Calvinism

Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral in Geneva
Cover of Calvin's magnum opus: Institutes of the Christian Religion
Early Calvinism was known for simple, unadorned churches, as shown in this 1661 painting of the interior of the Oude Kerk, Amsterdam
Abandoned Calvinist church in Łapczyna Wola, Poland
Calvinist church in Semarang, Indonesia.
The seal of the Presbyterian Church in the United States of America, an early American Presbyterian church
Fall of Man by Jacob Jordaens
The "Shield of the Trinity" diagrams the classic doctrine of the Trinity
This Dutch stained glass allegory shows Christ ascending the cross with Satan and several dead people on his back. Faith is personified as a woman to the right of a naked man on the ground asking Christ the way of salvation.
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Rembrandt, based on the Parable of the Prodigal Son illustrating forgiveness
John Calvin on his deathbed with church members
The Bay Psalm Book was used by the Pilgrims.
Moïse Amyraut formulated Amyraldism, a modified Calvinist theology regarding the nature of Christ's atonement.
Dutch prime minister Abraham Kuyper initiated neo-Calvinism
Stephen Bocskay, leader of Hungarian Calvinists in anti-Habsburg rebellion and first Calvinist prince of Transylvania ((r. 1605 – 1606))
Reformed church in Koudekerk aan den Rijn (Netherlands), 19th century
The burning of the Guernsey Martyrs during the Marian persecutions in 1556
The Grote Kerk in Haarlem, Dutch Republic, c. 1665

Major branch of Protestantism that follows the theological tradition and forms of Christian practice set down by John Calvin and other Reformation-era theologians.

- Calvinism
Statues of William Farel, John Calvin, Theodore Beza, and John Knox at the centre of the International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland. They were among the most influential theologians that helped develop the Reformed tradition.

187 related topics

Alpha

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany

Protestantism

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reformation, a movement against what its followers perceived to be errors in the Catholic Church.

