saxony had long been divided into two principalities, one of which, with its capital at Wittenberg, was an electorate. Charles V transferred the electorate and much of its territory to Albertine Saxony in 1547 after the defeat of the Schmalkaldic League and John Frederick I, Elector of Saxony. Hesse was to the west of Saxony. Important cities that Bucer visited are shown in red.
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Franz von Sickingen was the protector and defender of Martin Bucer during his early years.
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
Matthew Zell was the first major reformer in Strasbourg and supported Bucer on his arrival in the city.
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
Bucer tried to mediate between Martin Luther (left) and Huldrych Zwingli (right) on doctrinal matters.
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
The Church of the Penitent Magdalens' steeple behind timber-framed houses extant since the time of Martin Bucer
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
Philipp Melanchthon worked closely with Bucer on many theological documents to advance the reformed cause.
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
Charles V attempted to win back Protestant princes through a series of colloquies and imperial diets. When reconciliation failed, he sought to suppress Protestant resistance in the Schmalkaldic War.
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
Thomas Cranmer gave Martin Bucer refuge in England, where he lived his final years.
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
.
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

Martin Bucer (early German: Martin Butzer; 11 November 1491 – 28 February 1551) was a German Protestant reformer based in Strasbourg who influenced Lutheran, Calvinist, and Anglican doctrines and practices.

- Martin Bucer

The most important Reformed theologians include Calvin, Zwingli, Martin Bucer, William Farel, Heinrich Bullinger, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Theodore Beza, and John Knox.

- Calvinism
Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

13 related topics

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Huldrych Zwingli as depicted by Hans Asper in an oil portrait from 1531 (Kunstmuseum Winterthur)

Huldrych Zwingli

Leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system.

Leader of the Reformation in Switzerland, born during a time of emerging Swiss patriotism and increasing criticism of the Swiss mercenary system.

Huldrych Zwingli as depicted by Hans Asper in an oil portrait from 1531 (Kunstmuseum Winterthur)
Map of the Swiss Confederation in 1515
House where Zwingli was born in Wildhaus in what is now the Canton of St. Gallen
The Grossmünster in the centre of the medieval town of Zürich (Murerplan, 1576)
Relief of Zwingli preaching at the pulpit, Otto Münch, 1935
Above the entrance to the Grossmünster doors is inscribed Matthew 11:28, "Come to me, all who labor and are heavy laden, and I will give you rest."
Statue of Zwingli in front of the Wasserkirche church in Zürich
1549 painting by Hans Asper
Coloured woodcut of the Marburg Colloquy, anonymous, 1557
The Battle of Kappel, 11 October 1531, from Chronik by Johannes Stumpf, 1548
"The murder of Zwingli", by Karl Jauslin (1842–1904).
A rendition of Huldrych Zwingli from the 1906 edition of the Meyers Konversations-Lexikon
Painting of Zwingli by Hans Asper

His legacy lives on in the confessions, liturgy, and church orders of the Reformed churches of today.

Four hundred and fifty persons participated, including pastors from Bern and other cantons as well as theologians from outside the Confederation such as Martin Bucer and Wolfgang Capito from Strasbourg, Ambrosius Blarer from Constance, and Andreas Althamer from Nuremberg.

John Calvin

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
William Farel was the reformer who persuaded Calvin to stay in Geneva. 16th-century painting. In the Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral, the main church in Geneva.
Idelette and Calvin had no children survive infancy.
Sixteenth-century portrait of John Calvin by an unknown artist. From the collection of the Bibliothèque de Genève (Library of Geneva)
Michael Servetus exchanged many letters with Calvin until he was denounced by Calvin and executed.
John Calvin at 53 years old in an engraving by René Boyvin
The Collège Calvin is now a college preparatory school for the Swiss Maturité.
Traditional grave of Calvin in the Cimetière de Plainpalais in Geneva; the exact location of his grave is unknown.
Title page from the final edition of Calvin's magnum opus, Institutio Christiane Religionis, which summarises his theology.
Joachim Westphal disagreed with Calvin's theology on the eucharist.
Calvin wrote many letters to religious and political leaders throughout Europe, including this one sent to Edward VI of England.
Portrait of Calvin by Titian
The last moments of Calvin (Barcelona: Montaner y Simón, 1880–1883)
John Calvin memorial medal by László Szlávics, Jr., 2008

He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, including its doctrines of predestination and of God's absolute sovereignty in the salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation.

