Linguistic areas of North American Indigenous peoples at the time of European contact
Map of territorial claims in North America by 1750, before the French and Indian War, which was part of the greater worldwide conflict known as the Seven Years' War (1756 to 1763). Possessions of Britain (pink), New France (blue), and Spain (orange, California, Pacific Northwest, and Great Basin not indicated)
Benjamin West's The Death of General Wolfe (1771) dramatizes James Wolfe's death during the Battle of the Plains of Abraham at Quebec.
War of 1812 heroine Laura Secord warning British commander James FitzGibbon of an impending American attack at Beaver Dams
Animated map showing the growth and change of Canada's provinces and territories since Confederation in 1867
A copy of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms
A topographic map of Canada, in polar projection (for 90° W), showing elevations shaded from green to brown (higher)
Terrestrial ecozones and ecoprovinces of Canada. Ecozone are identified with a unique colour. Ecoprovinces are subdivisions of ecozones and are identified with a unique numeric code
Köppen climate classification types of Canada
Parliament Hill, home of the federal government in Canada's capital city, Ottawa
The Senate chamber within the Centre Block on Parliament Hill
The Supreme Court of Canada in Ottawa, west of Parliament Hill
The Canadian delegation to the United Nations Conference on International Organization, San Francisco, May 1945
A Canadian McDonnell Douglas CF-18 Hornet in Cold Lake, Alberta
Political map of Canada showing its 10 provinces and 3 territories
The Toronto financial district is the second-largest financial centre in North America, the seventh-largest globally in employment and the heart of Canada's finance industry.
The Canadian-built Space Shuttle robotic arm (left), referred to as Canadarm, transferred the P5 truss segment over to the Canadian-built space station robotic arm, referred to as Canadarm2
The Quebec City–Windsor Corridor is the most densely populated and heavily industrialized region of Canada and spans 1200 km.
Health care cost rise based on total expenditure on health as percent of GDP. Countries shown are the United States, Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and Canada.
14th G7 summit leaders at the University of Toronto: (left to right) Jacques Delors, Ciriaco De Mita, Margaret Thatcher, Ronald Reagan, Brian Mulroney, François Mitterrand, Helmut Kohl and Noboru Takeshita
Approximately 98 percent of Canadians can speak either or both English and French:
Monument to Multiculturalism by Francesco Pirelli, in Toronto
The mother beaver on the Canadian parliament's Peace Tower. The five flowers on the shield each represent an ethnicity—Tudor rose: English; Fleur de lis: French; thistle: Scottish; shamrock: Irish; and leek: Welsh.
A Canadian Broadcasting Corporation (CBC) satellite truck, used for live television broadcasts
The Jack Pine by Tom Thomson. Oil on canvas, 1916, in the collection of the National Gallery of Canada.
Canada's 1928 Olympic Gold Medal hockey team, the Toronto Varsity Blues

Country in North America.

- Canada

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Used to refer to one of several self-governing nations of the British Empire.

Map of the British Empire under Queen Victoria at the end of the nineteenth century. "Dominions" refers to all territories belonging to the Crown.
King George V (front, centre) and his Prime Ministers at the 1926 Imperial Conference.
The New Zealand Observer (1907) shows New Zealand Prime Minister Joseph Ward as a pretentious dwarf beneath a massive "Dominion" top hat. The caption reads:
The Surprise Packet: 
Canada: "Rather large for him, is it not?" 
Australia: "Oh, his head is swelling rapidly. The hat will soon fit."
The Parliamentary Recruiting Committee produced this First World War poster. Designed by Arthur Wardle, the poster urges men from the Dominions of the British Empire to enlist in the war effort.
Dominion of Canada Postage Stamp, 1898
Southern Rhodesia (Zimbabwe since 1980), coloured red on a map of Africa
The prime ministers of Britain and the four major Dominions at the 1944 Commonwealth Prime Ministers' Conference. Left to right: William Lyon Mackenzie King (Canada); Jan Smuts (South Africa); Winston Churchill (UK); Peter Fraser (New Zealand); John Curtin (Australia)

"Dominion status" was first accorded to Canada, Australia, New Zealand, Newfoundland, South Africa, and the Irish Free State at the 1926 Imperial Conference through the Balfour Declaration of 1926, recognizing the Dominions as "autonomous within the British Empire, equal in status, in no way subordinate one to another in any aspect of their domestic or external affairs, though united by a common allegiance to the Crown and freely associated as members of the British Commonwealth of Nations".