Door of the Theses in Wittenberg, Saxony-Anhalt, Germany
The Trinity is the belief that God is one God in three persons: the Father, the Son (Jesus), and the Holy Spirit
A Lutheran depiction of the Last Supper by Lucas Cranach the Elder, 1547
Execution of Jan Hus in 1415
Spread of Lollardy in medieval England and medieval Scotland
Wessel Gansfort
Distribution of Protestantism and Catholicism in Central Europe on the eve of the Thirty Years' War (1618)
1839 Methodist camp meeting during the Second Great Awakening in the U.S.
Dissatisfaction with the outcome of a disputation in 1525 prompted Swiss Brethren to part ways with Huldrych Zwingli
Glass window in the town church of Wiesloch (Stadtkirche Wiesloch) with Martin Luther and John Calvin commemorating the 1821 union of Lutheran and Reformed churches in the Grand Duchy of Baden
Historical chart of the main Protestant branches
Indonesian Reformed Evangelical Church megachurch
Links between interdenominational movements and other developments within Protestantism
Hillsong Church Konstanz, Germany, an evangelical charismatic church
Jacobus Arminius was a Dutch Reformed theologian, whose views influenced parts of Protestantism. A small Remonstrant community remains in the Netherlands.
Karl Barth, often regarded as the greatest Protestant theologian of the twentieth century
Columbia University, established by the Church of England
Enlightenment philosopher John Locke argued for individual conscience, free from state control
St. Peter's Church (1612), the oldest surviving Protestant church in the "New World" (the Americas and certain Atlantic Ocean islands), the first of nine Parish churches established in Bermuda by the Church of England. Bermuda also has the oldest Presbyterian church outside the British Isles, the Church of Scotland's Christ Church (1719).
James Springer White and his wife, Ellen G. White founded the Seventh-day Adventist Church.
An Adventist pastor baptizes a young man in Mozambique.
Loma Linda University Seventh-day Adventist Church in Loma Linda, California, United States.
Dirk Willems saves his pursuer. This act of mercy led to his recapture, after which he was burned at the stake.
An Amish family in a horse-drawn square buggy.
Alexanderwohl Mennonite Church in rural Goessel, Kansas, United States.
Thomas Cranmer, one of the most influential figures in shaping Anglican theology and self-identity.
The various editions of the Book of Common Prayer contain the words of structured services of worship in the Anglican Church.
British coronations are held in Westminster Abbey, a royal peculiar under the direct jurisdiction of the monarch.
Roger Williams was an early proponent of religious freedom and the separation of church and state.
Baptists subscribe to a doctrine that baptism should be performed only for professing believers.
The First Baptist Church in America. Baptists are roughly one-third of U.S. Protestants.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://www.pewforum.org/2015/05/12/appendix-b-classification-of-protestant-denominations/|title=Appendix B: Classification of Protestant Denominations|date=12 May 2015}}</ref>
John Calvin's theological thought influenced a variety of Congregational, Continental Reformed, United, Presbyterian, and other Reformed churches.
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891.
A Congregational church in Cheshire, Connecticut, United States.
Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Luther composed hymns still used today, including "A Mighty Fortress Is Our God"
Moses and Elijah direct the sinner looking for salvation to the cross in this painting illustrating Luther's Theology of the Cross (as opposed to a Theology of Glory).
John Wesley, the primary founder of the Methodism.
A United Methodist elder celebrating the Eucharist.
Methodist Central Hall in Westminster, London.
Charles Fox Parham, who associated glossolalia with the baptism in the Holy Spirit.
Contemporary Christian worship in Rock Harbor Church, Costa Mesa, United States.
A Pentecostal church in Ravensburg, Germany.
George Fox was an English dissenter and a founder of the Religious Society of Friends, commonly known as the Quakers or Friends.
Friedensthal Moravian Church Christiansted, St Croix, USVI founded in 1755.
A night shelter of The Salvation Army in Geneva, Switzerland.
William Wilberforce, a British evangelical abolitionist.
Billy Graham, a prominent evangelical revivalist, preaching in Duisburg, Germany in 1954.
Worship service at Église Nouvelle vie, an evangelical Pentecostal church in Longueuil, Canada.
An Evangelical Protestant church in Hämeenlinna, Finland.
Philipp Jakob Spener, German pioneer and founder of Pietism.
Pietism has been a strong cultural influence in Scandinavia.
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866.
John Cotton, who sparked the Antinomian Controversy with his free grace theology.
Pilgrim Fathers landing at Plymouth Rock in 1620.
Built in 1681, the Old Ship Church in Hingham, Massachusetts is the oldest church in America in continuous ecclesiastical use.<ref>{{Cite news|last = Butterfield|first = Fox|title = The Perfect New England Town|url = https://www.nytimes.com/1989/05/14/travel/the-perfect-new-england-village.html?sec=&spon=|newspaper = The New York Times|date = 14 May 1989|access-date = 30 May 2010}}</ref>
Luther Monument in Worms, which features some of the Reformation's crucial figures.
The International Monument to the Reformation in Geneva, Switzerland.
The Adoration of the Trinity  by Albrecht Dürer.
The Crucifixion of Christ by Lucas Cranach the Elder.
The Adam and Eve by Lucas Cranach the Younger.
A Huguenot, on St. Bartholomew's Day, Refusing to Shield Himself from Danger by Wearing the Roman Catholic Badge by John Everett Millais.
The Return of the Prodigal Son, detail, c. 1669 by Rembrandt.
The Church at Auvers, 1890. Musée d'Orsay, Paris. By Vincent van Gogh.
Protestant majority countries in 2010.
Countries by percentage of Protestants.

Calvinist churches spread in Germany, Hungary, the Netherlands, Scotland, Switzerland and France by Protestant Reformers such as John Calvin, Huldrych Zwingli and John Knox.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)

Reformation

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in particular to papal authority, arising from what were perceived to be errors, abuses, and discrepancies by the Catholic Church.