At the invitation of Martin Bucer, Calvin proceeded to Strasbourg, where he became the minister of a church of French refugees.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Reformation

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Martin Luther's 1534 Bible translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Slovakia (Upper Hungary)
Huldrych Zwingli launched the Reformation in Switzerland. Portrait by Hans Asper.
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.
The seal of the Diocese of Turku (Finland) during the 16th and 17th centuries featured the finger of St Henry. The post-Reformation diocese included the relic of a pre-Reformation saint in its seal.
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with Protestant states.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
Contemporary illustration of the auto-da-fé of Valladolid, in which fourteen Protestants were burned at the stake for their faith, on 21 May 1559
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.
A devout Catholic, Mary I of England started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian Churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
Reformation in Moldova
Primož Trubar, a Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Religious fragmentation in Central Europe at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618).
The Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
The Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Treaty of Westphalia allowed Calvinism to be freely exercised, reducing the need for Crypto-Calvinism
Katharina von Bora played a role in shaping social ethics during the Reformation.

During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Anabaptist, Unitarian, etc.).

Different reformers arose more or less independently of Luther in 1518 (for example Andreas Karlstadt, Philip Melanchthon, Erhard Schnepf, Johannes Brenz and Martin Bucer) and in 1519 (for example Huldrych Zwingli, Nikolaus von Amsdorf, Ulrich von Hutten), and so on.

Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1543

Philip Melanchthon

German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

German Lutheran reformer, collaborator with Martin Luther, the first systematic theologian of the Protestant Reformation, intellectual leader of the Lutheran Reformation, and an influential designer of educational systems.

Portrait by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1543
Melanchthon and Luther with Christ crucified in the middle
Loci Communes, 1521 edition
Portrait by Hans Holbein the Younger, c. 1530–1535
Portrait of Philip Melanchthon, 1537, by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Melanchton's house in Wittenberg
Melanchthon with Luther behind, by Johann Gottfried Schadow, Melanchthon House Museum, Wittenberg
The room in which Melanchthon died, Melanchthon's house. Wittenberg
Portrait of Philip Melanchthon by Lucas Cranach the Younger, c. 1562
The Melanchthon window attributed to the Quaker City Stained Glass Company of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at St. Matthew's German Evangelical Lutheran Church in Charleston, South Carolina
Detail from Unterricht der Visitatorn, an die Pfarherrn in Hertzog Heinrichs zu Sachsen Fürstenthum, Gleicher form der Visitation im Kurfürstenthum gestellet, woodcut by Lucas Cranach the Younger, Wittenberg, 1539
Crest of Philip Melanchthon, featuring the bronze serpent of Moses
Anonymous Netherlands, Portrait of Melanchthon, early 18th century, engraving and etching
Melanchthon's room in Wittenberg
Head of Melanchton statue at Lessing-Gymnasium (Frankfurt), whose founder had been influenced by personal contacts with Melanchton
Engraving of Melanchthon in 1526 by Albrecht Dürer captioned, "Dürer was able to draw the living Philip's face, but the learned hand could not paint his spirit" (translated from Latin)

He approved fully of the Wittenberg Concord sent by Bucer to Wittenberg, and at the instigation of the Landgrave of Hesse discussed the question with Bucer in Kassel, at the end of 1534.

The renewal of this dispute was due to the victory in the Reformed Church of the Calvinistic doctrine and its influence upon Germany.

Martin Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder

Martin Luther

German priest, theologian, author and hymnwriter.

German priest, theologian, author and hymnwriter.

