A report on Cannabis (drug)

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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Mazatec people performing a Salvia ritual dance in Huautla de Jiménez

Entheogen

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Entheogens are psychoactive substances that induce alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior for the purposes of engendering spiritual development or otherwise in sacred contexts.

Entheogens are psychoactive substances that induce alterations in perception, mood, consciousness, cognition, or behavior for the purposes of engendering spiritual development or otherwise in sacred contexts.

Mazatec people performing a Salvia ritual dance in Huautla de Jiménez
Brugmansia suaveolens, one of a group of species referred to as angel’s trumpets. Brugmansia plants are rich in the chemical compound scopolamine, an example of an entheogen. Brugmansia has been cultivated by native tribes in South America for this reason.
Laboratory synthetic mescaline. Mescaline was the first (1887) psychedelic compound to be extracted and isolated from nature (from peyote).
Flowering San Pedro, an entheogenic cactus that has been used for over 3,000 years. Today the vast majority of extracted mescaline is from columnar cacti, not vulnerable peyote.
2C-B is an entactogen commonly used at public places, like rave parties.
The shrine at Tel Arad, where the earliest use of cannabis in the Near East is thought to have occurred during the Kingdom of Judah
Fresco of Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden, flanking an alleged "mushroom tree" at Plaincourault Chapel, a 12th-century chapel of the Knights Hospitaller in Mérigny, Indre, France.
A Native American peyote drummer Quanah Parker (c. 1927)
Salvia divinorum (Herba de Maria)
Mandala-like round window above the altar at Boston University's Marsh Chapel, site of Marsh Chapel Experiment

Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent.

"MARIHUANA TAX ACT OF 1937" 1$ Marijuana revenue stamp, 1937 issue

Cannabis in the United States

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Illegal under federal law.

Illegal under federal law.

"MARIHUANA TAX ACT OF 1937" 1$ Marijuana revenue stamp, 1937 issue
US cannabis arrests by year
Alaskan cannabis extract
Retail store, Homer, Alaska
Chart from the United States Bureau of Justice Statistics

Cannabis for industrial uses (hemp) was made illegal to grow without a permit under the Controlled Substances Act because of its relation to cannabis as a drug, and any imported products must adhere to a zero tolerance policy.

Cocaine

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Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant obtained from the leaves of two Coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense.

Strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant obtained from the leaves of two Coca species native to South America, Erythroxylum coca and Erythroxylum novogranatense.

Cocaine hydrochloride
Lines of cocaine prepared for snorting
A 2010 study ranking various illegal and legal drugs based on statements by drug-harm experts. Crack cocaine and cocaine was found to be the third and fifth overall most dangerous drugs respectively.
Side effects of chronic cocaine use
A pile of cocaine hydrochloride
A piece of compressed cocaine powder
A woman smoking crack cocaine
"Rocks" of crack cocaine
Biological source of cocaine molecule in the context of the tropane class of molecules. The biological source of each tropane alkaloid is indicated by species, and below that a phylogenetic map is provided.
Biosynthesis of N-methyl-pyrrolinium cation
Biosynthesis of cocaine
Robinson biosynthesis of tropane
Reduction of tropinone
Coca leaf in Bolivia
"Cocaine toothache drops", 1885 advertisement of cocaine for dental pain in children
Advertisement in the January 1896 issue of McClure's Magazine for Burnett's Cocaine "for the hair".
Pope Leo XIII purportedly carried a hip flask of the coca-treated Vin Mariani with him, and awarded a Vatican gold medal to Angelo Mariani.
In this 1904 advice column from the Tacoma Times, "Madame Falloppe" recommended that cold sores be treated with a solution of borax, cocaine, and morphine.
Women purchase cocaine capsules in Berlin, 1929
D.C. Mayor Marion Barry captured on a surveillance camera smoking crack cocaine during a sting operation by the FBI and D.C. Police.
Drug overdoses killed more than 70,200 Americans in 2017, with cocaine overdoses making up 13,942 of those deaths.
United States CBP police inspect a seized shipment of cocaine
The U.S. Coast Guard in Miami offloading confiscated cocaine
Cocaine smuggled in a charango, 2008
Cocaine adulterated with fruit flavoring
Opioid involvement in cocaine overdose deaths. The green line is cocaine and any opioid (top line in 2017). The gray line is cocaine without any opioids (bottom line in 2017). The yellow line is cocaine and other (middle line in 2017).<ref name=NIDA-deaths>{{cite web | url = https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates | title = Overdose Death Rates | archive-url = https://web.archive.org/web/20151128091723/https://www.drugabuse.gov/related-topics/trends-statistics/overdose-death-rates| archive-date=28 November 2015 | work =  By National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) }}</ref>
Delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs based on expert opinion. Cocaine was ranked the 2nd in dependence and physical harm and 3rd in social harm.<ref name="Lancet">{{cite journal|vauthors = Nutt D, King LA, Saulsbury W, Blakemore C|title = Development of a rational scale to assess the harm of drugs of potential misuse|journal = Lancet|volume = 369|issue = 9566|pages = 1047–53|date = March 2007|pmid = 17382831|doi = 10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60464-4|s2cid = 5903121|author-link4 = Colin Blakemore|author-link1 = David Nutt }}</ref>
Bottle of cocaine solution, Germany, circa 1915