Martin Luther at the Diet of Worms, where he refused to recant his works when asked to by Charles V. (painting from Anton von Werner, 1877, Staatsgalerie Stuttgart)
Martin Luther's 1534 Bible translated into German. Luther's translation influenced the development of the current Standard German.
Erasmus was a Catholic priest who inspired some of the Protestant reformers
Jiří Třanovský (1592–1637), the "Luther of the Slavs" who was active in Bohemia, Moravia, Poland, and Slovakia (Upper Hungary)
Huldrych Zwingli launched the Reformation in Switzerland. Portrait by Hans Asper.
John Calvin was one of the leading figures of the Reformation. His legacy remains in a variety of churches.
The seal of the Diocese of Turku (Finland) during the 16th and 17th centuries featured the finger of St Henry. The post-Reformation diocese included the relic of a pre-Reformation saint in its seal.
Henry VIII broke England's ties with the Roman Catholic Church, becoming the sole head of the English Church.
Thomas Cranmer proved essential in the development of the English Reformation.
Oliver Cromwell was a devout Puritan and military leader, who became Lord Protector of England, Scotland, and Ireland.
John Knox was a leading figure in the Scottish Reformation
Although a Catholic clergyman himself, Cardinal Richelieu allied France with Protestant states.
Saint Bartholomew's Day massacre, painting by François Dubois
Contemporary illustration of the auto-da-fé of Valladolid, in which fourteen Protestants were burned at the stake for their faith, on 21 May 1559
Anabaptist Dirk Willems rescues his pursuer and is subsequently burned at the stake in 1569.
Stephen Bocskay prevented the Holy Roman Emperor from imposing Catholicism on Hungarians.
A devout Catholic, Mary I of England started the first Plantations of Ireland, which, ironically, soon came to be associated with Protestantism.
Waldensian symbol Lux lucet in tenebris ("Light glows in the darkness")
Jan Łaski sought unity between various Christian Churches in the Commonwealth, and participated in the English Reformation.
Reformation in Moldova
Primož Trubar, a Lutheran reformer in Slovenia
Religious fragmentation in Central Europe at the outbreak of the Thirty Years' War (1618).
The Reformation at its peak, superimposed on modern European borders
The Reformation & the Counter-Reformation—both at their end—and superimposed on modern European borders
Treaty of Westphalia allowed Calvinism to be freely exercised, reducing the need for Crypto-Calvinism
Katharina von Bora played a role in shaping social ethics during the Reformation.

During Reformation-era confessionalization, Western Christianity adopted different confessions (Catholic, Lutheran, Reformed, Anglican, Anabaptist, Unitarian, etc.).

John Calvin

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

French theologian, pastor, and reformer in Geneva during the Protestant Reformation.

Calvin was originally interested in the priesthood, but he changed course to study law in Orléans and Bourges. Painting titled Portrait of Young John Calvin from the collection of the Library of Geneva.
William Farel was the reformer who persuaded Calvin to stay in Geneva. 16th-century painting. In the Bibliothèque Publique et Universitaire, Geneva.
Calvin preached at St. Pierre Cathedral, the main church in Geneva.
Idelette and Calvin had no children survive infancy.
Sixteenth-century portrait of John Calvin by an unknown artist. From the collection of the Bibliothèque de Genève (Library of Geneva)
Michael Servetus exchanged many letters with Calvin until he was denounced by Calvin and executed.
John Calvin at 53 years old in an engraving by René Boyvin
The Collège Calvin is now a college preparatory school for the Swiss Maturité.
Traditional grave of Calvin in the Cimetière de Plainpalais in Geneva; the exact location of his grave is unknown.
Title page from the final edition of Calvin's magnum opus, Institutio Christiane Religionis, which summarises his theology.
Joachim Westphal disagreed with Calvin's theology on the eucharist.
Calvin wrote many letters to religious and political leaders throughout Europe, including this one sent to Edward VI of England.
Portrait of Calvin by Titian
The last moments of Calvin (Barcelona: Montaner y Simón, 1880–1883)
John Calvin memorial medal by László Szlávics, Jr., 2008

He was a principal figure in the development of the system of Christian theology later called Calvinism, including its doctrines of predestination and of God's absolute sovereignty in the salvation of the human soul from death and eternal damnation.

