A report on Cannabis (drug)

Close-up of flowering cannabis plant
Main short-term physical effects of cannabis
A joint prior to rolling, with a paper handmade filter on the left
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Types of cannabis
A macro cannabis bud
Present-day map of the Jirzankal Cemetery, site of the earliest evidence of cannabis smoking
Cannabis sativa from Vienna Dioscurides, c. 512 CE
Anti-Cannabis propaganda from 1935
Cannabis indica fluid extract, American Druggists Syndicate (pre-1937)
Process of making bhang in a Sikh village in Punjab, India. On the Hindu and Sikh festival of colors called Holi, it is a customary addition to some intoxicating drinks.
countries that have legalized medical use of cannabis
Example of a container and the recreational cannabis purchase in Canada.
Woman selling cannabis and bhang in Guwahati, Assam, India
Dried flower buds (marijuana)
A gram of kief
Hashish
Hash oil
Infusion (dairy butter)

Psychoactive drug from the Cannabis plant.

- Cannabis (drug)
Close-up of flowering cannabis plant

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Netherlands

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Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

Country located in Northwestern Europe with overseas territories in the Caribbean.

The name of the historic County of Holland is currently used as a pars pro toto for the Netherlands.
Oak figurine found in Willemstad (4500 BC)
The Rhine frontier around 70 AD
Franks, Frisians and Saxons (710s AD) with Traiecturm and Dorestad in the middle
Frankish expansion (481 to 870 AD)
Rorik of Dorestad, Viking ruler of Friesland (romantic 1912 depiction)
A Medieval Tombe of the Brabantian knight Arnold van der Sluijs
Map of the Habsburg dominions. From 1556 the dynasty's lands in the Low Countries were retained by the Spanish Habsburgs.
The Spanish Fury at Maastricht, 1579
Dutch East India Company factory in Hugli-Chuchura, Mughal Bengal by Hendrik van Schuylenburgh, 1665
Winter landscape with skaters near the city of Kampen by Hendrick Avercamp (1620s)
Amsterdam's Dam Square in 1656
Map of the Dutch colonial empire. Light green: territories administered by or originating from territories administered by the Dutch East India Company; dark green: the Dutch West India Company. In yellow are the territories occupied later, during the 19th century.
The submission of Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830. Painting by Nicolaas Pieneman
Rotterdam after German air raids in 1940
Former Prime Ministers Wim Kok, Dries van Agt, Piet de Jong, Ruud Lubbers and Jan Peter Balkenende with Prime Minister Mark Rutte, in 2011
Relief map of the European Netherlands
The Christmas flood of 1717 was the result of a northwesterly storm that resulted in the death of thousands.
Map illustrating areas of the Netherlands below sea level
A polder at 5.53 metres below sea level
The Delta Works are located in the provinces of South Holland and Zeeland.
Common seals on Terschelling, a Wadden Sea island
Underwater life of Klein Bonaire
The Binnenhof, where the lower and upper houses of the States General meet
De Wallen, Amsterdam's red-light district, offers activities such as legal prostitution and a number of coffeeshops that sell marijuana, symbolising the Dutch political culture and tradition of tolerance.
The Netherlands has a culture of respectful and friendly debate. From left to right, members of the House of Representatives Sander de Rouwe (CDA), Ineke van Gent (GL), Han ten Broeke (VVD), Kees Verhoeven (D66) and Farshad Bashir (SP), 2010
Provinces and territories of the Netherlands
The Peace Palace (Vredespaleis), in The Hague
General Onno Eichelsheim is the current Chief of Defence.
Zr. Ms. Holland, a Royal Netherlands Navy offshore patrol vessel
Historical GDP per capita development (Our World in Data)
A proportional representation of Netherlands exports, 2019
The Netherlands is part of a monetary union, the Eurozone (dark blue), and the EU single market.
Natural gas concessions in the Netherlands. Today the Netherlands accounts for more than 25% of all natural gas reserves in the EU.
The Groningen gas field whose discovery in 1959 transformed the Dutch economy, generating €159 billion in revenue since the mid-1970s.
Cows near the city of Arnhem
Population of the Netherlands from 1900 to 2000
Population pyramid of the Netherlands in 2017
In Rotterdam almost half the population has an immigrant background.
Population density in the Netherlands by municipality. The largest urban area, the Randstad is clearly visible along the west coast.
Knowledge of foreign languages in the Netherlands, in per cent of the population over the age of 15, in 2006
An international primary school in The Hague
View on the Utrecht Science Park of Utrecht University. The building in the centre is the library.
Portrait of Antonie van Leeuwenhoek (1632–1723), known as "the father of microbiology"
A public hospital in Amersfoort
A1 motorway, in Gelderland
A regional train operated by Nederlandse Spoorwegen (NS)
Bike passage at Rotterdam Centraal station
Some symbols and icons of Dutch culture
Carnival in North Brabant and Limburg
Dutch people in orange celebrating King's Day in Amsterdam, 2017
Pop singer Anouk in 2013
Johan Cruyff Arena, the largest Dutch concert venue
Dutch star football players Arjen Robben and Robin van Persie during a game with the Netherlands against Denmark at Euro 2012
New Amsterdam as it appeared in 1664. Under British rule it became known as New York.
Eustachius De Lannoy of the Dutch East India Company surrenders to Maharaja Marthanda Varma of the Indian Kingdom of Travancore after the Battle of Colachel. (Depiction at Padmanabhapuram Palace)
A Dutch doctor vaccinating Indonesian patients

