A report on Cannabis (drug)

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)

Recreational drug use

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Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Altered state of consciousness either for pleasure or for some other casual purpose or pastime by modifying the perceptions, feelings, and emotions of the user.

Adriaen Brouwer, TheSmokers (1636)
Edgar Degas, L'Absinthe (1876)
Bhang eaters from India c. 1790. Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in food and drink as early as 1000 BCE by Hindus in ancient India.
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India
A rational harm assessment of drugs<ref>{{Cite journal|last1=Blakemore|first1=Colin|last2=Saulsbury|first2=William|last3=King|first3=Leslie A.|last4=Nutt|first4=David|date=2007-03-24|title=Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|url=https://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(07)60464-4/abstract|journal=The Lancet|language=en|volume=369|issue=9566|pages=1047–1053|doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|issn=0140-6736|pmid=17382831|s2cid=5903121}}</ref>
This 1914 photo shows intoxicated men at a sobering-up room
alt=A chart showing dependence potential versus safety ratio.|An analysis of the dangers of drugs<ref>{{Cite book|url=https://books.google.com/books?id=xpZhjBuDkuwC&pg=PA149|title=Drugs and Society: U.S. Public Policy|last=Fish|first=Jefferson M.|date=2006|publisher=Rowman & Littlefield|isbn=9780742542457|language=en}}</ref>
Total recorded alcohol per capita consumption (15+), in liters of pure alcohol
Caffeinated alcoholic beverages, such as Vodka Red Bull, are widespread and legal routes of administration for multiple drugs.
Insufflation of powdered drug
Injection of heroin
Cocaine is a commonly used stimulant
alt=A chart showing relative drug harm.|A chart showing relative drug harm.

Recreational drugs include alcohol, commonly found in beer, wine, and distilled spirits; cannabis and hashish (with legality of possession varying inter/intra-nationally); nicotine, commonly found in tobacco; caffeine, commonly found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, prescription drugs; the controlled substances listed as controlled drugs in the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs (1961) and the Convention on Psychotropic Substances (1971) of the United Nations; and cocoa, commonly found in chocolate.

The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes

Cannabinoid

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The bracts surrounding a cluster of Cannabis sativa flowers are coated with cannabinoid-laden trichomes
Cannabis indica plant
Anandamide, an endogenous ligand of CB1 and CB2

Cannabinoids are compounds found in the cannabis plant or synthetic compounds that can interact with the endocannabinoid system. The most notable cannabinoid is the phytocannabinoid tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) (Delta-9-THC), the primary intoxicating compound in cannabis.

Cannabis

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Genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

Genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

Cannabis growing as weeds at the foot of Dhaulagiri, Nepal.
A thicket of wild cannabis in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Cannabis female flower with visible trichomes
Male Cannabis flower buds
Underside of Cannabis sativa leaf, showing diagnostic venation
Top of Cannabis plant in vegetative growth stage
Relative size of varieties of Cannabis
Cannabis ruderalis
Comparison of physical harm and dependence regarding various drugs
A dried bud, typical of what is sold for recreational use
Commercial cannabis extract
Cannabis sativa stem longitudinal section
Cannabis Museum in Amsterdam
Cannabis leaf pictured in the coat of arms of Kanepi Parish
A male hemp plant
Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis
Root system side view
Root system top view
Micrograph C. sativa (left), C. indica (right)

Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug.

Alcohol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcoholic drinks market was expected to exceed $1 trillion in 2013. Beer is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.

