Canaanite languages

CanaaniteCanaanite languageCanaanite peoplesCanaanite dialectsCanaanite groupCanaanite wordCanaanite familyCanaanite inscriptionCanaanite language groupCanaanite subgroup
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.wikipedia
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Aramaic

Aramaic languageMiddle AramaicChaldee
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
More specifically, it is part of the Northwest Semitic group, which also includes the Canaanite languages such as Hebrew and Phoenician.

Northwest Semitic languages

Northwest SemiticNorthwest Semitic languageNorthwest Semitic group
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.
The oldest coherent texts are in Ugaritic, dating to the Late Bronze Age, which by the time of the Bronze Age collapse are joined by Old Aramaic, and by the Iron Age by the Canaanite languages (Phoenician and Hebrew).

Jordan

Hashemite Kingdom of JordanTransjordanKingdom of Jordan
They were spoken by the ancient Semitic people of the Canaan and Levant regions, an area encompassing what is today Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories and also some fringe areas of southern Turkey and the northern Arabian Peninsula.
They spoke Semitic languages of the Canaanite group, and are considered to be tribal kingdoms rather than states.

Lebanon

LebaneseLebanese RepublicRepublic of Lebanon
They were spoken by the ancient Semitic people of the Canaan and Levant regions, an area encompassing what is today Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories and also some fringe areas of southern Turkey and the northern Arabian Peninsula.
The name is recorded in Ancient Egyptian as Rmnn, where R stood for Canaanite L.

Israelites

IsraeliteChildren of IsraelIsrael
The Canaanites are broadly defined to include the Israelites (including Judeans and Samaritans), Phoenicians (including parts of Carthaginians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Suteans, Ekronites and Amalekites. Modern Hebrew, revived in the modern era from an extinct dialect of the ancient Israelites preserved in literature, poetry, liturgy; also known as Classical Hebrew, the oldest form of the language attested in writing.
The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of the indigenous Canaanite peoples that long inhabited the Southern Levant, Syria, ancient Israel, and the Transjordan region through the development of a distinct monolatristic—later cementing as monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.

Syria

Syrian Arab RepublicSyrianEtymology of Syria
They were spoken by the ancient Semitic people of the Canaan and Levant regions, an area encompassing what is today Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories and also some fringe areas of southern Turkey and the northern Arabian Peninsula.
The Northwest Semitic language of the Amorites is the earliest attested of the Canaanite languages.

Canaan

CanaanitesCanaaniteLand of Canaan
They were spoken by the ancient Semitic people of the Canaan and Levant regions, an area encompassing what is today Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories and also some fringe areas of southern Turkey and the northern Arabian Peninsula. The Canaanites are broadly defined to include the Israelites (including Judeans and Samaritans), Phoenicians (including parts of Carthaginians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Suteans, Ekronites and Amalekites.
The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit (at Ras Shamra in Syria) is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, even though its Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite language group proper.

Amorites

AmoriteMartuAmurru
The Canaanites are broadly defined to include the Israelites (including Judeans and Samaritans), Phoenicians (including parts of Carthaginians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Suteans, Ekronites and Amalekites.
Since the language shows northwest Semitic forms, words and constructions, the Amorite language is a Northwest Semitic language, and possibly one of the Canaanite languages.

Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften

KAI
The primary reference for extra-biblical Canaanite inscriptions, together with Aramaic inscriptions, is the German-language book Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften, from which inscriptions are often referenced as KAI n (for a number n).
Kanaanäische und Aramäische Inschriften (in English, Caananite and Aramaic Inscriptions), or KAI, is the standard source for the original text of Canaanite and Aramaic inscriptions not contained in the Tanakh or Old Testament.

Israel

State of IsraelIsraeliISR
They were spoken by the ancient Semitic people of the Canaan and Levant regions, an area encompassing what is today Israel, Jordan, Sinai, Lebanon, Syria, the Palestinian territories and also some fringe areas of southern Turkey and the northern Arabian Peninsula.
The Israelites and their culture, according to the modern archaeological account, did not overtake the region by force, but instead branched out of these Canaanite peoples and their cultures through the development of a distinct monolatristic—and later monotheistic—religion centered on Yahweh.

Punic language

PunicNeo-PunicCarthaginian language
For later Punic: in Plautus' play Poenulus at the beginning of the fifth act.
The Punic language, also called Canaanite or Phoenicio-Punic, is an extinct variety of the Phoenician language, a Canaanite language of the Semitic family.

