Cancer screening

screeningcancer screeningsdetectionpreliminary screeningpreventative screeningpreventive screeningscreen for stomach cancerscreening tests
Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.wikipedia
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Cancer

cancersmalignanciescancerous
Cancer screening aims to detect cancer before symptoms appear.
Cancer can be detected by certain signs and symptoms or screening tests.

Stomach cancer

gastric cancerstomachgastric carcinoma
Japan and South Korea, two countries that have high rates of the disease, screen for stomach cancer.

Screening (medicine)

screeningscreening testmedical screening
Universal screening, also known as mass screening or population screening, involves screening everyone, usually within a specific age group. The use of mammography in universal screening for breast cancer is controversial as it may not reduce all-cause mortality and for causing harms through unnecessary treatments and medical procedures.

Overdiagnosis

overdiagnosedover-diagnosisover-diagnose
This situation, called overdiagnosis, puts men at risk for complications from unnecessary treatment such as surgery or radiation.
Although overdiagnosis is potentially applicable to the diagnosis of any disease, its origin is in cancer screening – the systematic evaluation of asymptomatic patients to detect early forms of cancer.

Colorectal cancer

colon cancerbowel cancerintestinal cancer
Screening for colorectal cancer, if done early enough, is preventive because almost all colorectal cancers originate from benign growths called polyps, which can be located and removed during a colonoscopy (see colonic polypectomy).
Screening is effective for preventing and decreasing deaths from colorectal cancer.

Pancreatic cancer

pancreaticpancreaspancreatic carcinoma
It is generally agreed that general screening of large groups for pancreatic cancer is not at present likely to be effective, and outside clinical trials there are no programmes for this.
Screening the general population has not been found to be effective.

Mammography

mammogrammammogramsdigital mammography
The use of mammography in universal screening for breast cancer is controversial as it may not reduce all-cause mortality and for causing harms through unnecessary treatments and medical procedures.
Digital mammography may be "spot view", for breast biopsy, or "full field" (FFDM) for screening.

Lung cancer

lungbronchogenic carcinomalungs
In December 2013 the United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) changed its long-standing recommendation that there is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening for lung cancer to the following: "The USPSTF recommends annual screening for lung cancer with low-dose computed tomography in adults ages 55 to 80 years who have a 30 pack-year smoking history and currently smoke or have quit within the past 15 years. Screening should be discontinued once a person has not smoked for 15 years or develops a health problem that substantially limits life expectancy or the ability or willingness to have curative lung surgery".
Cancer screening uses medical tests to detect disease in large groups of people who have no symptoms.

M2-PK Test

A new enzyme method for colorectal cancer screening is the M2-PK Test, which is able to detect bleeding and non-bleeding colorectal cancers and polyps.
Testing for M2-PK allows for colorectal cancer screening in asymptomatic patients.

Bladder cancer

bladderbladder carcinomacancer of the bladder
There is insufficient evidence to recommend for or against screening for skin cancer, and bladder cancer.
As of 2019 there is insufficient evidence to determine if screening for bladder cancer in people without symptoms is effective or not.

Blood test

blood testsbloodblood testing
This may involve blood tests, urine tests, DNA tests other tests, or medical imaging.

Clinical urine tests

urinalysisurine testurine sample
This may involve blood tests, urine tests, DNA tests other tests, or medical imaging.

23andMe

23 and MeDNA tests
This may involve blood tests, urine tests, DNA tests other tests, or medical imaging.

Medical imaging

imagingdiagnostic imagingdiagnostic radiology
This may involve blood tests, urine tests, DNA tests other tests, or medical imaging. Full body CT scans are available for cancer screening, but this type of medical imaging to search for cancer in people without clear symptoms can create problems such as increased exposure to ionizing radiation.

Cancer prevention

preventionpreventprevent cancer
The benefits of screening in terms of cancer prevention, early detection and subsequent treatment must be weighed against any harms.

Type I and type II errors

Type I errorfalse-positivefalse positive
Screening tests must be effective, safe, well-tolerated with acceptably low rates of false positive and false negative results.

Length time bias

length-biased sampling
However, it may also falsely appear to increase the time to death through lead time bias or length time bias.

Indication (medicine)

indicationindicationsindicated
In general, cancer screening has risks and should not be done except with a medical indication.

Life expectancy

lifespanlife spanlife expectancies
Cancer screening is not indicated unless life expectancy is greater than five years and the benefit is uncertain over the age of 70.

Ionizing radiation

ionising radiationradiationnuclear radiation
Full body CT scans are available for cancer screening, but this type of medical imaging to search for cancer in people without clear symptoms can create problems such as increased exposure to ionizing radiation.

False positives and false negatives

false positivefalse negativefalse positives
Part of the testing experience is for the health care provider to explain how common false positive results are so that the patient can understand the context of their results.