A report on Cannabis (drug)

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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Cannabis dispensary in Denver, Colorado

2012 Colorado Amendment 64

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Cannabis dispensary in Denver, Colorado

Colorado Amendment 64 was a successful popular initiative ballot measure to amend the Constitution of the State of Colorado, outlining a statewide drug policy for cannabis.

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates

Analgesic

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Analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain .

Analgesic, pain reliever, or painkiller, is any member of the group of drugs used to achieve relief from pain .

Opium poppies such as this one provide ingredients for the class of analgesics called opiates
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Medical cannabis, or medical marijuana, refers to cannabis or its cannabinoids used to treat disease or improve symptoms.

Section of a lung showing centrilobular emphysema, with enlarged airspaces in the centre of a lobule usually caused by smoking and a major feature of COPD

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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Type of progressive lung disease characterized by long-term respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation.

Type of progressive lung disease characterized by long-term respiratory symptoms and airflow limitation.

Section of a lung showing centrilobular emphysema, with enlarged airspaces in the centre of a lobule usually caused by smoking and a major feature of COPD
Signs and symptoms of stages of COPD.
Access to clean fuel and clean cooking facilities as of 2016.
Normal lungs shown in upper diagram. Lungs damaged by COPD in lower diagram with an inset showing a cross-section of bronchioles blocked by mucus, and damaged alveoli.
Micrograph showing emphysema (left – large empty spaces) and lung tissue with relative preserved alveoli (right).
A person blowing into a spirometer. Smaller handheld devices are available for office use.
Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease deaths per million persons in 2012
Giovanni Battista Morgagni, who made one of the earliest recorded descriptions of emphysema in 1769
alt=A black and white image, with a small white heart in the middle and large black lungs around it|Chest X-ray demonstrating severe COPD: Note the small heart size in comparison to the lungs.
A lateral chest X-ray of a person with emphysema: Note the barrel chest and flat diaphragm.
Lung bulla as seen on chest X-ray in a person with severe COPD
A severe case of bullous emphysema
Axial CT image of the lung of a person with end-stage bullous emphysema
Very severe emphysema with lung cancer on the left (CT scan)

Marijuana is the second most commonly smoked substance, but evidence linking its use to COPD is very limited.

Legality of cannabis by U.S. jurisdiction

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In the United States, the use and possession of cannabis is illegal under federal law for any purpose by way of the Controlled Substances Act of 1970 (CSA).

Coffeeshop in Amsterdam, Netherlands

Coffeeshop (Netherlands)

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Coffeeshop in Amsterdam, Netherlands
The Grasshopper is a former cannabis coffeeshop in the city center of Amsterdam, Netherlands.
Coffeeshop license.
Exterior wall of a coffeeshop in the Dutch city of Groningen. Depicted are Queen Elizabeth II, Queen Beatrix, Hu Jintao, Dmitry Medvedev, Barack Obama, Angela Merkel and Silvio Berlusconi.
Interior of a coffeeshop in Maastricht.
A coffeeshop in Utrecht
A bong in a coffeeshop in Amsterdam

In the Netherlands, coffeeshops are establishments where the sale of cannabis for personal consumption by the public is tolerated by the local authorities.

Hemp, bast with fibers. The stem, which can become hemp hurds, in the middle.

Marihuana Tax Act of 1937

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Hemp, bast with fibers. The stem, which can become hemp hurds, in the middle.
Overprint marijuana revenue stamps from 1937

The Marihuana Tax Act of 1937,, was a United States Act that placed a tax on the sale of cannabis.

A cannabis dispensary in Denver, Colorado.

Cannabis shop

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A cannabis dispensary in Denver, Colorado.
Government-owned cannabis dispensary in British Columbia, Canada
A bhang shop in Jaisalmer, Rajasthan, India.

A cannabis shop, cannabis dispensary, or cannabis cooperative, is a location at which marijuana is sold for recreational or medical use.

An attempt at a visual representation of depersonalization

Depersonalization

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Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself.

Depersonalization can consist of a detachment within the self, regarding one's mind or body, or being a detached observer of oneself.

An attempt at a visual representation of depersonalization

It is an effect of dissociatives and psychedelics, as well as a possible side effect of caffeine, alcohol, amphetamine, cannabis, and antidepressants.

Fitz Hugh Ludlow

Fitz Hugh Ludlow

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American author, journalist, and explorer; best known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857).

American author, journalist, and explorer; best known for his autobiographical book The Hasheesh Eater (1857).

Fitz Hugh Ludlow

During these visits, Ludlow “made upon myself the trial of the effects of every strange drug and chemical which the laboratory could produce.” A few months before, Bayard Taylor’s Putnam’s Magazine article The Vision of Hasheesh had been devoured by Ludlow, and so when the cannabis-based tetanus remedy called Tilden’s extract came out he had to try some.

The Oracle at Delphi was famous for her divinatory trances throughout the ancient Mediterranean world. Oil painting, John Collier, 1891

Trance

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State of semi-consciousness in which a person is not self-aware and is either altogether unresponsive to external stimuli or is selectively responsive in following the directions of the person (if any) who has induced the trance.

State of semi-consciousness in which a person is not self-aware and is either altogether unresponsive to external stimuli or is selectively responsive in following the directions of the person (if any) who has induced the trance.

The Oracle at Delphi was famous for her divinatory trances throughout the ancient Mediterranean world. Oil painting, John Collier, 1891

Gustatory: driving through the sense of taste and indigestion; including: starvation, herbs, hallucinogens and drugs. As the intake of food and beverage entails intra-bodily chemical reactions through digestion, some infer that all food may be considered medicine or drugs and therefore contribute to the induction of discernible psycho-physical states (see Ancient Medicine). Trance states can be attained through the ingestion of psychoactive drugs, particularly psychedelics, such as cannabis, ketamine, LSD, peyote, psilocybin mushrooms, DMT, and MDMA.