When smoked, cocaine is sometimes combined with other drugs, such as cannabis, often rolled into a joint or blunt.

Legality of cannabis

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[[File:Map-of-world-cannabis-laws.svg|thumb|400px|alt=Map of world cannabis laws for non-medical use|Legal status of cannabis possession for recreational use

[[File:Map-of-world-cannabis-laws.svg|thumb|400px|alt=Map of world cannabis laws for non-medical use|Legal status of cannabis possession for recreational use

Cannabis is classified as a Schedule I drug under the Single Convention treaty, meaning that signatories can allow medical use but that it is considered to be an addictive drug with a serious risk of abuse.

A vaporization heat wand and vaporization chamber bowl used to deliver vapor through a water pipe

Vaporizer (inhalation device)

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Device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.

Device used to vaporize substances for inhalation.

A vaporization heat wand and vaporization chamber bowl used to deliver vapor through a water pipe
Various types of electronic cigarettes.
Vaporizer with water-cooling
A conduction-style vaporizer
A passive-convection "vaporization pipe" with flame filter
A portable radiation vaporiser
A Storz & Bickel Volcano, a forced-air vaporizer. The detachable balloon (top) fills with vapors that are then inhaled

Plant substances can be used, commonly cannabis, tobacco, or other herbs or blends of essential oil.

The cover of Murphy's 1922 book The Black Candle, that claimed "marijuana turned its users into homicidal maniacs."

Cannabis in Canada

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The cover of Murphy's 1922 book The Black Candle, that claimed "marijuana turned its users into homicidal maniacs."
Marc and Jodie Emery, Canadian cannabis rights activists.
Map showing which MPs voted in favour (green), against (red), abstained (grey) or whether the seat was vacant (black).
"Canada/Cannabis Day", 2014
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Mandatory cannabis excise stamp on recreational cannabis sold in Canada.
Canadian Olympic gold medalist Ross Rebagliati is an entrepreneur in the cannabis industry.
Government public service advertisement about the effects of cannabis use in Vancouver.

Cannabis in Canada is legal for both recreational and medicinal purposes.

People with CHS often find some relief with hot baths or showers

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome

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People with CHS often find some relief with hot baths or showers

Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is recurrent nausea, vomiting, and cramping abdominal pain that can occur due to prolonged, high-dose cannabis use.

Cannabis pills sold by Parke, Davis & Co.

Medical cannabis in the United States

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Cannabis pills sold by Parke, Davis & Co.
"Cannabis is Medicine, Let States Regulate!" protest in San Francisco, April 4, 2012
Medical cannabis dispensary in Denver (2011)
Medical cannabis supporters demonstrate in Los Angeles (August 2007)

In the United States, the use of cannabis for medical purposes is legal in 37 states, four out of five permanently inhabited U.S. territories, and the District of Columbia, as of February 2022.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.

Psychosis

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Condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Condition of the mind that results in difficulties determining what is real and what is not real.

Van Gogh's The Starry Night, from 1889, shows changes in light and color as can appear with psychosis.
Bust of Hippocrates
Gottlieb Burckhardt (1836-1907)

Other causes include: trauma, sleep deprivation, some medical conditions, certain medications, and drugs such as cannabis, hallucinogens, and stimulants.

Bag and contents of a well-known early brand of synthetic cannabinoids named Spice that contains herbs covered with synthetic cannabinoids, now illegal throughout much of the world

Synthetic cannabinoids

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Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of designer drug molecules that bind to the same receptors to which cannabinoids (THC, CBD and many others) in cannabis plants attach.

Synthetic cannabinoids are a class of designer drug molecules that bind to the same receptors to which cannabinoids (THC, CBD and many others) in cannabis plants attach.

Bag and contents of a well-known early brand of synthetic cannabinoids named Spice that contains herbs covered with synthetic cannabinoids, now illegal throughout much of the world
Dried flower buds sold as cannabis on the street may be laced.
A store selling synthetic cannabinoids in Riga in 2012

A large and complex variety of synthetic cannabinoids are designed in an attempt to avoid legal restrictions on cannabis, making synthetic cannabinoids designer drugs.