Cantata

cantatassecular cantataCantateschurch cantataDramatic cantataPatriotic cantataanti-cantataCantadascantata formcantata sacra da camera
A cantata (Italian: ) (literally "sung", past participle feminine singular of the Italian verb cantare, "to sing") is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir.wikipedia
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Church cantata

Christmas DayAscensionEstomihi
Cantatas for use in the liturgy of church services are called church cantata or sacred cantata; other cantatas can be indicated as secular cantata.
A church cantata or sacred cantata is a cantata intended to be performed during a liturgical service.

Christmas cantata

cantata for ChristmasChristmas
Several cantatas were, and still are, written for special occasions, such as Christmas cantatas.
A Christmas cantata or Nativity cantata is a cantata, music for voice or voices in several movements, for Christmas.

Church cantata (Bach)

Church cantataliturgical yearchurch cantatas
Christoph Graupner, Georg Philipp Telemann and Johann Sebastian Bach composed cycles of church cantatas for the occasions of the liturgical year.
Throughout his life as a musician, Johann Sebastian Bach composed cantatas for both secular and sacred use.

Madrigal

madrigalsmadrigalistmadrigalists
The meaning of the term changed over time, from the simple single voice madrigal of the early 17th century, to the multi-voice "cantata da camera" and the "cantata da chiesa" of the later part of that century, from the more substantial dramatic forms of the 18th century to the usually sacred-texted 19th-century cantata, which was effectively a type of short oratorio.
After the 1630s, the madrigal began to merge with the cantata and the dialogue.

Sonata

sonatassonata formClassical sonata
With the rise of instrumental music the term appeared, while the instrumental art became sufficiently developed to be embodied in sonatas.
Sonata (Italian:, pl. sonate; from Latin and Italian: sonare [archaic Italian; replaced in the modern language by suonare], "to sound"), in music, literally means a piece played as opposed to a cantata (Latin and Italian cantare, "to sing"), a piece sung.

Recitative

recitativessecco recitativeaccompagnato
A cantata consisted first of a declamatory narrative or scene in recitative, held together by a primitive aria repeated at intervals.
Recitative (, also known by its Italian name "recitativo" ) is a style of delivery (much used in operas, oratorios, and cantatas) in which a singer is allowed to adopt the rhythms and delivery of ordinary speech.

List of Bach cantatas

Bach cantatascantatascantata
This is equally evident whether one examines the church cantatas of Bach, of which nearly 200 are extant (see List of Bach cantatas), or the Chandos Anthems of Handel.
This is a sortable list of the Bach cantatas, the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach.

Christmas Oratorio

WeihnachtsoratoriumPart IIBach's ''Christmas Oratorio
In Johann Sebastian Bach's case some of the larger cantatas are actually called oratorios; and the Christmas Oratorio is a collection of six church cantatas actually intended for performance on six different days, though together forming as complete an artistic whole as any classical oratorio.
It was written for the Christmas season of 1734 and incorporates music from earlier compositions, including three secular cantatas written during 1733 and 1734 and a now lost church cantata, BWV 248a.

Aria

ariasariettearietta
A cantata consisted first of a declamatory narrative or scene in recitative, held together by a primitive aria repeated at intervals.
The typical context for arias is opera, but vocal arias also feature in oratorios and cantatas, sharing features of the operatic arias of their periods.

Johann Sebastian Bach

BachJ.S. BachJ. S. Bach
Christoph Graupner, Georg Philipp Telemann and Johann Sebastian Bach composed cycles of church cantatas for the occasions of the liturgical year.
As part of his application, he had a cantata performed on Easter, 24 April 1707, likely an early version of his Christ lag in Todes Banden.

Oratorio

oratoriosoratoriumoratoria
The meaning of the term changed over time, from the simple single voice madrigal of the early 17th century, to the multi-voice "cantata da camera" and the "cantata da chiesa" of the later part of that century, from the more substantial dramatic forms of the 18th century to the usually sacred-texted 19th-century cantata, which was effectively a type of short oratorio.
Lasting about 30–60 minutes, oratori volgari were performed in two sections, separated by a sermon; their music resembles that of contemporary operas and chamber cantatas.

George Frideric Handel

HandelGeorg Friedrich HändelHändel
George Frideric Handel's numerous Italian duets and trios are examples on a rather large scale.
He also composed cantatas in pastoral style for musical gatherings in the palaces of duchess Aurora Sanseverino (whom Mainwaring called "Donna Laura") one of the most influential patrons from the Kingdom of Naples, and cardinals Pietro Ottoboni, Benedetto Pamphili and Carlo Colonna.

Christoph Graupner

GraupnerJohann Christoph Graupner
Christoph Graupner, Georg Philipp Telemann and Johann Sebastian Bach composed cycles of church cantatas for the occasions of the liturgical year.
There are about 2,000 surviving works in his catalog, including 113 sinfonias, 85 ouvertures (suites), 44 concertos, 8 operas, 1,418 religious and 24 secular cantatas, 66 sonatas and 57 harpsichord partitas.

