Canaan

Canaaniteland of CanaanCanaanitesAsiaticBiblical CanaanitesBiblical regionCaananiteCanaanite city-statesCanaanite cultureCanaanite nations
Canaan (Northwest Semitic: ; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew: ) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.wikipedia
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Phoenician language

PhoenicianPhoenician-PunicCanaanite-Phoenician
Canaan (Northwest Semitic: ; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew: ) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
Phoenician was a language originally spoken in the coastal (Mediterranean) region then called "Canaan" (in Phoenician, Hebrew, Old Arabic, and Aramaic), "Phoenicia" (in Greek and Latin), and "Pūt" (in the Egyptian language).

Land of Israel

IsraelEretz IsraelEretz Yisrael
The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: i.e., the area of Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations.
Related biblical, religious and historical English terms include the Land of Canaan, the Promised Land, the Holy Land, and Palestine (see also Israel (disambiguation)).

Book of Joshua

Joshuaconquest of Canaantribal allotments
In the Book of Joshua, Canaanites are included in a list of nations to exterminate, and later described as a group which the Israelites had annihilated, although this narrative is not accepted by contemporary scholarship as archaeological and textual evidence suggests that the Israelites were actually Canaanites.
It tells of the campaigns of the Israelites in central, southern and northern Canaan, the destruction of their enemies, and the division of the land among the Twelve Tribes, framed by two set-piece speeches, the first by God commanding the conquest of the land, and, at the end, the last by Joshua warning of the need for faithful observance of the Law (torah) revealed to Moses.

Amarna letters

AmarnaAmarna letterAmarna correspondence
It appears as 𒆳𒆠𒈾𒄴𒈾 ( KUR ki-na-ah-na) in the Amarna letters (14th century BC), and knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium.
The Amarna letters (sometimes referred to as the Amarna correspondence or Amarna tablets, and cited with the abbreviation EA) are an archive, written on clay tablets, primarily consisting of diplomatic correspondence between the Egyptian administration and its representatives in Canaan and Amurru during the New Kingdom, between c. 1360-1332 BC (see here for dates).

Bible

biblicalScripturethe Bible
The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: i.e., the area of Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations.
It tells of how God commanded Abraham to leave his family and home in the city of Ur, eventually to settle in the land of Canaan, and how the Children of Israel later moved to Egypt.

Gezer

GazruSiege of GezerTel Gezer
Much of modern knowledge about Canaan stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo, and Gezer.
Discoveries related to biblical archaeology include: a probable Canaanite high place with ten monumental megaliths (up-ended stones, each of which is called a masseba or matseva, plural massebot/matsevot; such are found elsewhere in Israel, but the Gezer massebot are the most impressive examples); a double cave beneath the high place, but predating and not connected to it; 13 inscribed boundary stones, making it the first positively identified biblical city; a six-chambered gate similar to those found at Hazor and Megiddo; and a large Canaanite water system comprising a tunnel going down to a spring, similar to those found in Jerusalem, Hazor and Megiddo.

Book of Exodus

ExodusEx.Shemot
Purple cloth became a renowned Canaanite export commodity which is mentioned in Exodus.
Led by their prophet Moses they journey through the wilderness to Mount Sinai, where Yahweh promises them the land of Canaan (the "Promised Land") in return for their faithfulness.

Aram (region)

AramArameanAramea
Some scholars have suggested that this implies an original meaning of "lowlands", in contrast with Aram, which would then mean "highlands", whereas others have suggested it meant "the subjugated" as the name of Egypt's province in the Levant, and evolved into the proper name in a similar fashion to Provincia Nostra (the first Roman colony north of the Alps, which became Provence).
This has been interpreted to be in contrast with Canaan, or "lowlands".

Herem (war or property)

heremholy warḥērem
In the Book of Joshua, Canaanites are included in a list of nations to exterminate, and later described as a group which the Israelites had annihilated, although this narrative is not accepted by contemporary scholarship as archaeological and textual evidence suggests that the Israelites were actually Canaanites.
Deuteronomy 20 also names six people groups who were to be under the ban: the Hittites, Amorites, Canaanites, Perizzites, Hivites and Jebusites.