George Whitefield

Methodism

Group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity whose origins, doctrine and practice derive from the life and teachings of John Wesley.

Group of historically related denominations of Protestant Christianity whose origins, doctrine and practice derive from the life and teachings of John Wesley.

George Whitefield
The first Methodist chapel, "The Foundery", London.
Methodists believe Jesus Christ died for all humanity, not a limited few: the doctrine of unlimited atonement.
Communion table behind the rail in Wesley's Chapel, London. The reredos depicts the Ten Commandments.
United Methodist minister breaking bread during a Communion service
Methodist preachers were known for promulgating the doctrines of the new birth and entire sanctification to the public at events such as tent revivals, brush arbor revivals and camp meetings (depicted here in an engraving), which they believe is the reason that God raised them up into existence.
Jerusalem's Church, Copenhagen, the main Methodist church in Denmark
Wesley's Chapel in London was established by John Wesley, whose statue stands in the courtyard.
The Central Hall in Westminster, London
A Methodist chapel in Athlone, opened in 1865.
The Methodist chapel in Rome houses Italian and English-speaking congregations.
Hammerfest Methodist Church in Norway was the world's most northerly Methodist congregation when established in 1890.
Methodist chapel at the foot of the Achalm mountain, Baden-Württemberg
Baxter Memorial Church in English Harbour, Antigua.
Methodist bishops at a church conference in Winneba, 2008
A Methodist chapel in Leliefontein, Northern Cape, South Africa
Flower Lane Church is the first Methodist church erected in downtown Fuzhou.
Former Methodist school in Wuhan (founded 1885)
The CSI English Wesley Church in Broadway, Chennai, India, is one of the oldest Methodist chapels in India.
Consecration of the first Presiding Bishop of Ang Iglesia Metodista sa Pilipinas held at Luacan Church in Bataan, Philippines
Metropolitan United Church, Toronto.
A Methodist church in Apizaco, Tlaxcala
Barratt's Chapel, built in 1780, is the oldest Methodist Church in the United States built for that purpose. The church was a meeting place of Asbury and Coke.
In the US, the number of local Methodist churches (blue) grew steadily; it was the largest denomination in the US by 1820.
Grace Wesleyan Methodist Church is a parish church of the Allegheny Wesleyan Methodist Connection, one of the largest denominations in the conservative holiness movement, and is located in Akron, Ohio.
The "cross and flame" logo of the United Methodist Church.
Founded as a Methodist congregation, Glide Memorial Church has served as a counter-culture rallying point and has been identified as a liberal church.
Statue of John Wesley outside Wesley Church in Melbourne
Chinese Methodist Church, Christchurch
Saione, the church of the king – the main Free Wesleyan Church of Kolomotuʻa, Tonga

This is an Arminian doctrine, as opposed to the Calvinist position that God has pre-ordained the salvation of a select group of people.

Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism

Lutheranism

One of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying with the theology of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Roman Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation.

One of the largest branches of Protestantism, identifying with the theology of Martin Luther, a 16th-century German monk and reformer whose efforts to reform the theology and practice of the Roman Catholic Church launched the Protestant Reformation.