Windmills, tulips, wooden shoes, cheese, Delftware pottery, and cannabis have grown to symbolize the Netherlands, especially among tourists.

Colombia

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Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Country in South America with an insular region in North America.

Location map of the pre-Columbian cultures of Colombia
An illustration of the Battle of Cartagena de Indias, a major Spanish victory in the War of Jenkins' Ear
Many intellectual leaders of the independence process participated in the Royal Botanical Expedition to New Granada.
The Battle of Boyacá was the decisive battle that ensured success of the liberation campaign of New Granada.
The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process.
Formation of the present Colombia since the Viceroyalty of New Granada's independence from the Spanish Empire
The Bogotazo in 1948
The Axis of Peace and Memory, a memorial to the victims of the Colombian conflict (1964–present)
Former President Juan Manuel Santos signed a peace accord
Relief map
Colombia map of Köppen climate classification
Mountain climate is one of the unique features of the Andes and other high altitude reliefs
The national flower of Colombia, the endemic orchid Cattleya trianae, is named for Colombian botanist and physician José Jerónimo Triana.
Casa de Nariño is the official home and principal workplace of the President of Colombia.
Capitolio Nacional seat of the Congress.
The VII Summit of the Pacific Alliance: Former President of Colombia, Juan Manuel Santos is second from the left.
Arpía III of the Colombian Air Force
Colombia GDP by sector in 2017.
Historical GDP per capita development
The Colombian Stock Exchange is part of the Latin American Integrated Market (MILA).
Colciencias is a Colombian Government agency that supports fundamental and applied research.
Port of Cartagena.
Population density of Colombia in 2007
The Las Lajas Sanctuary in the southern Colombian Department of Nariño
The Nobel literature prize winner Gabriel García Márquez
Vargas Swamp Lancers, artwork by Rodrigo Arenas Betancourt
Historic Centre of Santa Cruz de Mompox, an architectural site with colonial elements
Villa de Leyva main plaza
Regions of Colombia by its traditional music.
Colombian tiple
Teatro Colón of Bogotá houses the Ibero-American Theater Festival of Bogotá, one of the biggest theater festivals in the world.
The Cartagena Film Festival is the oldest cinema event in Latin America. The central focus is on films from Ibero-America.
Sancocho de gallina criolla is a traditional soup in Colombia.
Mariana Pajón is a Colombian cyclist, two-time Olympic gold medalist and BMX World Champion.
Colombia leads the annual América Economía ranking of the best clinics and hospitals in Latin America.
M5 building – National University of Colombia, designed by Pedro Nel Gómez
Mario Laserna Building – University of Los Andes

Beginning in the mid-1970s Colombian drug cartels became major producers, processors and exporters of illegal drugs, primarily marijuana and cocaine.