Canadian Confederation

Canadian Territory at Confederation
George-Étienne Cartier
Map of the Eastern British Provinces in North America at the time of Canadian Confederation, 1867.
Delegates of the Charlottetown Conference on the steps of Government House, September 1864
Thomas D'Arcy McGee in 1868
Delegates at the Quebec Conference, October 1864
Queen Victoria granted royal assent to the British North America Act on March 29, 1867
Proclamation of Canadian Confederation
John A. Macdonald became the first prime minister of Canada.
1885 photo of Robert Harris' 1884 painting, Conference at Quebec in 1864, to settle the basics of a union of the British North American Provinces, also known as The Fathers of Confederation. The original painting was destroyed in the 1916 Parliament Buildings Centre Block fire. The scene is an amalgamation of the Charlottetown and Quebec City conference sites and attendees.

Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which three British North American provinces, the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick, were united into one federation called the Dominion of Canada, on July 1, 1867.

Provinces and territories of Canada

Breakdown of Canada's population from the 2016 census by province/territory
Territorial evolution of the borders and the names of Canada's provinces and territories
"O Canada we stand on guard for thee" Stained Glass, Yeo Hall, Royal Military College of Canada featuring arms of the Canadian provinces and territories as of 1965
Alberta Legislature Building
British Columbia Parliament Buildings
Manitoba Legislative Building
New Brunswick Legislative Building
Newfoundland and Labrador Confederation Building
Nova Scotia Province House
Ontario Legislative Building
Prince Edward Island Province House
Quebec Parliament Building
Saskatchewan Legislative Building
Northwest Territories Legislative Building
Nunavut Legislative Building
Yukon Legislative Building

The provinces and territories of Canada are sub-national administrative divisions within the geographical areas of Canada under the jurisdiction of the Canadian Constitution.

Arctic Ocean

Smallest and shallowest of the world's five major oceans.

The Arctic Ocean, with borders as delineated by the International Hydrographic Organization (IHO), including Hudson Bay (some of which is south of 57°N latitude, off the map).
Decrease of old Arctic Sea ice 1982–2007
Thule archaeological site
Emanuel Bowen's 1780s map of the Arctic features a "Northern Ocean".
The Arctic region showing the Northeast Passage, the Northern Sea Route within it, and the Northwest Passage.
A bathymetric/topographic map of the Arctic Ocean and the surrounding lands.
The Arctic region; of note, the region's southerly border on this map is depicted by a red isotherm, with all territory to the north having an average temperature of less than 10 C in July.
Distribution of the major water mass in the Arctic Ocean. The section sketches the different water masses along a vertical section from Bering Strait over the geographic North Pole to Fram Strait. As the stratification is stable, deeper water masses are denser than the layers above.
Density structure of the upper 1200 m in the Arctic Ocean. Profiles of temperature and salinity for the Amundsen Basin, the Canadian Basin and the Greenland Sea are sketched.
A copepod
The Kennedy Channel.
Sea cover in the Arctic Ocean, showing the median, 2005 and 2007 coverage
Three polar bears approach USS Honolulu near the North Pole.
Minke whale
Walruses on Arctic ice floe

3200–850 BC); the Saqqaq culture of Greenland (2500–800 BC); the Independence I and Independence II cultures of northeastern Canada and Greenland (c.

Statute of Westminster 1931

Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom that sets the basis for the relationship between the Commonwealth realms and the Crown.

The Big Picture, opening of the Parliament of Australia, 9 May 1901, by Tom Roberts
Canadian Prime Minister William Lyon Mackenzie King (left) and his British counterpart Stanley Baldwin (right), 1926
Instrument of abdication signed by Edward VIII and his three brothers, Albert, Henry and George, 10 December 1936

Its modified versions are now domestic law within Australia and Canada; it has been repealed in New Zealand and implicitly in former Dominions that are no longer Commonwealth realms.

Prime Minister of Canada

John A. Macdonald, the first prime minister of Canada (1867–1873, 1878–1891)
Canada's prime ministers during its first century.
William Lyon Mackenzie King, the 10th prime minister of Canada (1921–1926; 1926–1930; 1935–1948)
24 Sussex Drive, the official residence of the prime minister of Canada
The mark of the prime ministership of Canada, applied to the arms of prime ministers who pursue them
Kim Campbell, the 19th prime minister of Canada (1993) and only female and British Columbia–born person to hold the office

The prime minister of Canada (premier ministre du Canada) is the head of government of Canada.

