Canadian Confederation

ConfederationFather of ConfederationConfederation of Canadaconfederation with CanadaDominion of CanadaconfederatedFathers of ConfederationCanadaCanada's Confederationthe country's Confederation
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.wikipedia
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Dominion

Dominionsdominion statusBritish Dominion
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
A dominion was the name given to the semi-independent polities under the British Crown, constituting the British Empire, beginning with Canadian Confederation in 1867.

Canada

🇨🇦CanadianCAN
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
In 1867, with the union of three British North American colonies through Confederation, Canada was formed as a federal dominion of four provinces.

British colonization of the Americas

BritishEnglishBritish colonies
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
Eventually, with the Confederation of Canada, the Canadian colonies were granted significant autonomy and became a self-governing Dominion in 1867.

Provinces and territories of Canada

ProvinceCanadian provinceprovincial
Over the years since Confederation, Canada has seen numerous territorial changes and expansions, resulting in the current union of ten provinces and three territories.
In the 1867 Canadian Confederation, three provinces of British North America—New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and the Province of Canada (which upon Confederation was divided into Ontario and Quebec)—were united to form a federated colony, becoming a sovereign nation in the next century.

New Brunswick

NBProvince of New BrunswickNew Brunswick, Canada
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
In 1867 New Brunswick was one of four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation, along with Nova Scotia, Quebec, and Ontario.

Nova Scotia

NSProvince of Nova ScotiaNova Scotia, Canada
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867.
In 1867, Nova Scotia became one of the four founding provinces of the Canadian Confederation.

Quebec

QCQuébécoisQuébec
Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces.
This territory was redivided into the Provinces of Quebec and Ontario at Confederation in 1867.

Fathers of Confederation

Father of Confederationa Father of ConfederationCanadian Father of Confederation
The term is now often used to describe Canada in an abstract way, such as in "the Fathers of Confederation".
The Fathers of Confederation are the 36 people who attended at least one of the Charlottetown (23 attendees) and Quebec (33) Conferences in 1864 and the London Conference of 1866 (16) in England, preceding Canadian Confederation.

Confederation

confederacyconfederalconfederations
Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which "confederation" means in contemporary political theory.
"Confederation" refers to the process of (or the event of) establishing or joining the Canadian federal state.

Former colonies and territories in Canada

European colonies in Canadacolonial period in CanadaCanada's colonies and settlements
All the former colonies and territories that became involved in the Canadian Confederation on July 1, 1867, were initially part of New France, and were once ruled by France.
Britain's imperial government over a century later then ceded the land to Canadian control in 1867 after confederation.

Prince Edward Island

PEPEISt. John's Island
However, in 1769 the present-day Prince Edward Island, which had been part of Acadia, was renamed "St John's Island" and organized as a separate colony.
The island has several informal names: "Garden of the Gulf", referring to the pastoral scenery and lush agricultural lands throughout the province; and "Birthplace of Confederation" or "Cradle of Confederation", referring to the Charlottetown Conference in 1864, although PEI did not join Confederation until 1873, when it became the seventh Canadian province.

Newfoundland and Labrador

NewfoundlandNLLabrador
The Society of Merchant Venturers of Bristol began to settle Newfoundland and Labrador at Cuper's Cove as far back as 1610, and Newfoundland had also been the subject of a French colonial enterprise.
It became the tenth province to enter the Canadian Confederation on March 31, 1949, as "Newfoundland".

Federation

federalfederal governmentfederal state
Canada is a federation and not a confederate association of sovereign states, which "confederation" means in contemporary political theory.
However, Canadians, designed with a stronger central government than the U.S. in the wake of the Civil War of the latter, use the term "Confederation" to refer to the formation or joining, not the structure, of Canada.

Ontario

ONProvince of OntarioOntario, Canada
Upon confederation, the old province of Canada was divided into Ontario and Quebec; along with Nova Scotia and New Brunswick, the new federation thus comprised four provinces.
The northern and western boundaries of Ontario were in dispute after Canadian Confederation.