Presumptive and confirmatory tests

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Presumptive tests, in medical and forensic science, analyze a sample and establish one of the following:

Presumptive tests, in medical and forensic science, analyze a sample and establish one of the following:

Duquenois-Levine reagent for cannabis

Official portrait, 2007

Clarence Thomas

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American jurist who serves as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

American jurist who serves as an associate justice of the Supreme Court of the United States.

Official portrait, 2007
Thomas with President Ronald Reagan in 1986, while serving as chairman of the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission
Clarence Thomas being sworn in as a member of the U.S. Supreme Court by Justice Byron White during an October 23, 1991, White House ceremony, as wife Virginia Thomas looks on
Thomas speaking to Secretary of Agriculture Sonny Perdue in 2017

Thomas is notable for his majority opinions in Good News Club v. Milford Central School (determining the freedom of religious speech in relation to the First Amendment) and New York State Rifle & Pistol Association, Inc. v. Bruen (establishing the individual right to bear arms outside the home), as well as his dissent in Gonzales v. Raich (arguing that Congress may not criminalize marijuana).

National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre

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Established in 2008 in response to data published in the Pfizer Australia Health Report.

Established in 2008 in response to data published in the Pfizer Australia Health Report.

NDARC and NCPIC have collaborated with Pfizer Australia to assist with educating the public about cannabis.

Cannabis Social Club

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Industry model for regulated cannabis organised as non-profit cooperatives in which cannabis is cultivated, shared, and enjoyed collectively, usually for the purpose of relaxing or for social communion.

Industry model for regulated cannabis organised as non-profit cooperatives in which cannabis is cultivated, shared, and enjoyed collectively, usually for the purpose of relaxing or for social communion.

The term was also thought as a way to enable the normalization of this model for the legal production and distribution of cannabis for adults.

Colorado

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State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

State in the Mountain West subregion of the Western United States.

Ruins of Cliff Palace at Mesa Verde National Park. Photo by Gustaf Nordenskiöld, 1891
Great Kiva at Chimney Rock in the San Juan Mountains of Southwestern Colorado. It is said to have been built by the Ancient Pueblo peoples.
The Spanish discovering the Colorado River, namesake of the state, in 1540, by Augusto Ferrer-Dalmau. García López de Cárdenas can be seen overlooking the Grand Canyon.
Map of the Mexican Cession, with the white representing the territory the United States received from Mexico (plus land ceded to the Republic of Texas) after the Mexican–American War. Well over half of Colorado was received during this treaty.
The Anasazi Heritage Center in Dolores
The territories of New Mexico, Utah, Kansas, and Nebraska before the creation of the Territory of Colorado
Mount of the Holy Cross, photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1874
The Georgetown Loop of the Colorado Central Railroad as photographed by William Henry Jackson in 1899
Three 10th Mountain Division skitroopers above Camp Hale in February 1944.
The arid high plains in Southeastern Colorado
Front Range Peaks west of Denver
Tenmile Range and Dillon Reservoir near Breckenridge
Grays Peak at 4352 m is the highest point on the Continental Divide in North America
The high desert lands that make up the San Luis Valley in Southern Colorado
Maroon Bells, at 14163 ft, is part of White River National Forest and a tourist destination
The Colorado National Monument near Grand Junction is made up of high desert canyons and sandstone rock formations
Köppen climate types of Colorado, using 1991-2020 climate normals.
Breckenridge naturalist Edwin Carter with a mounted gray wolf killed in the Colorado Rockies, ca. 1890–1900.
An enlargeable map of the 64 counties of the State of Colorado
An enlargeable map of the 17 core-based statistical areas of Colorado
Colorado population density map
Denver Energy Center lies in the Denver financial district along 17th Street, known as the Wall Street of the West
Corn growing in Larimer County
An oil well in western Colorado
History Colorado Center in Denver
Street art in Denver
The Colorado Rockies baseball club at Coors Field
Empower Field at Mile High in Denver, home field of the Denver Broncos and the Denver Outlaws
Ball Arena, home of the Denver Nuggets, the Colorado Avalanche, and the Colorado Mammoth
Dick's Sporting Goods Park, home of the Colorado Rapids
A Colorado state welcome sign
The main terminal of Denver International Airport evokes the peaks of the Front Range.
The westbound and eastbound California Zephyrs meet in the Glenwood Canyon.
Colorado Christian University
Colorado College
Colorado Mesa University
Colorado School of Mines
Colorado State University
Regis University
The United States Air Force Academy
The University of Colorado Boulder
The University of Denver
Fort Carson
Peterson Space Force Base
United States Air Force Academy
The Southern Ute Tribal Administration Building
The Ute Mountain Ute Tribal Office Complex
Lowry Pueblo in Canyons of the Ancients National Monument
Great Sand Dunes National Park and Preserve
Spruce Tree House in Mesa Verde National Park