Luther's rose seal, a symbol of Lutheranism
Martin Luther (1529) by Lucas Cranach the Elder
Title page of the Swedish Gustav Vasa Bible, translated by the Petri brothers, along with Laurentius Andreae
A Hundskirche replica
The University of Jena around 1600. Jena was the center of Gnesio-Lutheran activity during the controversies leading up to the Formula of Concord and afterwards was a center of Lutheran Orthodoxy.
Danish Queen Sophie Magdalene expressed her Pietist sentiment in 1737 by founding a Lutheran convent.
A nineteenth-century Haugean conventicle
The Olbers, one of the ships that carried Old Lutherans to the Western Hemisphere
Representing the continuation of the Finnish Awakening to the present, youth are confirmed at the site of Paavo Ruotsalainen's homestead.
Luther's translation of the Bible, from 1534
Moses and Elijah point the sinner looking for God's salvation to the cross to find it (Theology of the Cross).
Law and Grace, by Lucas Cranach the Elder. The left side shows humans' condemnation under God's law, while the right side presents God's grace in Christ.
Title page from the 1580 Dresden Book of Concord
Lutherans believe that whoever has faith in Jesus alone will receive salvation from the grace of God and will enter eternity in heaven instead of eternity in hell after death or at the second coming of Jesus.
Lutherans believe in the Trinity.
A.C. Article IX: Of Confession
Lutherans practice infant baptism.
Luther communing John the Steadfast
A.C. Article 18: Of Free Will
The Broad and the Narrow Way, a popular German Pietist painting, 1866
"Even though I am a sinner and deserving of death and hell, this shall nonetheless be my consolation and my victory that my Lord Jesus lives and has risen so that He, in the end, might rescue me from sin, death, and hell."—Luther
Luther composed hymns and hymn tunes, including "Ein feste Burg ist unser Gott" ("A Mighty Fortress Is Our God").
Divine Service at the St. Nicholas church in Luckau, Germany
Ukrainian Lutheran Church of the Cross of the Lord in Kremenets, which uses the Byzantine Rite
Christ Lutheran Church, Narsapur in India
Resurrection Lutheran School is a parochial school of the Wisconsin Evangelical Lutheran Synod (WELS) in Rochester, Minnesota. The WELS school system is the fourth largest private school system in the United States.
Georg Calixtus taught at the University of Helmstedt during the Syncretistic controversy.
Stormtroopers holding German Christian propaganda during the church council elections on 23 July 1933 at St. Mary's Church, Berlin. After that, internal struggles, controversies, reorganization, and splits struck the German Evangelical Church.
LCMS pastor wearing a chasuble during communion
Confirmation in Lunder Church, Ringerike, Norway, 2012. The Church of Norway is a member of the Porvoo Communion, which means that these confirmands would be readily transferred into any Anglican church should they ever emigrate.
Læstadian lay preacher from Finnmark, Norway, 1898
Hallowed be Thy Name by Lucas Cranach the Elder illustrates a Lutheran pastor preaching Christ crucified. During the Reformation and afterwards, many churches did not have pews, so people would stand or sit on the floor. The elderly might be given a chair or stool.
Nathan Söderblom is ordained as archbishop of the Church of Sweden, 1914. Although the Swedish Lutherans boast of an unbroken line of ordinations going back prior to the Reformation, the bishops of Rome do not recognize such ordinations as valid.
Lutheran Church of Saint Peter and Saint Paul in St. Petersburg
Schwäbisch Hall Church Order, 1543
The Pennsylvania Ministerium published this 1803 hymnal.
Lighthouse Lutheran Church, an LCMC congregation in Freedom, Pennsylvania
A church of the Batak Protestant Church in Balige, Indonesia, a merged denomination that includes a Lutheran element
View of the altar and the pulpit in the Church of the Ascension in Jerusalem
Faith Lutheran School in Hong Kong
The coat of arms of the Evangelical Lutheran Church of Finland
Countries with a member of the Confessional Evangelical Lutheran Conference as of 2013

Unlike Calvinism, Lutheranism retains many of the liturgical practices and sacramental teachings of the pre-Reformation Western Church, with a particular emphasis on the Eucharist, or Lord's Supper, though Eastern Lutheranism uses the Byzantine Rite.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904

Evangelicalism

Worldwide interdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "born again", in which an individual experiences personal conversion, the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity , and in spreading the Christian message.

