A report on Cannabis (drug)

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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Cannabis sativa

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Annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to Eastern Asia, but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.

Annual herbaceous flowering plant indigenous to Eastern Asia, but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation.

Male Cannabis sativa in flower
A female sativa cannabis strain in flowering or “budding” stage
Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC)
Cannabis sativa, scientific drawing from c. 1900

It has been cultivated throughout recorded history, used as a source of industrial fiber, seed oil, food, recreation, religious and spiritual moods and medicine.

White Widow

Cannabis strain

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Cannabis strains are either pure or hybrid varieties of the plant genus Cannabis, which encompasses the species C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis.

Cannabis strains are either pure or hybrid varieties of the plant genus Cannabis, which encompasses the species C. sativa, C. indica, and C. ruderalis.

White Widow
A flowering cannabis plant
Blue dream
Sour Diesel
Cannabis indica
Cannabis ruderalis
Cannabis sativa
Relative size of cannabis types

The Cannabis strains referred to in this article are primarily those varieties with recreational and medicinal use.

The Hasheesh Eater

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Autobiographical book by Fitz Hugh Ludlow describing the author's altered states of consciousness and philosophical flights of fancy while he was using a cannabis extract.

Autobiographical book by Fitz Hugh Ludlow describing the author's altered states of consciousness and philosophical flights of fancy while he was using a cannabis extract.

Ludlow describes the marijuana user as one who is reaching for "the soul’s capacity for a broader being, deeper insight, grander views of Beauty, Truth and Good than she now gains through the chinks of her cell."

Cannabis classification in the United Kingdom

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Cannabis classification in the United Kingdom refers to the class of drugs, as determined by the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, that cannabis is placed in.

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration agents in a training exercise

Prohibition of drugs

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Common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain intoxicating substances.

Common means of attempting to prevent the recreational use of certain intoxicating substances.

U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration agents in a training exercise
Huichol religion worshiped the god of Peyote, a drug.
A painting of opium ships sailing into China. Chinese attempts to suppress opium smuggling sparked the First Opium War.
Papaver somniferum. The sale of drugs in the UK was regulated by the Pharmacy Act of 1868.
Thomas Brassey was appointed the head of the Royal Opium Commission in 1893 to investigate the opium trade and make recommendations on its legality.
Newspaper article from The Daily Picayune, New Orleans, Louisiana in 1912 reporting on a drug arrest, a month after the International Opium Convention was signed and ratified at The Hague.
American drug law enforcement agents detain a man in 2005.
Opium poppies growing in Afghanistan, a major source of drugs today.
People marching in the streets of Cape Town against the prohibition of cannabis in South Africa, May 2015
Total incarceration in the United States by year
US cannabis arrests by year
Coffeeshop in Amsterdam
Dareton police search the vehicle of a suspected drug smuggler in Wentworth, New South Wales, Australia
Protest against the Philippine drug war. The protesters are holding placards which urge Rodrigo Duterte to stop killing drug users.

A major campaign against hashish-eating Sufis were conducted in Egypt in the 11th and 12th centuries resulting among other things in the burning of fields of cannabis.

DSM-5

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2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

2013 update to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, the taxonomic and diagnostic tool published by the American Psychiatric Association (APA).

Substance abuse and substance dependence from DSM-IV-TR have been combined into single substance use disorders specific to each substance of abuse within a new "addictions and related disorders" category. "Recurrent legal problems" was deleted and "craving or a strong desire or urge to use a substance" was added to the criteria. The threshold of the number of criteria that must be met was changed and severity from mild to severe is based on the number of criteria endorsed. Criteria for cannabis and caffeine withdrawal were added. New specifiers were added for early and sustained remission along with new specifiers for "in a controlled environment" and "on maintenance therapy".

3D medical animation still showing decreased or insufficient functioning of salivary glands.

Xerostomia

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Dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.

Dryness in the mouth, which may be associated with a change in the composition of saliva, or reduced salivary flow, or have no identifiable cause.

