A report on Cannabis (drug) and Cannabinoid

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
Cannabis indica plant
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Anandamide, an endogenous ligand of CB1 and CB2
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Cannabinoids are compounds found in the cannabis plant or synthetic compounds that can interact with the endocannabinoid system. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Delta-9-THC), the primary intoxicating compound in cannabis.

- Cannabinoid

Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the main psychoactive component of cannabis, which is one of the 483 known compounds in the plant, including at least 65 other cannabinoids, including cannabidiol (CBD).

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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Tetrahydrocannabinol

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Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis and one of at least 113 total cannabinoids identified on the plant.

Although the chemical formula for THC (C21H30O2) describes multiple isomers, the term THC usually refers to the Delta-9-THC isomer with chemical name (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Like most pharmacologically active secondary metabolites of plants, THC is a lipid found in cannabis, assumed to be involved in the plant's evolutionary adaptation, putatively against insect predation, ultraviolet light, and environmental stress.

Cnr1 is widely expressed in all major regions of the postnatal day 14 mouse brain, but is conspicuously absent in much of the thalamus.

Cannabinoid receptor type 1

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G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor that in humans is encoded by the CNR1 gene.

G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor that in humans is encoded by the CNR1 gene.

Cnr1 is widely expressed in all major regions of the postnatal day 14 mouse brain, but is conspicuously absent in much of the thalamus.

It is activated by: endocannabinoids, a group of retrograde neurotransmitters that include anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG); plant phytocannabinoids, such as the compound THC which is an active ingredient of the psychoactive drug cannabis; and, synthetic analogs of THC.

NMR solution structure of a peptide mimetic of the fourth cytoplasmic loop of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor based on the coordinates.

Cannabinoid receptor

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Involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.

Involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.

NMR solution structure of a peptide mimetic of the fourth cytoplasmic loop of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor based on the coordinates.
CB1 and CB2 structures

Cannabinoid receptors are activated by three major groups of ligands: endocannabinoids, produced by the mammillary body; plant cannabinoids (such as Tetrahydrocannabinol, produced by the cannabis plant); and synthetic cannabinoids (such as HU-210).

Cannabinoid receptors are activated by cannabinoids, generated naturally inside the body (endocannabinoids) or introduced into the body as cannabis or a related synthetic compound.

Bag and contents of a well-known early brand of synthetic cannabinoids named Spice that contains herbs covered with synthetic cannabinoids, now illegal throughout much of the world

Synthetic cannabinoids

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Bag and contents of a well-known early brand of synthetic cannabinoids named Spice that contains herbs covered with synthetic cannabinoids, now illegal throughout much of the world
Dried flower buds sold as cannabis on the street may be laced.
A store selling synthetic cannabinoids in Riga in 2012

Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of designer drug molecules that bind to the same receptors to which cannabinoids (THC, CBD and many others) in cannabis plants attach.

A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids are designed in an attempt to avoid legal restrictions on cannabis, making synthetic cannabinoids designer drugs.

Cannabis

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Genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

Genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

Cannabis growing as weeds at the foot of Dhaulagiri, Nepal.
A thicket of wild cannabis in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Cannabis female flower with visible trichomes
Male Cannabis flower buds
Underside of Cannabis sativa leaf, showing diagnostic venation
Top of Cannabis plant in vegetative growth stage
Relative size of varieties of Cannabis
Cannabis ruderalis
Comparison of physical harm and dependence regarding various drugs
A dried bud, typical of what is sold for recreational use
Commercial cannabis extract
Cannabis sativa stem longitudinal section
Cannabis Museum in Amsterdam
Cannabis leaf pictured in the coat of arms of Kanepi Parish
A male hemp plant
Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis
Root system side view
Root system top view
Micrograph C. sativa (left), C. indica (right)

Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug.

Some strains have been selectively bred to produce a maximum of THC (a cannabinoid), the strength of which is enhanced by curing the fruits.

Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)

Recreational drug use

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Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe (1876)
Bhang eaters from India c. 1790. Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in food and drink as early as 1000 BCE by Hindus in ancient India.
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India
A rational harm assessment of drugs<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Blakemore|first1=Colin|last2=Saulsbury|first2=William|last3=King|first3=Leslie A.|last4=Nutt|first4=David|date=2007-03-24|title=Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)60464-4/abstract|journal=The Lancet|language=en|volume=369|issue=9566|pages=1047–1053|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|issn=0140-6736|pmid=17382831|s2cid=5903121}}</ref>
This 1914 photo shows intoxicated men at a sobering-up room
alt=A chart showing dependence potential versus safety ratio.|An analysis of the dangers of drugs<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xpZhjBuDkuwC&pg=PA149|title=Drugs and Society: U.S. Public Policy|last=Fish|first=Jefferson M.|date=2006|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=9780742542457|language=en}}</ref>
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in liters of pure alcohol
Caffeinated alcoholic beverages, such as Vodka Red Bull, are widespread and legal routes of administration for multiple drugs.
Insufflation of powdered drug
Injection of heroin
Cocaine is a commonly used stimulant
alt=A chart showing relative drug harm.|A chart showing relative drug harm.

Recreational drugs include alcohol, commonly found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits; cannabis and hashish (with legality of possession varying inter/intra-nationally); nicotine, commonly found in tobacco; caffeine, commonly found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, prescription drugs; the controlled substances listed as controlled drugs in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) of the United Nations; and cocoa, commonly found in chocolate.

Cannabis: Its common forms include marijuana and hashish, which are smoked or eaten. It contains at least 85 cannabinoids. The primary psychoactive component is THC, which mimics the neurotransmitter anandamide, named after the Hindu ananda, "joy, bliss, delight".

Cannabis flower with visible trichomes

Long-term effects of cannabis

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The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate.

The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate.

Cannabis flower with visible trichomes
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, 512 AD

Because cannabis is illegal in most countries, clinical research presents a challenge and there is limited evidence from which to draw conclusions.

Cannabis contains over 100 different cannabinoid compounds, many of which have displayed psychoactive effects.

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid

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Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA, 2-COOH-THC; conjugate base tetrahydrocannabinolate) is a precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an active component of cannabis.

A study found THCA and unheated Cannabis sativa extracts exert immuno-modulating effect, not mediated by the cannabinoid CB1 and CB2 receptor coupled pathways like THC.

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates

Analgesic

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Analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain .

Analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain .

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates
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Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, refers to cannabis or its cannabinoids used to treat disease or improve symptoms.