A report on Canal and Erie Canal

The Alter Strom, in the sea resort of Warnemünde, Germany.
The Royal Canal in Ireland.
Erie Canal map c. 1840
Small boat canals such as the Basingstoke Canal fuelled the industrial revolution in much of Europe and the United States.
Aqueduct over the Mohawk River at Rexford, one of 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal
Bridge on the Naviglio Grande, in the town of Cassinetta di Lugagnano, in Italy
The Mohawk Valley, running east and west, cuts a natural pathway (water gap) between the Catskill Mountains to the south and the Adirondack Mountains to the north.
Canal in Broek in Waterland, Netherlands.
Profile of the original canal
Canal in Venice.
Operations at Lockport, New York, in 1839
Saimaa Canal, a transportation canal between Finland and Russia, in Lappeenranta
Stonework of lock abandoned because of route change, at Durhamville, New York
Westbury Court Garden: the garden "Canal".
An original five-step lock structure crossing the Niagara Escarpment at Lockport, now without gates and used as a cascade for excess water
Loading Anthracite on the Lehigh Canal to feed the early United States industries in the pioneer-era.
Erie Canal lock in Lockport, New York
1. Design High Water Level (HWL)
  2. Low water channel
    3. Flood channel
    4. Riverside slope
    5. Riverside banquette
    6. Levee crown
    7. Landside slope
    8. Landside banquette
    9. Berm
   10. Low water revetment
   11. Riverside land
   12. Levee
   13. Protected lowland
   14. River zone
1853 map of New York canals emboldened, center: the Erie Canal; other lines: railroads, rivers and county borders
The Danube-Black Sea Canal in Romania
Lithograph of the Erie Canal at Lockport, New York c. 1855. Published for Herrman J. Meyer, 164 William Street, New York City.
The Amsterdam-Rhine Canal near Rijswijk, Netherlands
Aqueduct over Nine Mile Creek north of Camillus, New York, built in 1841 and abandoned c. 1918; one of 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal, it has since been restored.
Canal de Castilla in Castile and León, Spain, is 207 km long, crossing 38 municipalities. Initially built to transport wheat, it is now used for irrigation.
Upstream view of the downstream lock at Lock 32, Pittsford, New York
Canal in Sète, France.
Map of the "Water Level Routes" of the New York Central Railroad (purple), West Shore Railroad (red) and Erie Canal (blue)
The Grand Canal of China at Suzhou.
Rochester, New York, aqueduct c. 1890
Thal Canal, Punjab, Pakistan.
Two "low" lift bridges in Lockport, New York, July 2010
Dutch canal in Negombo, Sri Lanka.
The modern Erie Canal has 34 locks, which are painted with the blue and gold colors of the New York State Canal System.
Lowell's power canal system.
Gateway Harbor in North Tonawanda, about 1000 ft from the present-day western terminus of the Erie Canal where it connects to the Niagara River
Bridgewater Canal in England
The Old Erie Canal and its towpath at Kirkville, New York, within Old Erie Canal State Historic Park
Erie Canal, Lockport, New York, c. 1855
Buffalo's Erie Canal Commercial Slip in Spring 2008
Aqueduct over the Mohawk River at Rexford, New York, one of 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal.
Erie Canal Lock 18, Cohoes, New York
Sluice in the canal of Gabčíkovo Dam (Slovakia) – the canal is conveying water to a hydroelectric power station.
Old Erie Canal State Historic Park, DeWitt, New York
American canals circa 1825.
The modern single lock at the Niagara Escarpment
A family rides a boat in one of the canals of Amsterdam.
A proposal for the Nicaragua Canal, from around 1870.
Abandoned DeLessups equipment, Panama jungle
Canals can disrupt water circulation in marsh systems.
A canal (Gracht) in Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Griboyedov Canal in St. Petersburg, Russia.
Aerial view of the man-made canals of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia.
Wharfs along the Oudegracht in Utrecht, Netherlands.
Canal of La Peyrade in Sète, France.
Two Panamax ships in the Miraflores Locks on the Panama Canal, Panama.
alt=A series of approximately 20 black lock gates with white ends to the paddle arms and wooden railings, each slightly higher than the one below. On the right is a path and on both side's grass and vegetation.|The flight of 16 consecutive locks at Caen Hill on the Kennet and Avon Canal, Wiltshire.
A canal boat traverses the longest and highest aqueduct in the UK, at Pontcysyllte in Denbighshire, Wales.
The Corinth Canal seen from the air.
Miami and Erie Canal Lock in Ohio, United States

