A report on Cannabis (drug)

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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Graffiti in Montevideo

Cannabis in Uruguay

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Graffiti in Montevideo

Cannabis is legal in Uruguay, and is one of the most widely used drugs in the nation.

Cannabis and time perception

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The effect of cannabis on time perception has been studied with inconclusive results.

Photo of bhang drinkers, from the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report,1893

Bhang

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Photo of bhang drinkers, from the Indian Hemp Drugs Commission report,1893
Bhang
Bhang seller in Varanasi
Process of making bhang in a village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
Bhang eaters from India (c. 1790)
A bhang shop in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India.

Bhang (IAST: Bhāṅg) is an edible preparation made from the leaves of the cannabis plant originating from the Indian subcontinent.

A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India.

Entheogenic use of cannabis

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A man smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India.
Bhang eaters from India c. 1790. Bhang is an edible preparation of cannabis native to the Indian subcontinent. It has been used in food and drink as early as 1000 BCE by Hindus in ancient India.
A sadhu, or holy person, smoking cannabis in Kolkata, India.
Yangshao culture (ca. 4800 BCE) amphora with hemp cord design

Cannabis has served as an entheogen—a chemical substance used in religious or spiritual contexts —in the Indian subcontinent since the Vedic period dating back to approximately 1500 BCE, but perhaps as far back as 2000 BCE.

Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid

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Tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA, 2-COOH-THC; conjugate base tetrahydrocannabinolate) is a precursor of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), an active component of cannabis.

One form of hash oil

Hash oil

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Oleoresin obtained by the extraction of cannabis or hashish.

Oleoresin obtained by the extraction of cannabis or hashish.

One form of hash oil
Dabbing hash oil. The clear quartz bucket has been heated using a torch and the hash rosin placed within (seen melted as the small amber puddle). The glass cap (upper left of frame) is placed on top and creates a low pressure zone in the bucket, allowing the material to vaporize at a lower temperature than the ambient atmosphere. The vapor is then directed through a water pipe to further cool before inhalation.
Full extract oil in an oral syringe.
Hash oil produced using a hydrocarbon like butane in California, referred to as shatter, due to its very thick and glass-like consistency
Full spectrum hash rosin that has been placed in a jar for sale.
Hash oil being purged of excess butane which forms bubbles as the solvent evaporates
Butane honey oil

Hash oil is produced by solvent extraction (maceration, infusion or percolation) of marijuana or hashish.

The earliest known depiction of a Siberian shaman, by the Dutch Nicolaes Witsen, 17th century. Witsen called him a "priest of the Devil" and drew clawed feet for the supposed demonic qualities.

Shamanism

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Religious practice that involves a practitioner interacting with what they believe to be a spirit world through altered states of consciousness, such as trance.

Religious practice that involves a practitioner interacting with what they believe to be a spirit world through altered states of consciousness, such as trance.

The earliest known depiction of a Siberian shaman, by the Dutch Nicolaes Witsen, 17th century. Witsen called him a "priest of the Devil" and drew clawed feet for the supposed demonic qualities.
A shaman, probably Khakas, Russian Empire, 1908
A tableau presenting figures of various cultures filling in mediator-like roles, often being termed as "shaman" in the literature. The tableau presents the diversity of this concept.
Flowering San Pedro, an entheogenic cactus that has been used for over 3,000 years. Today the vast majority of extracted mescaline is from columnar cacti, not vulnerable peyote.
Goldes shaman priest in his regalia
South Moluccan shaman in an exorcism ritual involving children, Buru, Indonesia (1920)
A shaman of the Itneg people in the Philippines renewing an offering to the spirit (anito) of a warrior's shield (kalasag) (1922)
Sámi ''noaidi with his drum
A shaman doctor of Kyzyl, 2005. Attempts are being made to preserve and revitalize Tuvan shamanism: former authentic shamans have begun to practice again, and young apprentices are being educated in an organized way.
Map of shamanism across the world

Examples of substances used by some cultures as entheogens include: peyote, psilocybin and Amanita muscaria (fly agaric) mushrooms, uncured tobacco, cannabis, ayahuasca, Salvia divinorum, and iboga.

Paranoia

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Instinct or thought process that is believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

Instinct or thought process that is believed to be heavily influenced by anxiety or fear, often to the point of delusion and irrationality.

Drug-induced paranoia, associated with cannabis, amphetamines, methamphetamine and similar stimulants has much in common with schizophrenic paranoia; the relationship has been under investigation since 2012.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries

Mental disorder

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Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

Behavioral or mental pattern that causes significant distress or impairment of personal functioning.

The prevalence of mental illness is higher in more economically unequal countries
"Haus Tornow am See" (former manor house), Germany from 1912 is today separated into a special education school and a hotel with integrated work/job- and rehabilitation-training for people with mental disorders
Deaths from mental and behavioral disorders per million persons in 2012
Eight patients representing mental diagnoses as of the 19th century at the Salpêtrière, Paris.
A patient in a strait-jacket and barrel contraption, 1908
Insulin shock procedure, 1950s
frameless
Giorgio Antonucci
Thomas Szasz

Mental disorders are associated with drug use including: cannabis, alcohol and caffeine, use of which appears to promote anxiety.

People marching in the streets of Cape Town against the prohibition of cannabis in South Africa, 9 May 2015

Cannabis in South Africa

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Cannabis in South Africa has been decriminalised by the country's Constitutional Court for personal consumption by adults in private.

Cannabis in South Africa has been decriminalised by the country's Constitutional Court for personal consumption by adults in private.

People marching in the streets of Cape Town against the prohibition of cannabis in South Africa, 9 May 2015
Members of the South African Police arrest a Rastafarian for a cannabis related offense during prohibition
The Dagga Couple (seated) with Jeremy Acton of the Dagga Party
Cape Town Cannabis Walk 2017
Cape Town NORML March 2013

Before prohibition against the plant was lifted in 2018 advocates pressured the government to modify its laws, which first restricted cannabis in 1922, to allow exemptions for medical use, religious practices, and other purposes.