Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors
3D Medical Illustration depicting the TNM Stages in breast cancer
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
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Colon cancer with extensive metastases to the liver
Relative incidence of various histopathological types of colorectal cancer. The vast majority of colorectal cancers are adenocarcinomas.
Micrograph of colorectal adenocarcinoma, showing "dirty necrosis".
A diagram of a local resection of early stage colon cancer
A diagram of local surgery for rectal cancer
Colon and rectum cancer deaths per million persons in 2012

Colon cancer: originally consisted of four stages: A, B, C, and D (the Dukes staging system). More recently, colon cancer staging is indicated either by the original A-D stages or by TNM.

- Cancer staging

Staging of the cancer is based on both radiological and pathological findings.

- Colorectal cancer
Location and appearance of two example colorectal tumors

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

Cancer

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Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

Early detection through screening is useful for cervical and colorectal cancer.

The chance of survival depends on the type of cancer and extent of disease at the start of treatment.

Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis

Metastasis

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Pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor.

Pathogenic agent's spread from an initial or primary site to a different or secondary site within the host's body; the term is typically used when referring to metastasis by a cancerous tumor.

Illustration showing hematogenous metastasis
Cut surface of a liver showing multiple paler metastatic nodules originating from pancreatic cancer
Lymph node with almost complete replacement by metastatic melanoma. The brown pigment is focal deposition of melanin
Main sites of metastases for some common cancer types. Primary cancers are denoted by "...cancer" and their main metastasis sites are denoted by "...metastases".
Pulmonary metastases shown on Chest X-Ray
Cut surface of a humerus sawn lengthwise, showing a large cancerous metastasis (the whitish tumor between the head and the shaft of the bone)
Micrograph of thyroid cancer (papillary thyroid carcinoma) in a lymph node of the neck. H&E stain
CT image of multiple liver metastases
CT image of a lung metastasis
Metastasis proven by liver biopsy (tumor (adenocarcinoma)—lower two-thirds of image). H&E stain.
Metastatic cancer in the lungs
Metastases from the lungs to the brain
Metastases from the lungs to the pancreas

Metastasis is a key element in cancer staging systems such as the TNM staging system, where it represents the "M".

For example, colorectal cancer spreads primarily through the portal vein to the liver.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)

Lung cancer

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Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

Malignant lung tumor characterized by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung.

A chest X-ray showing a tumor in the lung (marked by arrow)
Relationship between cigarette consumption per person (blue) and male lung cancer rates (dark yellow) in the US over the century
Risk of death from lung cancer is strongly correlated with smoking.
CT scan showing a cancerous tumor in the left lung
Primary pulmonary sarcoma in an asymptomatic 72-year-old male
Pie chart showing incidences of NSCLCs as compared to SCLCs shown at right, with fractions of smokers versus nonsmokers shown for each type
Cross section of a human lung: The white area in the upper lobe is cancer; the black areas are discoloration due to smoking.
Pneumonectomy specimen containing a squamous-cell carcinoma, seen as a white area near the bronchi
Brachytherapy (internal radiotherapy) for lung cancer given via the airway
Monoclonal antibodies used in the treatment of NSCLC and their mechanism of action https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
The main treatment arms of phase 3 clinical trials providing immunotherapy in the first line for patients with NSCLC https://doi.org/10.3390/ph13110373
Overall survival in NSCLC patients treated with protocols incorporating immunotherapy in the first line for advanced or metastatic disease. Nasser NJ, Gorenberg M, Agbarya A. Pharmaceuticals 2020, 13(11), 373;
Lung cancer, incidence, mortality, and survival, England 1971–2011
Stage IA and IB lung cancer
Stage IIA lung cancer
Stage IIB lung cancer
One option for stage IIB lung cancer, with T2b; but if tumor is within 2 cm of the carina, this is stage 3
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIA lung cancer, if there is one feature from the list on each side
Stage IIIA lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IIIB lung cancer
Stage IV lung cancer
Trachea, bronchus, and lung cancers deaths per million persons in 2012
0–78–1213–3233–5354–8182–125126–286287–398399–527528–889

Treatment and long-term outcomes depend on the type of cancer, the stage (degree of spread), and the person's overall health.

Worldwide, lung cancer is the most common cancer among men for both incidence and mortality, and among women has the third-highest incidence (after breast and colorectal cancers) and second-highest mortality (after breast cancer).

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner

Magnetic resonance imaging

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Medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.

Medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body.

Schematic of construction of a cylindrical superconducting MR scanner
A mobile MRI unit visiting Glebefields Health Centre, Tipton, England
Effects of TR and TE on MR signal
Examples of T1-weighted, T2-weighted and PD-weighted MRI scans
Patient being positioned for MR study of the head and abdomen
MRI diffusion tensor imaging of white matter tracts
MR angiogram in congenital heart disease
Magnetic resonance angiography
Motion artifact (T1 coronal study of cervical vertebrae)

MRI is widely used in hospitals and clinics for medical diagnosis, staging and follow-up of disease.

MRI is the investigation of choice in the preoperative staging of rectal and prostate cancer and has a role in the diagnosis, staging, and follow-up of other tumors, as well as for determining areas of tissue for sampling in biobanking.