Canal

canalsnavigationsartificial waterwaychannelnavigationwater channelnavigation channelship channelartificial canalsartificial drainage channel
Canals are waterways channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.wikipedia
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Aqueduct (water supply)

aqueductaqueductsconduit
In modern engineering, the term aqueduct is used for any system of pipes, ditches, canals, tunnels, and other structures used for this purpose.

Gracht

canalcanalsGrachten
They became grachten when the city was enlarged and houses were built alongside the water.
Gracht (plural: grachten) is a Dutch word for a canal within a city.

Lehigh Canal

Carbon County Section of the Lehigh CanalLehigh Canal: Eastern Section Glendon and Abbott Street Industrial SitesLehigh Canal; Allentown to Hopeville Section
In 1855 the Lehigh Canal carried over 1.2 million tons of anthracite coal; by the 1930s the company which built and operated it over a century pulled the plug. Examples include the Lehigh Canal in Northeastern Pennsylvania's coal Region, Basse Saône, Canal de Mines de Fer de la Moselle, and Aisne River.
The Lehigh Canal or the Lehigh Navigation Canal is a navigable canal, beginning at the mouth of Nesquehoning Creek on the Lehigh River in Eastern Pennsylvania.

Ship canal

canallerpackage freightercanalised
including most ship canals, today primarily service mostly bulk cargo and large ship transportation industries, whereas the once critical smaller inland waterways conceived and engineered as boat and barge canals have largely been supplanted and filled in, abandoned and left to deteriorate, or kept in service and staffed by state employees, where dams and locks are maintained for flood control or pleasure boating. Smaller transportation canals can carry barges or narrowboats, while ship canals allow seagoing ships to travel to an inland port (e.g., Manchester Ship Canal), or from one sea or ocean to another (e.g., Caledonian Canal, Panama Canal).
A ship canal is a canal especially intended to accommodate ships used on the oceans, seas or lakes to which it is connected, as opposed to a barge canal intended to carry barges and other vessels specifically designed for river and/or canal navigation.

Power canal

hydro power canalswater power
* See also: Power canal
A Power Canal refers to a canal used for hydraulic power generation, rather than for transport of watercraft.

Irrigation

irrigatedirrigateirrigation system
The oldest known canals were irrigation canals, built in Mesopotamia circa 4000 BC, in what is now Iraq and Iran.
The Indus Valley Civilization developed sophisticated irrigation and water-storage systems, including artificial reservoirs at Girnar dated to 3000 BCE, and an early canal irrigation system from c.

Barge

bargescanal boatcanal boats
Smaller transportation canals can carry barges or narrowboats, while ship canals allow seagoing ships to travel to an inland port (e.g., Manchester Ship Canal), or from one sea or ocean to another (e.g., Caledonian Canal, Panama Canal).
A barge is a shoal-draft flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of bulk goods.

Maritime transport

Ship transportshippingwater transport
including most ship canals, today primarily service mostly bulk cargo and large ship transportation industries, whereas the once critical smaller inland waterways conceived and engineered as boat and barge canals have largely been supplanted and filled in, abandoned and left to deteriorate, or kept in service and staffed by state employees, where dams and locks are maintained for flood control or pleasure boating. Canals are waterways channels, or artificial waterways, for water conveyance, or to service water transport vehicles.
Arguably, the industrial revolution took place best where cheap water transport by canal, navigations, or shipping by all types of watercraft on natural waterways supported cost effective bulk transport.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal

C&O CanalChesapeake & Ohio CanalChesapeake and Ohio Canal Company
Construction on the 184.5 mi canal began in 1828 and ended in 1850 with the completion of a 50-mile stretch to Cumberland.

Caledonian Canal

Caledonian
Smaller transportation canals can carry barges or narrowboats, while ship canals allow seagoing ships to travel to an inland port (e.g., Manchester Ship Canal), or from one sea or ocean to another (e.g., Caledonian Canal, Panama Canal).
The canal was constructed in the early nineteenth century by Scottish engineer Thomas Telford.

Canal inclined plane

inclined planeinclined planesinclines
These include boat lifts, such as the Falkirk Wheel, which use a caisson of water in which boats float while being moved between two levels; and inclined planes where a caisson is hauled up a steep railway.
An inclined plane is a system used on some canals for raising boats between different water levels.

Trent and Mersey Canal

Trent and MerseyGrand Trunk CanalTrent & Mersey canal
An example of this approach is the Harecastle Tunnel on the Trent and Mersey Canal.
The Trent and Mersey Canal is a 93+1/2 mi canal in Derbyshire, Staffordshire and Cheshire in north-central England.

Harecastle Tunnel

HarecastleHarecastle Tunnel(Brindley)
An example of this approach is the Harecastle Tunnel on the Trent and Mersey Canal.
Harecastle Tunnel is a canal tunnel on the Trent and Mersey Canal in Staffordshire between Kidsgrove and Tunstall.