Monarchy of Canada

Elizabeth II is the reigning sovereign of each of the 15 Commonwealth realms.
Charles, Prince of Wales, in Halifax, Nova Scotia, in 2014. Charles is the heir apparent to the Canadian throne.
The original Act of Settlement, 1701
The throne of Canada (left) and throne for the royal consort (right) behind the speaker's chair in the Senate
Participants of a viceregal and territorial commissioner's conference in 2016. There are 11 viceroys that represent the Canadian monarch in their respective jurisdictions.
The Great Seal of Canada used during the reign of Queen Elizabeth II
Photo portrait of Queen Elizabeth II at the front of a citizenship ceremony. The sovereign is the focus of the Oath of Citizenship.
Then-Governor General David Johnston reviews the guard of honour at Rashtrapati Bhavan during a state visit to India, 24 February 2014
King George VI (left), and William Lyon Mackenzie King, Prime Minister of Canada (right), share a moment of levity, 11 May 1937
The first meeting of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada before the reigning sovereign; in the State Dining Room of Rideau Hall, 14 October 1957
King George VI, with Queen Elizabeth, grants Royal Assent to bills in the Canadian Senate, 1939
A Supreme Court of Canada courtroom displaying on the focal wall a rendition of the Royal Arms.
Prince Philip with the Royal Canadian Regiment as their colonel-in-chief, April 2013.
The flag of the Canadian Forces, bearing the forces' emblem, which has at its apex a St. Edward's Crown, indicating the sovereign as the military's source of authority
The Sovereign's Medal for Volunteers depicts Elizabeth II with a snowflake diadem
Queen Elizabeth II; Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh; Prince Andrew; and Prince Edward at the opening of the 1978 Commonwealth Games in Edmonton, Alberta
Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, and Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, at the Canada Day celebrations in Ottawa, 1 July 2011
Rideau Hall, the principal Canadian official residence of Canada's sovereign, and the sovereign's representative, the governor general
La Citadelle, an official residence of Canada's sovereign, and the governor general
King Francis I of France established colonies in Acadia and Canada in 1534.
Queen Victoria in 1870, three years after her Royal Assent to the British North America Act, creating the Canadian federation.

The monarchy of Canada is Canada's form of government embodied by the Canadian sovereign and head of state.


Mixed or compound mode of government that combines a general government with regional governments (provincial, state, cantonal, territorial, or other sub-unit governments) in a single political system, dividing the powers between the two.

The pathway of regional integration or separation
Satiric depiction of late 19th-century political tensions in Argentina

Examples of a federation or federal province or state include Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Bosnia & Herzegovina, Brazil, Iraq, Canada, Germany, UAE, Mexico, India, Malaysia, Nepal, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russia, Switzerland, and United States.

Constitutional monarchy

Form of monarchy in which the monarch exercises their authority in accordance with a constitution and is not alone in deciding.

The three constitutional monarchs of the Scandinavian kingdoms of Sweden, Norway & Denmark gathered in November 1917 in Oslo.
From left to right: Gustaf V, Haakon VII & Christian X.
A meeting in the Japanese privy council in 1946 led by emperor Hirohito.

Constitutional monarchies range from countries such as Liechtenstein, Monaco, Morocco, Jordan, Kuwait, and Bahrain, where the constitution grants substantial discretionary powers to the sovereign, to countries such as Australia, the United Kingdom, Canada, the Netherlands, Spain, Belgium, Sweden, Malaysia, Thailand, Cambodia, and Japan, where the monarch retains significantly less personal discretion in the exercise of their authority.

House of Commons of Canada

Lower house of the Parliament of Canada.

The main doorway into the chamber of the House of Commons
The chamber of the House of Commons; the speaker's chair is at the rear and centre in the room.
The Centre Block in Ottawa, where the House of Commons met until 13 December 2018.
The governing party sits to the Speaker's right in the House of Commons.
House of Commons Chamber after desks were removed for renovations, December 2018.

Together with the Crown and the Senate of Canada, they comprise the bicameral legislature of Canada.