The Erie Canal is a historic canal in upstate New York that runs east-west between the Hudson River and Lake Erie.

- Erie Canal

The Erie Canal (opened 1825) was chartered and owned by the state of New York and financed by bonds bought by private investors.

- Canal
The Alter Strom, in the sea resort of Warnemünde, Germany.

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A towpath in use on the Finow Canal in Germany.


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A towpath in use on the Finow Canal in Germany.
People towing a vessel in the Netherlands in 1931
Mules pulling boat on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal.
A roving bridge on the English Staffordshire and Worcestershire Canal. The towpath changes to the other side of the canal but the horse does not have to be unhitched
A towpath cut into the rock beside the Lot river in south-west France
"Towboats Along the Yotsugi-dōri Canal" from Hiroshige's "One Hundred Famous Views of Edo" series; a depiction of a towpath in rural Tokyo, mid 19c.
Example of Rope abrasion, on a bridge (which also functions as a stop gate) on the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal

A towpath is a road or trail on the bank of a river, canal, or other inland waterway.

Erie Canal

Canal lock and lock-keeper's cottage on the Aylesbury Arm of the Grand Union Canal at Marsworth in Hertfordshire, England

Lock (water navigation)

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Device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.

Device used for raising and lowering boats, ships and other watercraft between stretches of water of different levels on river and canal waterways.

Canal lock and lock-keeper's cottage on the Aylesbury Arm of the Grand Union Canal at Marsworth in Hertfordshire, England
Lock on the River Neckar at Heidelberg in Germany
Three Gorges Dam lock near Yichang on Yangtze river, China
A gate in the Hatton flight in England
Iroquois Lock on the Saint Lawrence Seaway
A pound lock on the Keitele–Päijänne Canal at Äänekoski in Central Finland
A plan and side view of a generic, empty canal lock. A lock chamber separated from the rest of the canal by an upper pair and a lower pair of mitre gates. The gates in each pair close against each other at an 18° angle to approximate an arch against the water pressure on the "upstream" side of the gates when the water level on the "downstream" side is lower.
Operation of a canal lock 
1–3. Boat enters 'empty' lock 
4. Bottom gates are closed, bottom paddles closed, top paddles opened, lock starts to fill 
5. Lock is filling with water, lifting boat to the higher level
Collection of lock windlasses. Note: rakes are for clearing trash out of the lock.
Snubbing a boat to keep it from hitting the downstream gates. Note the rope wrapped around the snubbing post.
Doubled locks. Left lock has boat in it, right lock (center of drawing) is empty. This is on the Erie Canal at Lockport.
Agde Round Lock
Dalmuir drop lock
Berendrecht Lock (right) and Zandvliet Lock (left), located at the entrance to the Port of Antwerp (top) from the Scheldt (foreground)
Barges at a lock on the Mississippi River
Model of early river pound lock, constructed in Lankheet water park, Netherlands
The turf-sided Monkey Marsh Lock on the Kennet & Avon Canal at Thatcham
Operation of caisson lock
Entrance to Minden shaft lock
Three Gorges Dam model view. A pair of five locking steps is at center with a ship lift to the left
The cill exposed in the deep Pont de Flandre lock on the Canal Saint-Denis, Paris
Top gate of a lock, showing the balance beams and paddle winding gear
200-year-old paddle gear on the Wiener Neustädter Kanal, Austria
Water conservation gear on the Birmingham Canal Navigations
Lock gate controls on a canal

Locks are used to make a river more easily navigable, or to allow a canal to cross land that is not level.