Psychoactive drug

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Psychoactive_Drugs_Legend.jpg: 1. caffeine

Psychoactive_Drugs_Legend.jpg: 1. caffeine

Alcohol is a widely used and abused psychoactive drug. The global alcoholic drinks market was expected to exceed $1 trillion in 2013. Beer is the third-most popular drink overall, after water and tea.
Zoloft (sertraline) is an SSRI antidepressant.
Timothy Leary was a leading proponent of spiritual hallucinogen use.
Illustration of the major elements of neurotransmission. Depending on its method of action, a psychoactive substance may block the receptors on the post-synaptic neuron (dendrite), or block reuptake or affect neurotransmitter synthesis in the pre-synaptic neuron (axon).
Comparison of the perceived harm for various psychoactive drugs from a poll among medical psychiatrists specialized in addiction treatment (David Nutt et al. 2007).
Historical image of legal heroin bottle

Popular campaigns to decriminalize or legalize the recreational use of certain drugs (e.g. cannabis) are also ongoing.

Tetrahydrocannabinol

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Principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis and one of at least 113 total cannabinoids identified on the plant.

Principal psychoactive constituent of cannabis and one of at least 113 total cannabinoids identified on the plant.

Although the chemical formula for THC (C21H30O2) describes multiple isomers, the term THC usually refers to the Delta-9-THC isomer with chemical name (−)-trans-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. Like most pharmacologically active secondary metabolites of plants, THC is a lipid found in cannabis, assumed to be involved in the plant's evolutionary adaptation, putatively against insect predation, ultraviolet light, and environmental stress.

Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

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Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia
My Eyes at the Moment of the Apparitions by German artist August Natterer, who had schizophrenia
Risperidone (trade name Risperdal) is a common atypical antipsychotic medication.
Deaths per million persons due to schizophrenia in 2012.
The term "schizophrenia" was coined by Eugen Bleuler.
A molecule of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic developed in the 1950s
John Nash, an American mathematician and joint recipient of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, who had schizophrenia. His life was the subject of the 1998 book, A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar.

Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, infections, the ages of a person's mother or father, and poor nutrition during pregnancy.

Hashish (shown next to a U.S. penny for scale)

Hashish

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Hashish (shown next to a U.S. penny for scale)
1.5 grams pressed hashish
Blood-shot eyes are a sign of cannabis use.
Sebsi, a Moroccan long-drawtube one-hitter
Trichomes isolated with ice-water extraction method

Hashish (حشيش, ), also known as hash, "dry herb, hay" is a drug made by compressing and processing parts of the cannabis plant, typically focusing on flowering buds (female flowers) containing the most trichomes.

Cnr1 is widely expressed in all major regions of the postnatal day 14 mouse brain, but is conspicuously absent in much of the thalamus.

Cannabinoid receptor type 1

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G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor that in humans is encoded by the CNR1 gene.

G protein-coupled cannabinoid receptor that in humans is encoded by the CNR1 gene.

Cnr1 is widely expressed in all major regions of the postnatal day 14 mouse brain, but is conspicuously absent in much of the thalamus.

It is activated by: endocannabinoids, a group of retrograde neurotransmitters that include anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG); plant phytocannabinoids, such as the compound THC which is an active ingredient of the psychoactive drug cannabis; and, synthetic analogs of THC.

A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India

Cannabis smoking

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A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India
Sebsi, a Moroccan long-drawtube one-hitter.
A glass bong filled with water and its bowl packed with cannabis.
Spotting knives heating
Glass blades

Cannabis smoking (or colloquially smoking pot) is the inhalation of smoke or vapor released by heating the flowers, leaves, or extracts of cannabis and releasing the main psychoactive chemical, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), which is absorbed into the bloodstream via the lungs.

A dried cannabis flower

Effects of cannabis

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A dried cannabis flower
The structural formula of tetrahydrocannabinol.
Tetrahydrocannabivarin.
Cannabidiol.
Cannabinol.
Cannabivarin.
Cannabidivarin.
Difference between natural cannabinoids and THC A) THC B) CB-1 receptor C) Neurotransmitters D) Postsynaptic Receptors E) Cannabinoid.
A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India.
Bloodshot eye.
Aspergillus fumigatus.

The effects of cannabis are caused by chemical compounds in the cannabis plant, including 113 different cannabinoids such as tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and 120 terpenes, which allow its drug to have various psychological and physiological effects on the human body.