Philistia

PalestineKingdom of PhilistiaPalestina
The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: i.e., the area of Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations.
The Five Lords of the Philistines are described in the Hebrew Bible as being in constant struggle and interaction with the neighbouring Israelites, Canaanites and Egyptians, being gradually absorbed into the Canaanite culture.

Aziru

Aziri
EA 162: Letter to Aziru: "You yourself know that the king does not want to go against all of Canaan when he rages"
Aziru was the Canaanite ruler of Amurru, modern Lebanon, in the 14th century BC. He was the son of Abdi-Ashirta, the previous Egyptian vassal of Amurru and a direct contemporary of Akhenaten.

Tel Hazor

Hazor[HazorBattle of Hazor
Much of modern knowledge about Canaan stems from archaeological excavation in this area at sites such as Tel Hazor, Tel Megiddo, and Gezer.
During the Egyptian Second Intermediate Period and early New Kingdoms (together running between 18th century BC and 13th century BC), Canaan was an Egyptian vassal state; thus 14th century documents, from the El Amarna archive in Egypt, describe the king of Hazor (in Amarna letters called Hasura), Abdi-Tirshi, as swearing loyalty to the Egyptian pharaoh.

Damascus

DamasceneDamascus, SyriaDimashq
EA 151: Letter from Abimilku to the Pharaoh: "The king, my lord wrote to me: 'write to me what you have heard from Canaan'." Abimilku describes in response what has happened in eastern Cilicia (Danuna), the northern coast of Syria (Ugarit), in Syria (Qadesh, Amurru, and Damascus) as well as in Sidon.
Historically, Baalshamin or Ba'al Šamem, was a Semitic sky-god in Canaan/Phoenicia and ancient Palmyra.

Acre, Israel

AcreAkkaAkko
EA 8: Letter from Burna-Buriash II to Akhenaten, explaining that his merchants "were detained in Canaan for business matters", robbed and killed "in Hinnatuna of the land of Canaan" by the rulers of Acre and Shamhuna, and asks for compensation because "Canaan is your country"
In the biblical Book of Judges, Akko appears in a list of the places which the Israelites were not able to conquer from the Canaanites.

Sea Peoples

sea peopleInvasions of the Sea PeoplesPeleset
Papyrus Harris After the collapse of the Levant under the so-called "Peoples of the Sea" Ramesses III (c. 1194 BC) is said to have built a temple to the god Amen to receive tribute from the southern Levant. This was described as being built in Pa-Canaan, a geographical reference whose meaning is disputed, with suggestions that it may refer to the city of Gaza or to the entire Egyptian-occupied territory in the south west corner of the Near East.
Although the archaeological inscriptions do not include reference to a migration, the Sea Peoples are conjectured to have sailed around the eastern Mediterranean and invaded Anatolia, Syria, Phoenicia, Canaan, Cyprus, and Egypt toward the end of the Bronze Age.

2nd millennium BC

second millennium BCsecond millennium BCE2nd
Canaan (Northwest Semitic: ; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew: ) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
c. 1600 BC–1360 BC Egyptian domination over Canaan and Syria.

Mitanni

ḪanigalbatHanigalbatMitanni Kingdom
Canaan had significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period (14th century BC) as the area where the spheres of interest of the Egyptian, Hittite, Mitanni and Assyrian Empires converged.
King Barattarna of Mitanni expanded the kingdom west to Aleppo and made the Canaanite king Idrimi of Alalakh his vassal.

Assyria

AssyriansAssyrianAssyrian Empire
Canaan had significant geopolitical importance in the Late Bronze Age Amarna period (14th century BC) as the area where the spheres of interest of the Egyptian, Hittite, Mitanni and Assyrian Empires converged.
During this period, Assyria overthrew the empire of the Hurri-Mitanni and eclipsed the Hittite Empire, Egyptian Empire, Babylonia, Elam, Canaan and Phrygia in the Near East.

