A report on Cancer

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

- Cancer
A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

176 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis

Metastasis

24 links

Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis
Cut surface of a liver showing multiple paler metastatic nodules originating from pancreatic cancer
Lymph node with almost complete replacement by metastatic melanoma. The brown pigment is focal deposition of melanin
Main sites of metastases for some common cancer types. Primary cancers are denoted by "...cancer" and their main metastasis sites are denoted by "...metastases".
Pulmonary metastases shown on Chest X-Ray
Cut surface of a humerus sawn lengthwise, showing a large cancerous metastasis (the whitish tumor between the head and the shaft of the bone)
Micrograph of thyroid cancer (papillary thyroid carcinoma) in a lymph node of the neck. H&E stain
CT image of multiple liver metastases
CT image of a lung metastasis
Metastasis proven by liver biopsy (tumor (adenocarcinoma)—lower two-thirds of image). H&E stain.
Metastatic cancer in the lungs
Metastases from the lungs to the brain
Metastases from the lungs to the pancreas

Metastasis is a pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)

Lung cancer

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Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)
Relationship between cigarette consumption per person (blue) and male lung cancer rates (dark yellow) in the US over the century
Risk of death from lung cancer is strongly correlated with smoking.
CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung
Primary pulmonary sarcoma in an asymptomatic 72-year-old male
Pie chart showing incidences of NSCLCs as compared to SCLCs shown at right, with fractions of smokers versus nonsmokers shown for each type
Cross section of a human lung: The white area in the upper lobe is cancer; the black areas are discoloration due to smoking.
Pneumonectomy specimen containing a squamous-cell carcinoma, seen as a white area near the bronchi
Brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy) for lung cancer given via the airway
Monoclonal antibodies used in the treatment of NSCLC and their mechanism of action https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
The main treatment arms of phase 3 clinical trials providing immunotherapy in the first line for patients with NSCLC https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
Overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with protocols incorporating immunotherapy in the first line for advanced or metastatic disease. Nasser NJ, Gorenberg M, Agbarya A. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 373;
Lung cancer, incidence, mortality, and survival, England 1971–2011
Stage IA and IB lung cancer
Stage IIA lung cancer
Stage IIB lung cancer
One option for stage IIB lung cancer, with T2b; but if tumor is within 2 cm of the carina, this is stage 3
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIA lung cancer, if there is one feature from the list on each side
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IV lung cancer
Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers deaths per million persons in 2012
0–78–1213–3233–5354–8182–125126–286287–398399–527528–889

Most cancers that start in the lung, known as primary lung cancers, are carcinomas.

A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and cold booties are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails.

Chemotherapy

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Type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

Type of cancer treatment that uses one or more anti-cancer drugs (chemotherapeutic agents) as part of a standardized chemotherapy regimen.

A woman being treated with docetaxel chemotherapy for breast cancer. Cold mittens and cold booties are placed on her hands and feet to reduce harm to her nails.
Dose response relationship of cell killing by chemotherapeutic drugs on normal and cancer cells. At high doses the percentage of normal and cancer cells killed is very similar. For this reason, doses are chosen where anti-tumour activity exceeds normal cell death.
5-FU dose management results in significantly better response and survival rates versus BSA dosing.
5-FU dose management avoids serious side effects experienced with BSA dosing
Two DNA bases that are cross-linked by a nitrogen mustard. Different nitrogen mustards will have different chemical groups (R). The nitrogen mustards most commonly alkylate the N7 nitrogen of guanine (as shown here) but other atoms can be alkylated.
Deoxycytidine (left) and two anti-metabolite drugs (center and right); gemcitabine and decitabine. The drugs are very similar but they have subtle differences in their chemical structure.
Vinca alkaloids prevent the assembly of microtubules, whereas taxanes prevent their disassembly. Both mechanisms cause defective mitosis.
Topoisomerase I and II Inhibitors
Two girls with acute lymphoblastic leukemia receiving chemotherapy. The girl on the left has a central venous catheter inserted in her neck. The girl on the right has a peripheral venous catheter. The arm board stabilizes the arm during needle insertion. Anti-cancer IV drip is seen at top right.
The four phases of the cell cycle. G1 – the initial growth phase. S – the phase in which DNA is synthesised. G2 – the second growth phase in preparation for cell division. M – mitosis; where the cell divides to produce two daughter cells that continue the cell cycle.
Sidney Farber did pioneering work in chemotherapy
Scanning electron micrograph of mesoporous silica; a type of nanoparticle used in the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs.

Chemotherapy is one of the major categories of the medical discipline specifically devoted to pharmacotherapy for cancer, which is called medical oncology.

Radiation therapy of the pelvis, using a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator. Lasers and a mould under the legs are used to determine exact position.

Radiation therapy

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Therapy using ionizing radiation, generally provided as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

Therapy using ionizing radiation, generally provided as part of cancer treatment to control or kill malignant cells and normally delivered by a linear accelerator.