Juliana Canal

Julianakanaal
The Juliana Canal (Julianakanaal), named after Queen Juliana of the Netherlands, is a 36 km long canal in the southern Netherlands, providing a bypass of an unnavigable section of the river Meuse between Maastricht and Maasbracht.

Utrecht

Utrecht, NetherlandsUtrecht (city)city of Utrecht
Other cities with extensive canal networks include: Alkmaar, Amersfoort, Bolsward, Brielle, Delft, Den Bosch, Dokkum, Dordrecht, Enkhuizen, Franeker, Gouda, Haarlem, Harlingen, Leeuwarden, Leiden, Sneek and Utrecht in the Netherlands; Brugge and Gent in Flanders, Belgium; Birmingham in England; Saint Petersburg in Russia; Aveiro in Portugal; Hamburg and Berlin in Germany; Fort Lauderdale and Cape Coral in Florida, United States and Lahore in Pakistan.
When the main flow of the Rhine moved south, the old bed which still flowed through the heart of the town became ever more canalized; and the wharf system was built as an inner city harbour system.

Canal du Midi

Around 1500–1800 the first summit level canal to use pound locks in Europe was the Briare Canal connecting the Loire and Seine (1642), followed by the more ambitious Canal du Midi (1683) connecting the Atlantic to the Mediterranean.
The building of a canal was an old idea.

Contour canal

contour gravity canalcontour linecontour or mathematical canal
These canals known as contour canals would take longer, winding routes, along which the land was a uniform altitude.
A contour canal is an artificially-dug navigable canal which closely follows the contour line of the land it traverses in order to avoid costly engineering works such as boring a tunnel through higher ground, building an embankment over lower ground, or constructing a canal lock (or series of locks) to change the level of the canal.

Puddling (civil engineering)

puddle claypuddlingpuddled
When this is done with clay, it is known as puddling.
Puddling is used in maintaining canals or reservoirs on permeable ground.

Canal lining

anti-infiltration liningsline
Depending on the stratum the canal passes through, it may be necessary to line the cut with some form of watertight material such as clay or concrete.
Canal linings are also used to prevent weed growth, which can spread throughout an irrigation system and reduce water flow.

Coal Region

Northern Anthracite Coal FieldregionAnthracite Coal Region
Examples include the Lehigh Canal in Northeastern Pennsylvania's coal Region, Basse Saône, Canal de Mines de Fer de la Moselle, and Aisne River.
By 1818, customers fed up with the inconsistent mismanagement, leased the Lehigh Coal Mining Company and founded the Lehigh Navigation Company: construction soon began for navigation; the locks and dams on the Lehigh River rapids stretches, later known as the Lehigh Canal (finished in 1820).

Fossa Carolina

channelchannel project
The first artificial canal in Western Europe was the Fossa Carolina built at the end of the 8th century under personal supervision of Charlemagne.
The Fossa Carolina (or Karlsgraben in German) was a canal named after Charlemagne in what is today the German state of Bavaria, intended to connect the Swabian Rezat river to the Altmühl river (the Rhine basin to the Danube basin).

Naviglio Grande

More lasting and of more economic impact were canals like the Naviglio Grande built between 1127 and 1257 to connect Milan with the Ticino River.
The Naviglio Grande is a canal in Lombardy, northern Italy, connecting the Ticino river near Tornavento (23 km south of Sesto Calende) to the Porta Ticinese dock, also known as the Darsena, in Milan.

Grand Canal (China)

Grand CanalGrand Canal of ChinaBeijing-Hangzhou Grand Canal
By far the longest canal was the Grand Canal of China, still the longest canal in the world today and the oldest extant one. To break out of the limitations caused by river valleys, the first summit level canals were developed with the Grand Canal of China in 581–617 AD whilst in Europe the first, also using single locks, was the Stecknitz Canal in Germany in 1398.
The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest as well as the oldest canal or artificial river in the world.

Stecknitz Canal

To break out of the limitations caused by river valleys, the first summit level canals were developed with the Grand Canal of China in 581–617 AD whilst in Europe the first, also using single locks, was the Stecknitz Canal in Germany in 1398.
The Stecknitz Canal (Stecknitzfahrt) was an artificial waterway in northern Germany which connected Lauenburg and Lübeck on the Old Salt Route by linking the tiny rivers Stecknitz (a tributary of the Trave) and Delvenau (a tributary of the Elbe), thus establishing an inland water route across the drainage divide from the North Sea to the Baltic Sea.

Briare Canal

Canal de Briare
Around 1500–1800 the first summit level canal to use pound locks in Europe was the Briare Canal connecting the Loire and Seine (1642), followed by the more ambitious Canal du Midi (1683) connecting the Atlantic to the Mediterranean.
The Briare Canal (Canal de Briare, is one of the oldest canals in France.