Phoenicia

PhoenicianPhoeniciansPhoenicio
The name Canaan appears throughout the Bible, where it corresponds to the Levant, in particular to the areas of the Southern Levant that provide the main setting of the narrative of the Bible: i.e., the area of Phoenicia, Philistia, Israel, and other nations. It appears as 𒆳𒆠𒈾𒄴𒈾 ( KUR ki-na-ah-na) in the Amarna letters (14th century BC), and knʿn is found on coins from Phoenicia in the last half of the 1st millennium.
Phoenicia is an ancient Greek term used to refer to the major export of the region, cloth dyed Tyrian purple from the Murex mollusc, and referred to the major Canaanite port towns; not corresponding precisely to Phoenician culture as a whole as it would have been understood natively.

Gaza City

GazaGazanGaza District
During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term Canaan to refer to an Egyptian-ruled colony, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan found in the Hebrew Bible, bounded to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan Valley, and to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea to around Gaza.
Settlement in the region of Gaza dates back to Tell es-Sakan, an Ancient Egyptian fortress built in Canaanite territory to the south of present-day Gaza.

Dagon

DaganDāganMarnas
A disputed reference to Lord of ga-na-na in the Semitic Ebla tablets (dated 2350 BC) from the archive of Tell Mardikh has been interpreted by some scholars to mention the deity Dagon by the title "Lord of Canaan" If correct, this would suggest that Eblaites were conscious of Canaan as an entity by 2500 BC. Jonathan Tubb states that the term ga-na-na "may provide a third-millennium reference to Canaanite", while at the same time stating that the first certain reference is in the 18th century BC.
Dagan is called ti-lu ma-tim, "dew of the land" and Be-ka-na-na, possibly "Lord of Canaan".

Ancient Egypt

EgyptEgyptianEgyptians
During the 2nd millennium BC, Ancient Egyptian texts use the term Canaan to refer to an Egyptian-ruled colony, whose boundaries generally corroborate the definition of Canaan found in the Hebrew Bible, bounded to the west by the Mediterranean Sea, to the north in the vicinity of Hamath in Syria, to the east by the Jordan Valley, and to the south by a line extended from the Dead Sea to around Gaza.
In Naqada II times, early evidence exists of contact with the Near East, particularly Canaan and the Byblos coast.

Hebrew language

HebrewHeb.Hebrew-language
Canaan (Northwest Semitic: ; Phoenician: 𐤊𐤍𐤏𐤍 Kenā‘an; Hebrew: ) was a Semitic-speaking region in the Ancient Near East during the late 2nd millennium BC.
The name is believed to be based on the Semitic root ʕ-b-r meaning "beyond", "other side", "across"; interpretations of the term "Hebrew" generally render its meaning as roughly "from the other side [of the river/desert]"—i.e., an exonym for the inhabitants of the land of Israel/Judah, perhaps from the perspective of Mesopotamia, Phoenicia, or the Transjordan (with the river referenced perhaps the Euphrates, Jordan, or Litani; or maybe the northern Arabian Desert between Babylonia and Canaan).

Byblos

GebalGibeletGubla
EA 137: Letter of Rib-Hadda: "If the king neglects Byblos, of all the cities of Canaan not one will be his"
This was the period when the Canaanite civilization began to develop.

Samaritans

SamaritanCutheanIsraelite Samaritans
The Greeks also popularized the term Palestine, named after the Greek Philistines or the Aegean Pelasgians, for roughly the region of Canaan, excluding Phoenicia, with Herodotus' first recorded use of Palaistinê, c. 480 BC. From 110 BC, the Hasmoneans extended their authority over much of the region, creating a Judean-Samaritan-Idumaean-Ituraean-Galilean alliance.
Ancestrally, Samaritans claim descent from the tribe of Ephraim and tribe of Manasseh (two sons of Joseph) as well as from the Levites, who have links to ancient Samaria (now constituting the majority of the territory known as the West Bank) from the period of their entry into Canaan, while some Orthodox Jews suggest that it was from the beginning of the Babylonian captivity up to the Samaritan polity under the rule of Baba Rabba.