Colony of Vancouver Island

Vancouver IslandColonies of Vancouver IslandVancouver Island (1849)
Prior to joining Canada in 1871, British Columbia consisted of the separate Colony of British Columbia (formed in 1858, in an area where the Crown had previously granted a monopoly to the Hudson's Bay Company), and the Colony of Vancouver Island (formed in 1849) constituting a separate crown colony until it was united with the colony of British Columbia in 1866.
The united colony joined Canadian Confederation, thus becoming part of Canada, in 1871.

Alexander Tilloch Galt

Sir Alexander Tilloch GaltAlexander GaltGalt
In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies.
Sir Alexander Tilloch Galt, (September 6, 1817 – September 19, 1893), was a politician and a father of Canadian Confederation.

Responsible government

responsibleresponsible self-governmentself-governing
Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended that Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and that the new province should have a responsible government.
It was only in the decades leading up to Canadian Confederation in 1867 that the governing councils of those British North American colonies became responsible to the elected representatives of the people.

Province of Canada

CanadaprovinceCanada West
Canadian Confederation (Confédération canadienne) was the process by which the British colonies of Canada, Nova Scotia, and New Brunswick were united into one Dominion of Canada on July 1, 1867. Following the Rebellions of 1837, Lord Durham in his Durham Report, recommended that Upper and Lower Canada be joined as the Province of Canada and that the new province should have a responsible government. The new province was divided into two parts: Canada West (the former Upper Canada) and Canada East (the former Lower Canada).
The Province of Canada ceased to exist at Canadian Confederation on 1 July 1867, when it was divided into the Canadian provinces of Ontario and Quebec.

George-Étienne Cartier

CartierSir George-Étienne CartierCartier of Montreal
In 1859, Alexander Tilloch Galt, George-Étienne Cartier and John Ross travelled to Great Britain to present the British Parliament with a project for confederation of the British colonies.
Sir George-Étienne Cartier, 1st Baronet, (pronounced ; September 6, 1814 – May 20, 1873) was a Canadian statesman and Father of Confederation.

British North America

BritishNorth AmericaCanada
In the wake of the American Revolution, an estimated 50,000 United Empire Loyalists fled to British North America.
On 1 July 1867, the Confederation of Canada was created by the British North America Act.

Canada East

Eastern section
The new province was divided into two parts: Canada West (the former Upper Canada) and Canada East (the former Lower Canada).
The former name of "Lower Canada" came back into official use in 1849, and as of the Canadian Confederation of 1867, it formed the newly created province of Quebec.

Canadian Pacific Railway

CPRCanadian PacificCP
According to Smith, the victory of the statist supporters of Confederation over their anti-statist opponents prepared the way for Sir John A. Macdonald’s government to enact the protectionist National Policy and to subsidize major infrastructure projects such as the Intercolonial and Pacific Railways.
The railway was first built between eastern Canada and British Columbia between 1881 and 1885 (connecting with Ottawa Valley and Georgian Bay area lines built earlier), fulfilling a promise extended to British Columbia when it entered Confederation in 1871.

Charles Tupper

Sir Charles TupperTuppera former Prime Minister of Canada
In the spring of 1864, New Brunswick premier Samuel Leonard Tilley, Nova Scotia premier Charles Tupper, and Prince Edward Island premier John Hamilton Gray were contemplating the idea of a Maritime Union which would join their three colonies together.
Sir Charles Tupper, 1st Baronet, (July 2, 1821 – October 30, 1915) was a Canadian father of Confederation: as the premier of Nova Scotia from 1864 to 1867, he led Nova Scotia into Confederation.

List of premiers of Nova Scotia

Premier of Nova ScotiaPremier17th
In the spring of 1864, New Brunswick premier Samuel Leonard Tilley, Nova Scotia premier Charles Tupper, and Prince Edward Island premier John Hamilton Gray were contemplating the idea of a Maritime Union which would join their three colonies together.
The Canadian province of Nova Scotia was a British colony with a system of responsible government since 1848, before it joined Canadian Confederation in 1867.

John A. Macdonald

Sir John A. MacdonaldMacdonaldPrime Minister Macdonald
The Premier of the Province of Canada John A. Macdonald surprised the Atlantic premiers by asking if the Province of Canada could be included in the negotiations.
The dominant figure of Canadian Confederation, he had a political career which spanned almost half a century.