In 2012, voters amended the state constitution protecting the "personal use" of marijuana for adults, establishing a framework to regulate cannabis like alcohol.

Uruguay

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Country in South America.

Country in South America.

Monument to the Charrúa, the indigenous people of Uruguay
The Portuguese established Colonia do Sacramento in 1680.
The oath of the Thirty-Three Orientals in 1825 prior to the beginning of the Cisplatine War, in which Uruguay gained independence from the Empire of Brazil
Manuel Oribe served as President of Uruguay and led the Blancos in the Civil War.
The victory of the Ejército Grande at the Battle of Caseros resulted in the overthrow of Juan Manuel de Rosas.
Uruguayan troops in trenches at the Battle of Tuyutí in 1866, during the War of the Triple Alliance
Palacio Salvo, built in Montevideo from 1925 to 1928, was once the tallest building in Latin America.
Former Uruguayan president Jorge Batlle with former U.S. president George H. W. Bush in 2003
2011 bicentennial celebrations at the Palacio Legislativo in Montevideo
A satellite image of Uruguay
Cerro Batoví in Tacuarembó Department
Lake at Iporá Resort in Tacuarembó
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Uruguay
Palacio Legislativo, Montevideo
Palacio Piria, seat of the supreme court
A map of the departments of Uruguay
Tabaré Vázquez (former two-term President 2005–2010, 2015–2020) with then-President of Brazil Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva in 2007
From right to left: Then-president José Mujica with his wife Lucía Topolansky and the former presidents of Uruguay Luis Alberto Lacalle, Jorge Batlle and Tabaré Vázquez in 2011
Current Uruguay's president Luis Lacalle Pou at a press conference, Apr. 22, 2022.
Uruguayan Army T-54 Main battle tank
GDP per capita development since 1900
A proportional representation of Uruguay exports, 2019
World Trade Center Montevideo
Vineyard in Uruguay
Punta del Este is one of the main tourist destinations in the Southern Cone.
The historic colonial city of Colonia del Sacramento
Port of Montevideo
Carrasco International Airport, Montevideo
Punta del Este International Airport
Population pyramid in 2020
The Church of Saint Charles Borromeo in San Carlos is one of the oldest churches in Uruguay.
Faculty of medicine of the University of the Republic, founded in 1849
A "livable sculpture", Carlos Páez Vilaró's Casapueblo was his home, hotel and museum.
Tango dancers in Montevideo
Murga singers at carnival
José Enrique Rodó
Centenario Stadium
Uruguay supporters at the 2018 FIFA World Cup in Russia

The growth, use, and sale of cannabis was legalized on 11 December 2013, making Uruguay the first country in the world to fully legalize marijuana.

Georgia (country)

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Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, identifying itself as European.

Country located in the Caucasus, at the intersection of Eastern Europe and Western Asia, identifying itself as European.