3D medical animation still showing decreased or insufficient functioning of salivary glands.
Diagram depicting mouth acidity changes after consuming food high in carbohydrates. Within 5 minutes the acidity in the mouth increases as the pH drops. In persons with normal salivary flow rate, acid will be neutralized in about 20 minutes. People with dry mouth often will take twice as long to neutralize mouth acid, leaving them at higher risk of tooth decay and acid erosion

Other recreational drugs such as methamphetamine, cannabis, hallucinogens, or heroin, may be implicated.

Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate, pre-1937

Tincture of cannabis

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Alcoholic cannabis concentrate.

Alcoholic cannabis concentrate.

Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate, pre-1937
Cannabis Fluid extract bottle

The tincture is typically made by soaking the dried flowers of the female hemp plant (marijuana) in ethanol.

Initiative 502 results by county, with number of votes shown by size, yes in orange and no in blue.

2012 Washington Initiative 502

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Initiative to the Washington State Legislature, which appeared on the November 2012 general ballot, passing by a margin of approximately 56 to 44 percent.

Initiative to the Washington State Legislature, which appeared on the November 2012 general ballot, passing by a margin of approximately 56 to 44 percent.

Initiative 502 results by county, with number of votes shown by size, yes in orange and no in blue.
Washington Initiative 502 Section 28 earmarks revenue generated by the law at specific cost amounts for administration of the program. While any and all remaining funds generated over initial costs is to be divided over general public health, drug-abuse treatment, drug-abuse prevention, marijuana research and local research facilities, specifically University of Washington & Washington State University.
A cannabis dispensary in Suquamish, Washington.

Initiative 502 defined and legalized small amounts of marijuana-related products for adults 21 and over, taxes them and designates the revenue for healthcare and substance-abuse prevention and education.

Rastafari often claim the flag of Ethiopia as was used during Haile Selassie's reign. It combines the conquering lion of Judah, symbol of the Ethiopian monarchy, with green, gold, and red.

Rastafari

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Religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.

Religion that developed in Jamaica during the 1930s.

Rastafari often claim the flag of Ethiopia as was used during Haile Selassie's reign. It combines the conquering lion of Judah, symbol of the Ethiopian monarchy, with green, gold, and red.
Two Rastafari street vendors in Zeerust, South Africa; they are wearing and selling items that display their commitment to the religion
The Liberty Bell Temple in Los Angeles
Haile Selassie, the Emperor of Ethiopia between 1930 and 1974. He is of central importance to Rastas, many of whom regard him as the Second Coming of Jesus and thus God incarnate in human form.
The eastern African nation of Ethiopia is given great prominence in Rasta doctrine.
A map of Ethiopia, the "Zion" of the Rastas
A Rasta in Barbados, wearing a rastacap decorated in the Rastafari colours: green, gold, red and black
The Rasta Shop, a store selling items associated with Rastafari in the U.S. state of Oregon
A group of Rastas in Liberia celebrating Marcus Garvey's birthday
A flowering cannabis plant; the smoking of which is considered a Biblically sanctioned sacrament by Rastas
A Rasta playing a batá drum
Rastas regularly use the three colours of the Ethiopian flag for their movement, although they often add black to this tricolour, symbolising the black skin of the African people
An ital breakfast; ackee, plantain, boiled food, breadfruit, and mango-pineapple juice
A man with dreadlocks in São Paulo, Brazil
A Rasta man wearing a rastacap in Jamaica
Marcus Garvey, a prominent black nationalist theorist who heavily influenced Rastafari and is regarded as a prophet by many Rastas
Emperor Haile Selassie in 1942, a year after he re-took control of Ethiopia
Reggae musician Bob Marley did much to raise international awareness of the Rastafari movement in the 1970s.
A stylised Rastafari motif, depicting the Lion of Judah
The headquarters of the Twelve Tribes of Israel group in Shashemene, Ethiopia
A practitioner of Rastafari in Jamaica
A Rasta street vendor in South Africa's Eastern Cape
The English Rasta Benjamin Zephaniah is a well-known poet.

Cannabis, known as ganja, is often smoked.