On the old Erie Canal, there was a danger of injury when operating the paddles: water, on reaching a certain position, would push the paddles with a force which could tear the windlass (or handle) out of one's hands, or if one was standing in the wrong place, could knock one into the canal, leading to injuries and drownings.

The Grand Canal, under Sui and Tang dynasties.

Grand Canal (China)

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The Grand Canal, under Sui and Tang dynasties.
The invention of the water-level-adjusting pound lock in the 10th century CE was done in response to the necessity of greater safety for the travel of barge ships along the rougher waters of the Grand Canal.
The Chinese invention of the pound lock system allows for water levels to be raised or lowered to improve travel in the canal.
The Yongle Emperor (r. 1402–1424) restored the Grand Canal in the Ming era.
Grand Canal. Drawing by William Alexander, draughtsman of the Macartney Embassy to China in 1793.
The Qianlong Emperor's Southern Inspection Tour, Scroll Six: Entering Suzhou along the Grand Canal dated 1770.
Barges on the modern Grand Canal ("Li Canal" section) near Yangzhou
The Jiangnan Canal
Grand Canal tour boats, Suzhou
The canal in Jining City
The junction of the Lu Canal and South Canal
The Grand Canal at its northern terminus at Houhai in Beijing.
The South–North Water Transfer Project central route starting point in Nanyang. Looking "upstream", toward the Danjiangkou Reservoir, from which the water is coming.

The Grand Canal, known to the Chinese as the Jing–Hang Grand Canal (, or more commonly, as the「大运河」("Grand Canal")), a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the longest canal or artificial river in the world.

The Erie Canal in North America is designed and draws inspiration from the Chinese architecture.

Chesapeake and Ohio Canal

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The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, abbreviated as the C&O Canal and occasionally called the "Grand Old Ditch," operated from 1831 until 1924 along the Potomac River between Washington, D.C., and Cumberland, Maryland.

The Chesapeake and Ohio Canal, abbreviated as the C&O Canal and occasionally called the "Grand Old Ditch," operated from 1831 until 1924 along the Potomac River between Washington, D.C., and Cumberland, Maryland.

Map of planned route.
A boat on the canal, circa 1900-1924
Canal boats waiting to be unloaded in Georgetown.
Low-angle bird's-eye view of central Washington toward the west and northwest with The Capitol in foreground. The Canal is visible running along the mall.
C&O Canal in the Georgetown neighborhood of Washington, D.C.
Boat construction yard in Cumberland, MD
Map of Terminus in Cumberland in the mid 1890s. Yellow dots indicate modern highways as well as current (2013) location of Canal basin.
Register of waybills in the Cumberland Office, in 1858. Each canal boat had to have a waybill, even if empty, for passage through the canal. Fines were levied for lack of a waybill.
5 and 10 dollar notes, from C&O Canal company
Floodwaters around Lock 6 in 1936
Great Falls feeder culvert (no longer used) indicated by yellow arrow(14.08 mi), and Lock 18 (R).
Boat at Big Slackwater
An informal overflow. The towpath dips, allowing water to flow over it. Note the boards in the background for people to walk on.
Paw Paw Tunnel
Remains of the inclined plane
Culvert #30 lets Muddy Branch under the canal
Repairs at Big Pool
Mules being fed.
A steamboat on the C&O Canal. Note the steering wheel and the smokestack on this boat
Children tethered to canal boat. This photo was probably taken in one of the Cumberland basins.
Model interior of a C&O Canal freight boat
Recent view of the 9 mile level (between 33 and 34 miles) where the ghosts were reported to haunt.
Monocacy aqueduct in 2011, where the ghost of a robber could allegedly be seen on moonless nights

Construction on the 184.5 mi canal began in 1828 and ended in 1850 with the completion of a 50 mi stretch to Cumberland, although the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad had already reached Cumberland in 1842.