"Gorgania" i.e. Georgia on Fra Mauro map
Patera depicting Marcus Aurelius uncovered in central Georgia, 2nd century AD
Northwestern Georgia is home to the medieval defensive Svan towers of Ushguli
Gelati Monastery, a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Queen Tamar, the first woman to rule medieval Georgia in her own right.
King Vakhtang VI, a Georgian monarch caught between rival regional powers
The reign of George XII was marked by instability.
Noe Zhordania, Prime Minister of Georgia who was exiled to France after the Soviet takeover
The Bolshevik Red Army in Tbilisi on 25 February 1921. Saint David's church on the Holy Mountain is visible in the distance.
Georgian Civil War and the War in Abkhazia in August–October 1993
The Rose Revolution, 2003
US Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice holding a joint press conference with Georgian president Mikheil Saakashvili during the Russo-Georgian war
Salome Zourabichvili, the first woman elected as president of Georgia
Presidential residence at the Orbeliani Palace in Tbilisi
Pro-NATO poster in Tbilisi
President of Georgia Salome Zourabichvili, President of Moldova Maia Sandu, President of Ukraine Volodymyr Zelensky and President of the European Council Charles Michel during the 2021 Batumi International Conference. In 2014, the EU signed Association Agreements with all the three states.
Georgian built Didgori-2 during the military parade in 2011
A Ford Taurus Police Interceptor operated by the Georgian Patrol Police.
Map of Georgia highlighting the disputed territories of Abkhazia and Tskhinvali Region (South Ossetia), both of which are outside the control of the central government of Georgia
Köppen climate classification map of Georgia
Mount Kazbek in eastern Georgia
Svaneti region of Georgia
View of the cave city of Vardzia and the valley of the Kura River below
Georgia's diverse climate creates varied landscapes, like these flat marshlands in the country's west
Southwest Georgia has a subtropical climate, with frequent rain and thick green vegetation
Georgian Shepherd Dog
GDP per capita development since 1973
A proportional representation of Georgia's exports in 2019
One of several plants operated by HeidelbergCement in Georgia
Wine-making is a traditional component of the Georgian economy.
The most visited ski resort of Georgia, Gudauri
The Georgian Railways represent a vital artery linking the Black Sea and Caspian Sea – the shortest route between Europe and Central Asia.
Port of Batumi
Ethno-linguistic groups in the Caucasus region
Tbilisi State University, Corpus I
Illuminated manuscript from medieval Georgia, showing a scene from nativity
Old Tbilisi – Architecture in Georgia is in many ways a fusion of European and Asian.
Rather than serving food in courses, traditional supras often present all that a host has to offer
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.
Dinamo Tbilisi, winner of 1981 European Cup Winners' Cup on stamp of Georgia, 2002
Château Mukhrani, one of the centres of Georgia's viticulture in the 19th century, has recently been restored to produce its eponymous wine.

Since independence, Georgia maintained harsh policies against drugs, handing out lengthy sentences even for marijuana use.

An antique selection of herbal medicines

Herbal medicine

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Study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants, which are a basis of traditional medicine.

Study of pharmacognosy and the use of medicinal plants, which are a basis of traditional medicine.

An antique selection of herbal medicines
A physician preparing an elixir, from an Arabic version of Dioscorides's pharmacopoeia, 1224
Leaves of Eucalyptus olida being packed into a steam distillation unit to gather its essential oil
A herb shop in the souk of Marrakesh, Morocco
Datura stramonium has been used in Ayurveda for various treatments, but contains alkaloids, such as atropine and scopolamine, which may cause severe toxicity.
A herbalist gathers the flower heads of Arnica montana.
An example of a herbal medicine resource: the bark of the cinchona tree contains quinine, which today is a widely prescribed treatment for malaria. The unpurified bark is still used by some who can not afford to purchase more expensive antimalarial drugs.
Ready to drink macerated medicinal liquor with goji berry, tokay gecko, and ginseng, for sale at a traditional medicine market in Xi'an, China.
A platter of herbal medicines at Goa, India
Different types of Indonesian jamu herbal medicines held in bottles

Some herbs, such as cannabis and coca, are outright banned in most countries though coca is legal in most of the South American countries where it is grown.