A report on Cannabis (drug) and Schizophrenia

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
My Eyes at the Moment of the Apparitions by German artist August Natterer, who had schizophrenia
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Risperidone (trade name Risperdal) is a common atypical antipsychotic medication.
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Deaths per million persons due to schizophrenia in 2012.
Types of cannabis
The term "schizophrenia" was coined by Eugen Bleuler.
A macro cannabis bud
A molecule of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic developed in the 1950s
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
John Nash, an American mathematician and joint recipient of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, who had schizophrenia. His life was the subject of the 1998 book, A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar.
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Possible environmental factors include being raised in a city, cannabis use during adolescence, infections, the ages of a person's mother or father, and poor nutrition during pregnancy.

- Schizophrenia

There are concerns surrounding memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, and the risk of schizophrenia in young people.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

5 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Mental disorder

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Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
frameless
Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

In 2019, common mental disorders around the globe include depression, which affects about 264 million, bipolar disorder, which affects about 45 million, dementia, which affects about 50 million, and schizophrenia and other psychoses, which affects about 20 million people.

Mental disorders are associated with drug use including: cannabis, alcohol and caffeine, use of which appears to promote anxiety.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.

Psychosis

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Condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.
Bust of Hippocrates
Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907)

These include mental illness, such as schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder, bipolar disorder, and in rare cases, major depression (psychotic depression).

Other causes include: trauma, sleep deprivation, some medical conditions, certain medications, and drugs such as cannabis, hallucinogens, and stimulants.

DSM-5

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2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

Changes in the DSM-5 include the reconceptualization of Asperger syndrome from a distinct disorder to an autism spectrum disorder; the elimination of subtypes of schizophrenia; the deletion of the "bereavement exclusion" for depressive disorders; the renaming of gender identity disorder to gender dysphoria; the inclusion of binge eating disorder as a discrete eating disorder; the renaming and reconceptualization of paraphilias, now called paraphilic disorders; the removal of the five-axis system; and the splitting of disorders not otherwise specified into other specified disorders and unspecified disorders.

Substance abuse and substance dependence from DSM-IV-TR have been combined into single substance use disorders specific to each substance of abuse within a new "addictions and related disorders" category. "Recurrent legal problems" was deleted and "craving or a strong desire or urge to use a substance" was added to the criteria. The threshold of the number of criteria that must be met was changed and severity from mild to severe is based on the number of criteria endorsed. Criteria for cannabis and caffeine withdrawal were added. New specifiers were added for early and sustained remission along with new specifiers for "in a controlled environment" and "on maintenance therapy".

Paranoia

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Instinct or thought process that is believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

Instinct or thought process that is believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

Drug-induced paranoia, associated with cannabis, amphetamines, methamphetamine and similar stimulants has much in common with schizophrenic paranoia; the relationship has been under investigation since 2012.

At least 50% of the diagnosed cases of schizophrenia experience delusions of reference and delusions of persecution.

Cannabis

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Genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

Genus of flowering plants in the family Cannabaceae.

Cannabis growing as weeds at the foot of Dhaulagiri, Nepal.
A thicket of wild cannabis in Islamabad, Pakistan.
Cannabis female flower with visible trichomes
Male Cannabis flower buds
Underside of Cannabis sativa leaf, showing diagnostic venation
Top of Cannabis plant in vegetative growth stage
Relative size of varieties of Cannabis
Cannabis ruderalis
Comparison of physical harm and dependence regarding various drugs
A dried bud, typical of what is sold for recreational use
Commercial cannabis extract
Cannabis sativa stem longitudinal section
Cannabis Museum in Amsterdam
Cannabis leaf pictured in the coat of arms of Kanepi Parish
A male hemp plant
Dense raceme of female flowers typical of drug-type varieties of Cannabis
Root system side view
Root system top view
Micrograph C. sativa (left), C. indica (right)

Cannabis has long been used for hemp fibre, hemp seeds and their oils, hemp leaves for use as vegetables and as juice, medicinal purposes, and as a recreational drug.

Concerns including memory and cognition problems, risk of addiction, schizophrenia in young people, and the risk of children taking it by accident.