A report on Cannabis (drug)

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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A bong with a circular carburation port in the front of the bowl

Bong

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A bong with a circular carburation port in the front of the bowl
Diagram of a bong in operation.
A bong made from a plastic sports drink bottle. It has been reported that "According to Cancer Research UK, plastic bottles heated up to 60⁰C contain unhealthy levels of toxic chemicals."
A variety of bongs for sale, among other merchandise in Manhattan. For legal reasons, the products are labeled as "Tobacco Use Only"

A bong (also known as a water pipe) is a filtration device generally used for smoking cannabis, tobacco, or other herbal substances.

An Indian man smoking through a hookah, Rajasthan, India.

Hookah

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An Indian man smoking through a hookah, Rajasthan, India.
An Egyptian hookah (shisha).
Mughal emperor Jahangir's jade hookah, National Museum, New Delhi, India.
Karim Khan of Persia seated in his royal court in Shiraz, using a Qaelyan (1755).
Smoking the Hookah, a painting by Rudolf Ernst
I'tisam-ud-Din, a Bengali Muslim from the 18th century, smoking hukka
Huble Buble sign Kathmandu. 1993
A café in Istanbul, 1905
Naser al-Din Shah Qajar smoking qalyan
Persian woman with hookah (qalyan), 1900, Iran
Bedouin smoking a hookah, locally called nargileh, in a coffeehouse in Deir ez-Zor, on the Euphrates, 1920s.
A hookah and a variety of tobacco products are on display in a Harvard Square store window in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States.
Vortex Bowls
Woodworkers from Damascus, Syria creating wood components for hookah production (19th century)
Hookah cross-section view
A small hookah

A hookah (Hindustani: (Nastaleeq), हुक़्क़ा (Devanagari) , IPA: ; also see other names), shisha, or waterpipe is a single- or multi-stemmed instrument for heating or vaporizing and then smoking either tobacco, flavored tobacco (often muʽassel), or sometimes cannabis, hashish, and opium.

A young woman smoking a joint (cannabis cigarette).

Joint (cannabis)

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A young woman smoking a joint (cannabis cigarette).
A burning joint
A joint prior to rolling with a paper filter at left
Herb grinder for cannabis used to prepare herb for rolling into a joint

A joint, which is commonly referred to as a spliff, "doobie" or "doob", is a rolled cannabis cigarette.

Cannabis flower with visible trichomes

Long-term effects of cannabis

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The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate.

The long-term effects of cannabis have been the subject of ongoing debate.

Cannabis flower with visible trichomes
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, 512 AD

Because cannabis is illegal in most countries, clinical research presents a challenge and there is limited evidence from which to draw conclusions.

Kief collected from a grinder with a screen

Kief

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Kief collected from a grinder with a screen
Kief collected from a sieve
Approximately one gram of screen-sifted cannabis trichomes, commonly referred to as kief
Kief collected from a coffee grinder

Kief (from Moroccan Arabic كيف kīf, "Joy, pleasure" ), sometimes transliterated as keef, also known as ‘’Dust’’ and "Chief" a.k.a cannabis crystals among other names, refers to the pure and clean collection of loose cannabis trichomes, which are accumulated by being sifted from cannabis flowers or buds with a mesh screen or sieve.

A cigarillo blunt.

Blunt (cannabis)

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A cigarillo blunt.

A blunt is a cigar that has been hollowed out and filled with cannabis.

Cannabis tea with cinnamon and a spoonful of agave honey

Cannabis tea

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Cannabis tea with cinnamon and a spoonful of agave honey
Male flower tops

Cannabis tea (also known as weed tea, pot tea, ganja tea or a cannabis decoction) is a cannabis-infused drink prepared by steeping various parts of the cannabis plant in hot or cold water.

Step 1 – addition of Duquenois reagent to dried petroleum ether extract

Duquenois–Levine reagent

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Step 1 – addition of Duquenois reagent to dried petroleum ether extract
Step 2 – addition of hydrochloric acid
Step 3 – addition of chloroform

The Duquenois reagent used in the Rapid Modified Duquenois–Levine test (also known as the simple Rapid Duquenois Test), is an established screening test for the presence of cannabis.

NMR solution structure of a peptide mimetic of the fourth cytoplasmic loop of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor based on the coordinates.

Cannabinoid receptor

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Involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.

Involved in a variety of physiological processes including appetite, pain-sensation, mood, and memory.

NMR solution structure of a peptide mimetic of the fourth cytoplasmic loop of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor based on the coordinates.
CB1 and CB2 structures

Cannabinoid receptors are activated by cannabinoids, generated naturally inside the body (endocannabinoids) or introduced into the body as cannabis or a related synthetic compound.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.

Anxiety

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Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

Emotion which is characterized by an unpleasant state of inner turmoil and it includes subjectively unpleasant feelings of dread over anticipated events.

A job applicant exhibiting a facial configuration that in certain cultures is an expression of worry.
Painting entitled Anxiety, 1894, by Edvard Munch
A marble bust of the Roman Emperor Decius from the Capitoline Museum. This portrait "conveys an impression of anxiety and weariness, as of a man shouldering heavy [state] responsibilities".

Other problems that may result in similar symptoms include hyperthyroidism, heart disease, caffeine, alcohol, or cannabis use, and withdrawal from certain drugs, among others.