Martin Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Portraits of Hans and Margarethe Luther by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1527
Former monks' dormitory, St Augustine's Monastery, Erfurt
Luther as a friar, with tonsure
Luther's accommodation in Wittenberg
A posthumous portrait of Luther as an Augustinian friar
Luther's theses are engraved into the door of All Saints' Church, Wittenberg. The Latin inscription above informs the reader that the original door was destroyed by a fire, and that in 1857, King Frederick William IV of Prussia ordered a replacement be made.
The Catholic sale of indulgences shown in A Question to a Mintmaker, woodcut by Jörg Breu the Elder of Augsburg, c. 1530
Luther at Erfurt, which depicts Martin Luther discovering the doctrine of sola fide (by faith alone). Painting by Joseph Noel Paton, 1861.
Pope Leo X's Bull against the errors of Martin Luther, 1521, commonly known as Exsurge Domine
The meeting of Martin Luther (right) and Cardinal Cajetan (left, holding the book)
Luther Before the Diet of Worms by Anton von Werner (1843–1915)
Luther Monument in Worms. His statue is surrounded by the figures of his lay protectors and earlier Church reformers including John Wycliffe, Jan Hus and Girolamo Savonarola.
Wartburg Castle, Eisenach
The Wartburg room where Luther translated the New Testament into German. An original first edition is kept in the case on the desk.
Luther disguised as "Junker Jörg", 1521
Lutherhaus, Luther's residence in Wittenberg
The Twelve Articles, 1525
Katharina von Bora, Luther's wife, by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1526
Martin Luther at his desk with family portraits (17th century)
Church orders, Mecklenburg 1650
Lutheran church liturgy and sacraments
A stained glass portrayal of Luther
Luther's 1534 Bible
An early printing of Luther's hymn "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott"
Luther on the left with Lazarus being raised by Jesus from the dead, painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1558
Statue of Martin Luther outside St. Mary's Church, Berlin
The battle between the Turks and the Christians, in the 16th century
Pulpit of St. Andreas Church, Eisleben, where Agricola and Luther preached
The original title page of On the Jews and Their Lies, written by Martin Luther in 1543
Luther on his deathbed, painting by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Martin Luther's grave, Schlosskirche, Wittenberg
Worldwide Protestantism in 2010
Luther Monument in Eisenach, Germany
Martin Luther College in New Ulm, Minnesota, United States
Various books of the Weimar Edition of Luther's works
Martin Luther's Death House, considered the site of Luther's death since 1726. However the building where Luther actually died (at Markt 56, now the site of Hotel Graf von Mansfeld) was torn down in 1570.<ref>Dorfpredigten: Biblische Einsichten aus Deutschlands 'wildem Süden'. Ausgewählte Predigten aus den Jahren 1998 bis 2007 Teil II 2002–2007 by Thomas O.H. Kaiser, p. 354</ref>
Casts of Luther's face and hands at his death, in the Market Church in Halle<ref>Martin Luther's Death Mask on View at Museum in Halle, Germany artdaily.com</ref>
Schlosskirche in Wittenberg, where Luther posted his Ninety-five Theses, is also his gravesite.
Luther's tombstone beneath the pulpit in the Castle Church in Wittenberg
Close-up of the grave with inscription in Latin
Luther with a swan (painting in the church at Strümpfelbach im Remstal, Weinstadt, Germany, by J. A. List)
Swan weather vane, Round Lutheran Church, Amsterdam
Altar in St Martin's Church, Halberstadt, Germany. Luther and the swan are toward the top on the right.
Coin commemorating Luther (engraving by Georg Wilhelm Göbel, Saxony, 1706)

The theologians, including Zwingli, Melanchthon, Martin Bucer, and Johannes Oecolampadius, differed on the significance of the words spoken by Jesus at the Last Supper: "This is my body which is for you" and "This cup is the new covenant in my blood" (1 Corinthians 11:23–26).

Luther is honored in various ways by Christian traditions coming out directly from the Protestant Reformation, i.e. Lutheranism, the Reformed tradition, and Anglicanism.

Pietro Vermigli, by Hans Asper, 1560

Peter Martyr Vermigli

Pietro Vermigli, by Hans Asper, 1560
The Badia Fiesolana, where Vermigli entered religious life
Basilica of San Frediano, where Vermigli was appointed prior in 1541
Engraving after a woodcut by Jos Murer
Painting of Vermigli (left) and Theodor Bibliander (right), who strongly disagreed with Vermigli's doctrine of predestination
Title page of the 1576 Loci Communes
1599 engraving by Hendrik HondiusI

Peter Martyr Vermigli (8 September 149912 November 1562) was an Italian-born Calvinist theologian.