Radiation therapy of the pelvis, using a Varian Clinac iX linear accelerator. Lasers and a mould under the legs are used to determine exact position.
Radiation therapy for a patient with a diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma, with radiation dose color-coded.
Histopathology of radiation cystitis, including atypical stromal cells (“radiation fibroblasts”).
The beam's eye view of the radiotherapy portal on the hand's surface with the lead shield cut-out placed in the machine's gantry
A teletherapy radiation capsule composed of the following:
Varian TrueBeam Linear Accelerator, used for delivering IMRT
A SAVI brachytherapy device
X-ray treatment of tuberculosis in 1910. Before the 1920s, the hazards of radiation were not understood, and it was used to treat a wide range of diseases.

The majority of epithelial cancers are only moderately radiosensitive, and require a significantly higher dose of radiation (60-70 Gy) to achieve a radical cure.

Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.

Carcinogenesis

18 links

Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.
Many tumor suppressor genes effect signal transduction pathways that regulate apoptosis, also known as "programmed cell death".
Multiple mutations in cancer cells

Carcinogenesis, also called oncogenesis or tumorigenesis, is the formation of a cancer, whereby normal cells are transformed into cancer cells.

Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors

Colorectal cancer

19 links

Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012

Colorectal cancer (CRC), also known as bowel cancer, colon cancer, or rectal cancer, is the development of cancer from the colon or rectum (parts of the large intestine).

Position of the prostate

Prostate cancer

12 links

Position of the prostate
A diagram of prostate cancer pressing on the urethra, which can cause symptoms
Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer that has metastasized to the lymph nodes
Prostate cancer that has metastasized to the bone
If already having grown large, a prostate cancer may first be detected on CT scan.
Prostate needle biopsy
Pie chart of histopathologic subdiagnoses of prostate cancer.
Micrograph showing a prostate cancer (conventional adenocarcinoma) with perineural invasion. H&E stain.
Diagram showing T1-3 stages of prostate cancer.
Micrograph of prostate adenocarcinoma, acinar type, the most common type of prostate cancer. Needle biopsy, H&E stain
New cases and deaths from prostate cancer in the United States per 100,000 males between 1975 and 2014
Sclerosis of the bones of the thoracic spine due to prostate cancer metastases (CT image)
Sclerosis of the bones of the thoracic spine due to prostate cancer metastases (CT image)
Sclerosis of the bones of the pelvis due to prostate cancer metastases
Age-standardized death from prostate cancer per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004. 
no data
<4
4–8
8–12
12–16
16–20
20–24
24–28
28–32
32–36
36–40
40–44
>44

Prostate cancer is cancer of the prostate.

An illustration of breast cancer

Breast cancer

11 links

An illustration of breast cancer
Breast cancer showing an inverted nipple, lump, and skin dimpling
Early signs of possible breast cancer
Tumor in the breast visualized by Breast-Computertomography (Breast-CT)
All types of alcoholic beverages, including beer, wine, or liquor, cause breast cancer.
Ducts and lobules, the main locations of breast cancers
Overview of signal transduction pathways involved in programmed cell death. Mutations leading to loss of this ability can lead to cancer formation.
Histopathologic types of breast cancer, with relative incidences and prognoses
A mobile breast cancer screening unit in New Zealand
Chest after right breast mastectomy
Internal radiotherapy for breast cancer
Breasts after double mastectomy followed by nipple-sparing reconstruction with implants
An extreme example of an advanced recurrent breast cancer with an ulcerating axillary mass
Breast cancer surgery in 18th century
Radical mastectomy, Halsted's surgical papers
The pink ribbon is a symbol to show support for breast cancer awareness.
MRI showing breast cancer
Excised human breast tissue, showing an irregular, dense, white stellate area of cancer 2cm in diameter, within yellow fatty tissue
High-grade invasive ductal carcinoma, with minimal tubule formation, marked pleomorphism, and prominent mitoses, 40x field
Micrograph showing a lymph node invaded by ductal breast carcinoma, with an extension of the tumor beyond the lymph node
Neuropilin-2 expression in normal breast and breast carcinoma tissue
F-18 FDG PET/CT: A breast cancer metastasis to the right scapula
Needle breast biopsy
Elastography shows stiff cancer tissue on ultrasound imaging.
Ultrasound image shows irregularly shaped mass of breast cancer.
Infiltrating (invasive) breast carcinoma
Mammograms showing a normal breast (left) and a breast with cancer (right)
Stage T1 breast cancer
Stage T2 breast cancer
Stage T3 breast cancer
Metastatic or stage 4 breast cancer
Stage 1A breast cancer
Stage 1B breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2A breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 2B breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3A breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 3B breast cancer
Stage 4 breast cancer

Breast cancer is cancer that develops from breast tissue.

3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer

Cancer staging

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3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer
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Cancer staging is the process of determining the extent to which a cancer has developed by growing and spreading.

Patients and their diseases are profiled in order to identify the most effective treatment for their specific case.

Targeted therapy

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Patients and their diseases are profiled in order to identify the most effective treatment for their specific case.
Mechanism of imatinib

Targeted therapy or molecularly targeted therapy is one of the major modalities of medical treatment (pharmacotherapy) for cancer, others being hormonal therapy and cytotoxic chemotherapy.