Giacomo Carissimi

CarissimiCARISSIMI, GIACOMOG. Carissimi
Fine examples may be found in the church music of Giacomo Carissimi; and the English vocal solos of Henry Purcell (such as Mad Tom and Mad Bess) show the utmost that can be made of this archaic form.
The great achievements generally ascribed to Carissimi are the further development of the recitative, introduced by Monteverdi, which is highly important to the history of dramatic music; the further development of the chamber cantata, by which Carissimi superseded the concertato madrigals which had themselves replaced the madrigals of the late Renaissance; and the development of the oratorio, of which he was the first significant composer.

Parody

parodiesspoofparodied
They were so similar in form to the sacred ones that many of them were parodied (in parts or completely) to sacred cantatas, for example in Bach's Christmas Oratorio.
More commonly, a parody mass (missa parodia) or an oratorio used extensive quotation from other vocal works such as motets or cantatas; Victoria, Palestrina, Lassus, and other composers of the 16th century used this technique.

Choir

choralchoruschoral music
A cantata (Italian: ) (literally "sung", past participle feminine singular of the Italian verb cantare, "to sing") is a vocal composition with an instrumental accompaniment, typically in several movements, often involving a choir.
Lutheran composers wrote instrumentally accompanied cantatas, often based on chorale tunes.

Die erste Walpurgisnacht

The First Walpurgis Night The First Walpurgis Night
In early 19th-century cantatas the chorus is the vehicle for music more lyric and songlike than in oratorio, not excluding the possibility of a brilliant climax in a fugue as in Ludwig van Beethoven's Der glorreiche Augenblick, Carl Maria von Weber's Jubel-Kantate, and Felix Mendelssohn's Die erste Walpurgisnacht.
It was famously set to music by Felix Mendelssohn as a secular cantata for soloists (alto, tenor, baritone, bass), choir, and orchestra.

Oboe d'amore

oboes d'amoreoboe d'amourOboe d’amore
Also, many of Graupner's cantatas exploit elaborate orchestral effects and use exotic instrumentation, such as chalumeau, flûte d'amour, oboe d'amore, viola d'amore, trumpets, horns and timpani.
The oboe d'amore was invented in the eighteenth century and was first used by Christoph Graupner in his cantata Wie wunderbar ist Gottes Güt (1717).

Rinaldo (cantata)

Rinaldoa cantata entitled ''RinaldoRinaldo'' (cantata)
The full lyric possibilities of a string of choral songs were realized by Johannes Brahms in his Rinaldo, that—like the Walpurgisnacht—was set to a text by Goethe.
Rinaldo is a cantata for tenor solo, four-part male chorus and orchestra by German composer Johannes Brahms.

Psalm 146 (Bruckner)

Psalm 146147Alleluja! Lobet den Herrn; denn lobsingen ist gut
Bruckners's Psalm 146 is also in cantata form.
Its cantata-like structure ... and stylistic affinity with the Missa solemnis place it in the late St. Florian years, though its enormous dimensions ... are difficult to reconcile with the resources of the monastery.

Viola d'amore

violas d'amoreviola d’amoreviole d'amore
Also, many of Graupner's cantatas exploit elaborate orchestral effects and use exotic instrumentation, such as chalumeau, flûte d'amour, oboe d'amore, viola d'amore, trumpets, horns and timpani.

Henry Purcell

PurcellPurcellianPurcell, Henry
Fine examples may be found in the church music of Giacomo Carissimi; and the English vocal solos of Henry Purcell (such as Mad Tom and Mad Bess) show the utmost that can be made of this archaic form.
Besides the operas and semi-operas already mentioned, Purcell wrote the music and songs for Thomas d'Urfey's The Comical History of Don Quixote, Bonduca, The Indian Queen and others, a vast quantity of sacred music, and numerous odes, cantatas, and other miscellaneous pieces.

Das klagende Lied

cantata of the same name
Late in the century, Gustav Mahler wrote his early Das klagende Lied on his own words, between 1878 and 1880, and Samuel Coleridge-Taylor created a successful trilogy of cantatas The Song of Hiawatha between 1898 and 1900.
Das klagende Lied (Song of Lamentation) is a cantata by Gustav Mahler, composed between 1878 and 1880 and greatly revised over the next two decades.

Prix de Rome cantatas

La mort de CléopâtreLa mort d’OrphéeSardanapale
Hector Berlioz failed in three attempts before finally winning in 1830 with Sardanapale.
As part of the competition, he had to write a cantata to a text set by the examiners.

Carmina Burana (Orff)

Carmina BuranaIn TrutinaO Fortuna
Indeed, it would not be an exaggeration to claim that one of the most popular pieces of classical music of the 20th century to the layman's ears, is a cantata, namely Carmina Burana (1935–1936) by the German composer Carl Orff.
Carmina Burana is a scenic cantata composed in 1935 and 1936 by Carl Orff, based on 24 poems from the medieval collection Carmina Burana.