He came in contact with leaders of the Italian spirituali reform movement, and read Protestant theologians such as Martin Bucer and Ulrich Zwingli.

Posthumous portrait by Hans Asper, before 1550

Johannes Oecolampadius

Posthumous portrait by Hans Asper, before 1550
Johannes Œcolampadius by Hans Asper
Statue of Oecolampadius at Basel Minster

Johannes Oecolampadius (also Œcolampadius, in German also Oekolampadius, Oekolampad; 1482 – 24 November 1531) was a German Protestant reformer in the Calvinist tradition from the Electoral Palatinate.

He was the leader of the Protestant faction in the Baden Disputation of 1526, and he was one of the founders of Protestant theology, engaging in disputes with Erasmus, Zwingli, Luther and Martin Bucer.

Portrait by Hans Asper, c. 1550

Heinrich Bullinger

Swiss Reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Church of Zürich and former pastor at Grossmünster.

Swiss Reformer, the successor of Huldrych Zwingli as head of the Church of Zürich and former pastor at Grossmünster.

Portrait by Hans Asper, c. 1550
Sculpture of Bullinger at Grossmünster (Otto Charles Bänninger 1940)
Iconoclasm during the Reformation in Zürich, Stadelhofen, illustrated Bullinger chronicle

While at Zürich, the local authorities sent him with their delegation to assist Zwingli at the Bern Disputation where he met Martin Bucer, Ambrosius Blaurer, and Berthold Haller.

Then, in 1549, they drafted the Consensus Tigurinus together, which is viewed as a significant point of agreement on the doctrine of the Eucharist between the Calvinists and the Zwinglians.

Catholics give adoration to Christ, whom they believe to be really present, in body and blood, soul and divinity, in sacramental bread whose reality has been changed into that of his body.

Real presence of Christ in the Eucharist

Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically, but in a true, real and substantial way.

Christian doctrine that Jesus Christ is present in the Eucharist, not merely symbolically or metaphorically, but in a true, real and substantial way.

Catholics give adoration to Christ, whom they believe to be really present, in body and blood, soul and divinity, in sacramental bread whose reality has been changed into that of his body.
A 3rd-century fresco in the Catacomb of Callixtus, interpreted by the archaeologist Joseph Wilpert as showing on the left Jesus multiplying bread and fish, a symbol of the Eucharistic consecration, and on the right a representation of the deceased, who through participation in the Eucharist has obtained eternal happiness
Ecce Agnus Dei ("Behold the Lamb of God") at Solemn Mass
Eastern Orthodox Divine Liturgy.
A notice about the real presence of Christ in the Eucharist in Mikael Agricola Church, Helsinki.
Eucharist in an Episcopal church
A United Methodist minister consecrates the elements
A Scottish Sacrament, by Henry John Dobson

There are a number of Christian denominations that teach that Christ is truly present in the Eucharist, including Catholicism, Eastern Orthodoxy, Oriental Orthodoxy, the Church of the East, the Moravian Church, Lutheranism, Anglicanism, Methodism, Irvingism and Reformed Christianity.

Among these were Martin Bucer, Peter Martyr Vermigli, Bernardino Ochino, Paul Fagius, and Jan Łaski.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Protestantism