Alphabet

alphabeticalphabetsalphabetical
This family of languages has the distinction of being the first historically attested group of languages to use an alphabet, derived from the Proto-Canaanite alphabet, to record their writings, as opposed to the far earlier Cuneiform logographic/syllabic writing of the region.
By the tenth century, two other forms can be distinguished, namely Canaanite and Aramaic.

Moabite language

Moabiteobm
Moabite is an extinct Canaanite language formerly spoken in Moab (modern day central-western Jordan) in the early 1st millennium BC.

Ammonite language

Ammonite
Ammonite is the extinct Canaanite language of the Ammonite people mentioned in the Bible, who used to live in modern-day Jordan, and after whom its capital Amman is named.

Edomite language

Edomitexdm
Edomite was a Canaanite language, very similar to Hebrew, spoken by the Edomites in southwestern Jordan and parts of Israel in the 1st millennium BC.

Amorite language

AmoriteAmorites
The Canaanite languages, or Canaanite dialects, are one of the three subgroups of the Northwest Semitic languages, the others being Aramaic and Amorite.

Modern Hebrew

HebrewIsraeli HebrewIsraeli
Modern Hebrew, revived in the modern era from an extinct dialect of the ancient Israelites preserved in literature, poetry, liturgy; also known as Classical Hebrew, the oldest form of the language attested in writing.
Spoken in ancient times, Hebrew, a member of the Canaanite branch of the Semitic language family, was supplanted as the Jewish vernacular by the western dialect of Aramaic beginning in the third century BCE, though it continued to be used as a liturgical and literary language.

Ammon

AmmonitesAmmoniteBen-Ammi
The Canaanites are broadly defined to include the Israelites (including Judeans and Samaritans), Phoenicians (including parts of Carthaginians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Suteans, Ekronites and Amalekites.
The Ammonites' language is believed to be in the Canaanite family, closely related to Hebrew and Moabite.

Canaanite shift

Canaanite vowel shiftshiftvowel shift from to
In historical linguistics, the Canaanite shift is a sound change that took place in the Canaanite dialects, which belong to the Northwest Semitic branch of the Semitic languages family.

Eshmunazar II sarcophagus

Eshmunazar IIEshmun'azarEshmunazar
The main sources are Ahiram sarcophagus inscription, sarcophagus of Eshmunazar, the Tabnit sarcophagus, the Kilamuwa inscription, the Cippi of Melqart, the other Byblian royal inscriptions.
The sarcophagus bears a 22 line inscription, known as KAI-14, written in the Phoenician Canaanite language, in the Phoenician alphabet.

Phoenician language

PhoenicianPhoenician-PunicPhenician-Punic
*Phoenician.
It is a part of the Canaanite subgroup of the Northwest Semitic languages.

Moab

MoabitesMoabiteMountains of Gilead/Moab
The Canaanites are broadly defined to include the Israelites (including Judeans and Samaritans), Phoenicians (including parts of Carthaginians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Suteans, Ekronites and Amalekites.
The Moabite language is an extinct Canaanite language, spoken in Moab (modern day central-western Jordan) in the early first millennium BC.

Phoenicia

PhoeniciansPhoenicianPhoenicio
The Canaanites are broadly defined to include the Israelites (including Judeans and Samaritans), Phoenicians (including parts of Carthaginians), Amorites, Ammonites, Moabites, Edomites, Suteans, Ekronites and Amalekites.
The Late Bronze Age state of Ugarit is considered quintessentially Canaanite archaeologically, even though the Ugaritic language does not belong to the Canaanite languages proper.

Philistine language

Philistine
On the other hand, evidence from the slender corpus of brief inscriptions from Iron Age IIA-IIB Tell es-Safi (Tell es-Safi inscription) demonstrates that at some stage during the local Iron Age, the Philistines started using one of the dialects (either Phoenician or Hebrew) of the local Canaanite language and script, which in time masked and replaced the earlier, non-local linguistic traditions, which doubtless became reduced to a linguistic substratum, for it ceased to be recorded in inscriptions.

Vowel shift

shiftedphonetic shiftvowel-change
Among the Semitic languages, the Canaanite languages underwent a shift in which Proto-Semitic *ā became ō in Proto-Canaanite (a language likely very similar to Biblical Hebrew).