Canadian Confederation

ConfederationConfederation of CanadaFather of Confederationconfederation with CanadaDominion of CanadaCanadaconfederatedFathers of ConfederationCanada's Confederationthe country's Confederation
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867.wikipedia
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Canada

CanadianCANCanadians
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867.
In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867.
In 1867, New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia and the Province of Canada (now Ontario and Quebec).

Quebec

QuébecProvince of QuebecQC
Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867.

Name of Canada

Dominion of CanadaBorealiaCanada
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867.
Upon Confederation in 1867, the name Canada was officially adopted for the new Dominion of Canada.

Fathers of Confederation

Father of Confederationa Father of ConfederationCanadian Father of Confederation
The term is now often used to describe Canada in an abstract way, such as in "the Fathers of Confederation".
The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown (23 attendees) and Quebec (33) Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 (16) in England, preceding Canadian Confederation.

Nova Scotia

NSNova Scotia, CanadaNova Scotian
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867.
Soon after the American Civil War, Pro-Canadian Confederation premier Charles Tupper led Nova Scotia into the Canadian Confederation on 1 July 1867, along with New Brunswick and the Province of Canada.

Confederation

confederacyconfederalconfederalism
Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which is what "confederation" means in contemporary political theory.
"Confederation" refers to the process of (or the event of) establishing or joining the Canadian federal state.

Former colonies and territories in Canada

European colonies in CanadaCanada's colonies and settlementsCanadian colonies
All the former colonies and territories that became involved in the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, were initially part of New France, and were once ruled by France.
Britain's imperial government over a century later then ceded the land to Canadian control in 1867 after confederation.

Prince Edward Island

PEPEIP.E.I.
However, in 1769 the present-day Prince Edward Island, which had been part of Acadia, was renamed "St John's Island" and organized as a separate colony.
The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation" or "Cradle of Confederation", referring to the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, although PEI did not join Confederation until 1873, when it became the seventh Canadian province.

Federation

federalfederal governmentfederal state
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867. Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which is what "confederation" means in contemporary political theory.
However, Canadians, designed with a stronger central government than the U.S. in the wake of the Civil War of the latter, use the term "Confederation" to refer to the formation or joining, not the structure, of Canada.

Newfoundland and Labrador

NewfoundlandNLNewfoundland & Labrador
The Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol began to settle Newfoundland and Labrador at Cuper's Cove as far back as 1610, and Newfoundland had also been the subject of a French colonial enterprise.
It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on 31 March 1949, as "Newfoundland".

Ontario

Ontario, CanadaONProvince of Ontario
Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces.
The northern and western boundaries of Ontario were in dispute after Canadian Confederation.

Colony of Vancouver Island

Vancouver IslandColonies of Vancouver IslandVancouver Island (1849)
Before joining Canada in 1871, British Columbia consisted of the separate Colony of British Columbia (formed in 1858, in an area where the Crown had granted a monopoly to the Hudson's Bay Company), and the Colony of Vancouver Island (formed in 1849) constituting a separate crown colony until it was united with the colony of British Columbia in 1866.
The united colony joined Canadian Confederation, thus becoming part of Canada, in 1871.

Alexander Tilloch Galt

Alexander GaltSir Alexander Tilloch GaltSir Alexander Galt
In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies.
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt, (September 6, 1817 – September 19, 1893) was a politician and a father of Canadian Confederation.

Responsible government

responsibleresponsible self-governmentself-governing
Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and the new province should have a responsible government.
It was only in the decades leading up to Canadian Confederation in 1867 that the governing councils of those British North American colonies became responsible to the elected representatives of the people.

Province of Canada

Canada WestUnited Province of CanadaCanada
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867. Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and the new province should have a responsible government. The new province was divided into two parts: Canada West (the former Upper Canada) and Canada East (the former Lower Canada).
The Province of Canada ceased to exist at Canadian Confederation on 1 July 1867, when it was divided into the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

George-Étienne Cartier

Sir George-Étienne CartierCartierCartier of Montreal
In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies.
Sir George-Étienne Cartier, 1st Baronet, (pronounced ; September 6, 1814 – May 20, 1873) was a Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaBritish North American
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of the Province of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one federation, Canada (formally the Dominion of Canada), on July 1, 1867.
On 1 July 1867, the Confederation of Canada was created by the British North America Act.

Canada East

Eastern section
The new province was divided into two parts: Canada West (the former Upper Canada) and Canada East (the former Lower Canada).
The former name of "Lower Canada" came back into official use in 1849, and as of the Canadian Confederation of 1867, it formed the newly created province of Quebec.

Canadian Pacific Railway

Canadian PacificCPRCP Rail
According to Smith, the victory of the statist supporters of Confederation over their anti-statist opponents prepared the way for Sir John A. Macdonald's government to enact the protectionist National Policy and to subsidize major infrastructure projects such as the Intercolonial and Pacific Railways.
The railway was first built between eastern Canada and British Columbia between 1881 and 1885 (connecting with Ottawa Valley and Georgian Bay area lines built earlier), fulfilling a promise extended to British Columbia when it entered Confederation in 1871.

Charles Tupper

Sir Charles TupperTupperSir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet
In the spring of 1864, New Brunswick premier Samuel Leonard Tilley, Nova Scotia premier Charles Tupper, and Prince Edward Island premier John Hamilton Gray were contemplating the idea of a Maritime Union which would join their three colonies together.
Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet, (July 2, 1821 – October 30, 1915) was a Canadian father of Confederation: as the premier of Nova Scotia from 1864 to 1867, he led Nova Scotia into Confederation.

John A. Macdonald

Sir John A. MacdonaldJohn Alexander MacdonaldMacdonald
The Premier of the Province of Canada John A. Macdonald surprised the Atlantic premiers by asking if the Province of Canada could be included in the negotiations.
The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.

British Columbia

BCBritish Columbia, CanadaB.C.
The area which constitutes modern-day British Columbia is the remnants of the Hudson's Bay Company's Columbia District and New Caledonia District following the Oregon Treaty.
The Vancouver Island colony was facing financial crises of its own, and pressure to merge the two eventually succeeded in 1866, when the colony of British Columbia was amalgamated with the Colony of Vancouver Island to form the Colony of British Columbia (1866–71), which was, in turn, succeeded by the present day province of British Columbia following the Canadian Confederation of 1871.

Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada

Joint Premier of the Province of CanadaPremier of the Province of CanadaCo-Premier
The Premier of the Province of Canada John A. Macdonald surprised the Atlantic premiers by asking if the Province of Canada could be included in the negotiations.
Joint Premiers of the Province of Canada were the leaders of the Province of Canada, from the 1841 unification of Upper Canada and Lower Canada until Confederation in 1867.

Hudson's Bay Company

Hudson’s Bay CompanyHBCHudson Bay Company
The remainder of modern-day Canada was made up of Rupert's Land and the North-Western Territory (both of which were controlled by the Hudson's Bay Company and sold to Canada in 1870) and the Arctic Islands, which were under direct British control and became a part of Canada in 1880.
The Deed enabled the admission of the fifth province, Manitoba, to the Confederation on 15 July 1870, the same day that the deed itself came into force.