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
A Lutheran depiction of the Last Supper by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1547
Execution of Jan Hus in 1415
Spread of Lollardy in medieval England and medieval Scotland
Wessel Gansfort
Distribution of Protestantism and Catholicism in Central Europe on the eve of the Thirty Years' War (1618)
1839 Methodist camp meeting during the Second Great Awakening in the U.S.
Dissatisfaction with the outcome of a disputation in 1525 prompted Swiss Brethren to part ways with Huldrych Zwingli
Glass window in the town church of Wiesloch (Stadtkirche Wiesloch) with Martin Luther and John Calvin commemorating the 1821 union of Lutheran and Reformed churches in the Grand Duchy of Baden
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
Indonesian Reformed Evangelical Church megachurch
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Hillsong Church Konstanz, Germany, an evangelical charismatic church
Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch Reformed theologian, whose views influenced parts of Protestantism. A small Remonstrant community remains in the Netherlands.
Karl Barth, often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century
Columbia University, established by the Church of England
Enlightenment philosopher John Locke argued for individual conscience, free from state control
St. Peter's Church (1612), the oldest surviving Protestant church in the "New World" (the Americas and certain Atlantic Ocean islands), the first of nine Parish churches established in Bermuda by the Church of England. Bermuda also has the oldest Presbyterian church outside the British Isles, the Church of Scotland's Christ Church (1719).
James Springer White and his wife, Ellen G. White founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
An Adventist pastor baptizes a young man in Mozambique.
Loma Linda University Seventh-day Adventist Church in Loma Linda, California, United States.
Dirk Willems saves his pursuer. This act of mercy led to his recapture, after which he was burned at the stake.
An Amish family in a horse-drawn square buggy.
Alexanderwohl Mennonite Church in rural Goessel, Kansas, United States.
Thomas Cranmer, one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity.
The various editions of the Book of Common Prayer contain the words of structured services of worship in the Anglican Church.
British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey, a royal peculiar under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch.
Roger Williams was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers.
The First Baptist Church in America. Baptists are roughly one-third of U.S. Protestants.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/appendix-b-classification-of-protestant-denominations/|title=Appendix B: Classification of Protestant Denominations|date=12 May 2015}}</ref>
John Calvin's theological thought influenced a variety of Congregational, Continental Reformed, United, Presbyterian, and other Reformed churches.
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891.
A Congregational church in Cheshire, Connecticut, United States.
Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Luther composed hymns still used today, including "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"
Moses and Elijah direct the sinner looking for salvation to the cross in this painting illustrating Luther's Theology of the Cross (as opposed to a Theology of Glory).
John Wesley, the primary founder of the Methodism.
A United Methodist elder celebrating the Eucharist.
Methodist Central Hall in Westminster, London.
Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit.
Contemporary Christian worship in Rock Harbor Church, Costa Mesa, United States.
A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany.
George Fox was an English dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
Friedensthal Moravian Church Christiansted, St Croix, USVI founded in 1755.
A night shelter of The Salvation Army in Geneva, Switzerland.
William Wilberforce, a British evangelical abolitionist.
Billy Graham, a prominent evangelical revivalist, preaching in Duisburg, Germany in 1954.
Worship service at Église Nouvelle vie, an evangelical Pentecostal church in Longueuil, Canada.
An Evangelical Protestant church in Hämeenlinna, Finland.
Philipp Jakob Spener, German pioneer and founder of Pietism.
Pietism has been a strong cultural influence in Scandinavia.
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866.
John Cotton, who sparked the Antinomian Controversy with his free grace theology.
Pilgrim Fathers landing at Plymouth Rock in 1620.
Built in 1681, the Old Ship Church in Hingham, Massachusetts is the oldest church in America in continuous ecclesiastical use.<ref>{{Cite news|last = Butterfield|first = Fox|title = The Perfect New England Town|url = https://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/14/travel/the-perfect-new-england-village.html?sec=&spon=|newspaper = The New York Times|date = 14 May 1989|access-date = 30 May 2010}}</ref>
Luther Monument in Worms, which features some of the Reformation's crucial figures.
The International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Adoration of the Trinity  by Albrecht Dürer.
The Crucifixion of Christ by Lucas Cranach the Elder.
The Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Younger.
A Huguenot, on St. Bartholomew's Day, Refusing to Shield Himself from Danger by Wearing the Roman Catholic Badge by John Everett Millais.
The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669 by Rembrandt.
The Church at Auvers, 1890. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. By Vincent van Gogh.
Protestant majority countries in 2010.
Countries by percentage of Protestants.

Calvinist churches spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by Protestant Reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and John Knox.

Some of the most important activists of the Protestant Reformation included Jacobus Arminius, Theodore Beza, Martin Bucer, Andreas von Carlstadt, Heinrich Bullinger, Balthasar Hubmaier, Thomas Cranmer, William Farel, Thomas Müntzer, Laurentius Petri, Olaus Petri, Philipp Melanchthon, Menno Simons, Louis de Berquin, Primož Trubar and John Smyth.