Worldwide interdenominational movement within Protestant Christianity that affirms the centrality of being "born again", in which an individual experiences personal conversion, the authority of the Bible as God's revelation to humanity , and in spreading the Christian message.

Park Street Church, Boston, Massachusetts, in 1904
Baptistery in the Pentecostal church (Pingstförsamlingen) of Västerås, in Sweden, 2018
A worship service at Hillsong Church UK, London
Hong Kong Baptist Theological Seminary, in Hong Kong, 2008
Worship service at Christ's Commission Fellowship Pasig affiliated to the Christ's Commission Fellowship in 2014, in Pasig, Philippines
Chümoukedima Ao Baptist Church building in Chümoukedima, Nagaland, affiliated with the Nagaland Baptist Church Council (India).
College of Nursing, Central Philippine University in Iloilo City, affiliated with the Convention of Philippine Baptist Churches, 2018
Wedding ceremony at First Baptist Church of Rivas, Baptist Convention of Nicaragua, 2011
Ark Encounter in Williamstown, Kentucky, United States
Show on the life of Jesus at Igreja da Cidade, affiliated to the Brazilian Baptist Convention, in São José dos Campos, Brazil, 2017
Together for the Gospel, an evangelical pastors' conference held biennially. A panel discussion with (from left to right) Albert Mohler, Ligon Duncan, C. J. Mahaney, and Mark Dever.
The Prayer Book of 1662 included the Thirty-Nine Articles emphasized by evangelical Anglicans.
Jonathan Edwards' account of the revival in Northampton was published in 1737 as A Faithful Narrative of the Surprising Work of God in the Conversion of Many Hundred Souls in Northampton
When forbidden from preaching from the pulpits of parish churches, John Wesley began open-air preaching.
William Wilberforce was a politician, philanthropist and an evangelical Anglican, who led the British movement to abolish the slave trade.
The evangelical revivalist Billy Graham in Duisburg, Germany, 1954
Worship service in a Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in Russia
Worship at El Lugar de Su Presencia, affiliated with Hillsong Family, in Bogotá, in Colombia, 2019
Temple of Solomon replica built by the Universal Church of the Kingdom of God in São Paulo
American pastor Johannes Maas preaching in Andhra Pradesh, India in 1974. Spreading the revival is an essential part of work done by evangelical missionaries.
Evangelical Free Church at Kirkkokatu street in Vanhatulli neighbourhood in Oulu, Finland
TheCall rally in 2008, Washington, D.C. United States Capitol in the background.
Socially conservative evangelical Protestantism plays a major role in the Bible Belt, an area covering almost all of the Southern United States. Evangelicals form a majority in the region.
Emergency food distribution in a disaster area in Indonesia by World Vision International, in 2009.

As a trans-denominational coalition, evangelicals can be found in nearly every Protestant denomination and tradition, particularly within the Reformed (Calvinist), Baptist, Methodist (Wesleyan-Arminian), Moravian, Mennonite, Pentecostal and charismatic churches.

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).