The Erie Canal, built between 1817 and 1825, threatened traders south of New York City, who began to seek their own transportation infrastructure to link the burgeoning areas west of the Appalachian Mountains to mid-Atlantic markets and ports.

Barges towed by a tugboat on the River Thames in London, England, UK


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Barges towed by a tugboat on the River Thames in London, England, UK
A barge carrying recycling material on Deûle channel in Lambersart, France
Towboat pushing a barge on the Chicago River
Multiple barges pushed around a tight bend on the Cumberland River
Towboat Herbert P. Brake of New York pushes a new barge east on the Erie Canal in Fairport, New York, United States
Self-propelled car barge on the River Danube
Barges near Toulouse, France
Self-propelled barge Andromeda in canal at Hanover, Germany
Tank barge on the River Moselle, Germany
Self-propelled barge carrying bulk crushed stone
Self-propelled barge in the port of IJmuiden, Netherlands
Barge carrying the Space Shuttle external tank for STS-119 under tow to Port Canaveral, Florida, United States
Self-propelled barges on the Grand Canal of China near Yangzhou, Jiangsu, China
Coal barges passing Heinz Field in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania on the Ohio River
Royal Barge Suphannahong docked at Wat Arun pier, one of the Thai royal barges featured in the royal barge ceremony
Towboat Donna York pushing barges of coal up the Ohio River at Louisville, Kentucky, United States
Barge Haulers on the Volga (1870–73), by Ilya Repin
Tongkang or car barge, landed on Ketapang Port, Banyuwangi, Indonesia
Slipway at Portland Harbour, Dorset, England, holding a split dump barge (on right)
Barge on the river Mosel in Germany.
US Navy Water Type B ship Barge, YW-59, launched August 29, 1941
YFN-958 a covered lighter barge, non-Self-propelled. Built by Mare Island Navy Shipyard in 1944.
Ferrocement Barge, US-102, in the Erie Canal
WW2 concrete barge at the National Waterways Museum, Ellesmere Port, Cheshire, UK
Sun shining into the empty asphalt barge Endeavour while under repair in Muskegon, Michigan.
thumb|A barge decorated to look like a pelican carrying a jumbotron display.

A barge is a flat-bottomed boat, built mainly for river and canal transport of bulk goods.

The barge and canal system contended favourably with the railways in the early Industrial Revolution before around the 1850s–1860s; for example, the Erie Canal in New York state is credited by economic historians with giving the growth boost needed for New York City to eclipse Philadelphia as America's largest port and city – but such canal systems with their locks, need for maintenance and dredging, pumps and sanitary issues were eventually outcompeted in the carriage of high-value items by the railways due to the higher speed, falling costs and route flexibility of rail transport.

Narrowboat crossing the World Heritage Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in Wales

Navigable aqueduct

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Narrowboat crossing the World Heritage Pontcysyllte Aqueduct in Wales
Out-of-use cast-iron Longdon-on-Tern Aqueduct
The Magdeburg Water Bridge seen from the shores of the Elbe
Passenger (packet) boat on the Monocacy Aqueduct of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal
The wall of the Conococheague Creek aqueduct collapsed when a boat hit it, shutting down navigation until repaired.
The captain jumped off the boat before the wall went out, dumping the boat into the creek below. There were no casualties in this accident.
The Seneca Aqueduct was a lift lock as well as an aqueduct.
This wooden aqueduct carried the Morris Canal over the Pompton River.

Navigable aqueducts (sometimes called water bridges) are bridge structures that carry navigable waterway canals over other rivers, valleys, railways or roads.

There were 32 navigable aqueducts on the Erie Canal, constructed 1817–1825 in New York State, United States.