Presbyterianism

The burning bush is a common symbol used by Presbyterian churches; here as used by the Presbyterian Church in Ireland. The Latin inscription underneath translates as "burning but flourishing". Alternative versions of the motto are also used, such as "Nec Tamen Consumebatur" (yet not consumed).
Iona Abbey in Scotland was founded by Saint Columba
John Knox
The Ordination of Elders in a Scottish Kirk, by John Henry Lorimer, 1891. National Gallery of Scotland.
Celtic cross draped for Easter at a Presbyterian church
Snow-covered Celtic cross in a Presbyterian memorial garden
"Presbyterian Cross", used by the National Cemetery Administration of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs
Presbyterian catechising, 19th century
A Scottish Sacrament, by Henry John Dobson
Cold Spring Presbyterian Church near Cape May, New Jersey, rebuilt 1823
Fourth Presbyterian Church (Chicago), built 1914
An illegal conventicle, Covenanters in a Glen
Evolution of Presbyterianism in the United States
First Presbyterian Church in Phoenix, Arizona
Westminster Presbyterian Church Los Angeles
Rev Bruin Romkes Comingo, 1st Presbyterian Minister in Canada, St. Andrew's Presbyterian Church (Lunenburg)
Presbyterian Cathedral of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil
Christ Presbyterian Church, Akropong, Ghana
Jowai Presbyterian Church, India
Timeline showing the Presbyterian denominations in Australia over the past 100 years, and the movement of congregations from one to another
Kaikorai Presbyterian Church, New Zealand

Presbyterianism is a part of the Reformed tradition within Protestantism that traces its origin to the Church of Scotland.

Portrait of Jacobus Arminius, from Kupferstich aus Theatrum Europaeum by Matthaeus Merian in 1662

Arminianism

"Arminism" and "Arminians" redirect here.

"Arminism" and "Arminians" redirect here.

Portrait of Jacobus Arminius, from Kupferstich aus Theatrum Europaeum by Matthaeus Merian in 1662
Portrait of Simon Episcopius, (Anonymous)
Portrait of John Wesley, by George Romney
Allegory of the theological dispute between the Arminianists and their opponents by Abraham van der Eyk (1721), allegorically represents what many Arminians thought about the Synod: the Bible on the Arminian side was outweighed by the sword, representing the power of the state, and Calvin's Institutes on the other

This expressed an attempt to moderate the doctrines of Calvinism related to its interpretation of predestination.

A 'Jesus Saves' neon cross sign outside of a Protestant church in New York City

Salvation in Christianity

The "saving [of] human beings from sin and its consequences, which include death and separation from God" by Christ's death and resurrection, and the justification following this salvation.

The "saving [of] human beings from sin and its consequences, which include death and separation from God" by Christ's death and resurrection, and the justification following this salvation.

A 'Jesus Saves' neon cross sign outside of a Protestant church in New York City

It is advocated to various degrees by many Protestant confessions of faith and catechisms, including those of some Lutheran synods, and Calvinism, teaching irresistible grace.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.

Eucharist

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

Christian rite that is considered a sacrament in most churches, and as an ordinance in others.

The Eucharist has been a key theme in the depictions of the Last Supper in Christian art, as in this 16th-century Juan de Juanes painting.
A Kremikovtsi Monastery fresco (15th century) depicting the Last Supper celebrated by Jesus and his disciples. The early Christians too would have celebrated this meal to commemorate Jesus' death and subsequent resurrection.
Eucharistic window (1898–1900) by Józef Mehoffer
Christ with the Eucharist, Vicente Juan Masip, 16th century.
Early Christian painting of an Agape feast.
At a Solemn Tridentine Mass, the Host is displayed to the people before Communion.
Eucharistic celebration at the Sanctuary of Our Lady of Fátima.
Pope Benedict XVI celebrates a Mass.
Eucharistic elements prepared for the Divine Liturgy
The serving of elements individually, to be taken in unison, is common among Baptists.
Table set for the Eucharist in an ELCA service
Many Presbyterian churches historically used communion tokens to provide entrance to the Lord's Supper.
A United Methodist minister consecrating the elements
Communion elements: matzo is sometimes used for bread, emphasising the "re-creation" of the Last Supper.
In the Western Catholic Church, the administration of the Eucharist to children requires that they have sufficient knowledge and careful preparation to receive the body of Christ with faith and devotion.
Worshippers kneel and bow in the street during the Eucharist Procession, London, England.
The Eucharist displayed in a monstrance, flanked by candles
Illuminated title of "The Holy Communion" from the 1845 illustrated Book of Common Prayer.

Reformed Christians believe in a real spiritual presence of Christ in the Eucharist.