A report on Vaud and Canton of Fribourg

Logo of the canton of Vaud
Fribourg Prealps: Dent de Brenleire (2358 m, to the right) and Vanil Noir (2389 m, in the background)
Roman column in Nyon
Districts of canton Fribourg
Bailiwicks of Bern in Vaud in the 18th century
Transports publics Fribourgeois bus station in Fribourg
Built by the Bishop of Lausanne during the 15th century, Château Saint-Maire has been the seat of the cantonal government since 1803
Vevey, Lake Geneva, and the Swiss Alps
Vallée de Joux, Jura
Montreux and Lake Geneva
The room of the Grand Council of Vaud, the parliament of the canton of Vaud
Districts of canton of Vaud
Lausanne, capital and largest city in Vaud
Lavaux vineyards above Lake Geneva

It is located in Romandy, the French-speaking western part of the country; and borders the canton of Neuchâtel to the north, the cantons of Fribourg and Bern to the east, the canton of Valais to the south, the canton of Geneva to the south-west and France to the west.

- Vaud

The canton is bounded to the west by Lake Neuchâtel, to the west and the south by the canton of Vaud, and to the east by the canton of Bern.

- Canton of Fribourg

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Overall

Switzerland

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Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Landlocked country located at the confluence of Western, Central and Southern Europe.

Founded in 44 BC by Lucius Munatius Plancus, Augusta Raurica (near Basel) was the first Roman settlement on the Rhine and is now among the most important archaeological sites in Switzerland.
The Old Swiss Confederacy from 1291 (dark green) to the sixteenth century (light green) and its associates (blue). In the other colours shown are the subject territories.
The 1291 Bundesbrief (federal charter)
The Act of Mediation was Napoleon's attempt at a compromise between the Ancien Régime and a Republic.
The first Federal Palace in Bern (1857). One of the three cantons presiding over the Tagsatzung (former legislative and executive council), Bern was chosen as the permanent seat of federal legislative and executive institutions in 1848, in part because of its closeness to the French-speaking area.
Inauguration in 1882 of the Gotthard Rail Tunnel connecting the southern canton of Ticino, the longest in the world at the time
General Ulrich Wille, appointed commander-in-chief of the Swiss Army for the duration of World War I
In 2003, by granting the Swiss People's Party a second seat in the governing cabinet, the Parliament altered the coalition that had dominated Swiss politics since 1959.
Physical map of Switzerland (in German)
Köppen–Geiger climate classification map for Switzerland
The Swiss Federal Council in 2022 with President Ignazio Cassis (bottom) standing on an abstract, reduced railway lines map and positioned at their respective political origins
The Federal Palace, seat of the Federal Assembly and the Federal Council
The Landsgemeinde is an old form of direct democracy, still in practice in two cantons.
The colour-reversed Swiss flag became the symbol of the Red Cross Movement, founded in 1863 by Henry Dunant.
A Swiss Air Force F/A-18 Hornet at Axalp Air Show
Swiss-built Mowag Eagles of the Land Forces
The Old City of Bern
A proportional representation of Switzerland exports, 2019
The city of Basel (Roche Tower) is the capital of the country's pharmaceutical industry, which accounts for around 38% of Swiss exports worldwide.
The Greater Zürich area, home to 1.5 million inhabitants and 150,000 companies, is one of the most important economic centres in the world.
The University of Basel is Switzerland's oldest university (1460).
Some Swiss scientists who played a key role in their discipline (clockwise):
Leonhard Euler (mathematics)
Louis Agassiz (glaciology)
Auguste Piccard (aeronautics)
Albert Einstein (physics)
The LHC tunnel. CERN is the world's largest laboratory and also the birthplace of the World Wide Web.
Members of the European Free Trade Association (green) participate in the European Single Market and are part of the Schengen Area.
Switzerland has the tallest dams in Europe, among which the Mauvoisin Dam, in the Alps. Hydroelectricity is the most important domestic source of energy in the country.
Entrance of the new Lötschberg Base Tunnel, the third-longest railway tunnel in the world, under the old Lötschberg railway line. It was the first completed tunnel of the greater project NRLA.
Population density in Switzerland (2019)
Percentage of foreigners in Switzerland (2019)
Urbanisation in the Rhone Valley (outskirts of Sion)
Alphorn concert in Vals
Jean-Jacques Rousseau was not only a writer but also an influential philosopher of the eighteenth century.
Ski area over the glaciers of Saas-Fee
Roger Federer has won 20 Grand Slam singles titles, making him among the most successful men's tennis players ever.
Fondue is melted cheese, into which bread is dipped
National languages in Switzerland (2016): 
German (62.8%)
French (22.9%)
Italian (8.2%)
Romansh (0.5%)

After the Helvetic Republic and during the Mediation from 1803 until 1815 the Confederal Diet of the 19 Lieus met at the capitals of the directoral cantons Fribourg, Berne, Basel, Zürich, Lucerne and Solothurn.

Swiss wine is produced mainly in Valais, Vaud (Lavaux), Geneva and Ticino, with a small majority of white wines.

Canton of Bern

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One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

One of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation.

Helveto-Roman settlement Bern-Engehalbinsel
Baths at Engehalbinsel near Bern
Burgundian and Allamanni lands between 534 and 843
Lands held by the main noble families around 1200
The Swiss Confederacy before the Battle of Sempach (1387)
The Swiss Confederacy in 1416
The Swiss Confederacy in the 18th century
The districts of the Bernese Aargau before the creation of the Canton of Aargau
Districts of the Canton of Bern in the 18th Century
Map of the modern Canton of Vaud, which was annexed by Bern from 1536 until 1798
Siege and execution of the garrison at Grandson
The Helvetic Republic from 1798 to 1801
View from the Chasseral across the Mittelland to the Bernese Alps
Staubbachfall
Wetterhorn, painting by Joseph Anton Koch, 1824
The Grand Council, the cantonal parliament
Districts of the canton of Bern
Capital city of Bern with the Aare, Gothic Nydeggkirche on left
Emmentaler cheese

To the west lie the canton of Neuchâtel, the canton of Fribourg and canton of Vaud.

Satellite image of the Swiss Plateau between the Jura and the Alps

Swiss Plateau

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One of the three major landscapes in Switzerland, lying between the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps.

One of the three major landscapes in Switzerland, lying between the Jura Mountains and the Swiss Alps.

Satellite image of the Swiss Plateau between the Jura and the Alps
View from the Pilatus on the Swiss Plateau near Luzern
The Napf region in the higher Swiss Plateau
The Swiss Plateau near Muri (AG)
Central Swiss Plateau near Sursee
View from the Rigi on the sea of fog covering the Swiss Plateau
Much of the eastern part of the plateau has become part of the "Greater Zurich Area".
The densely populated Swiss Plateau: view of Zurich from Waidberg
Lavaux and Lake Geneva
Nuclear power plant (Leibstadt)
The Rhine Falls

Occasionally the regions of the higher Swiss Plateau, especially the hills of the canton of Fribourg, the Napf region, the Töss region, the (lower) Toggenburg, and parts of the Appenzell region are considered to form the Swiss Alpine foreland in a narrow sense.

Entirely situated within the Swiss Plateau are the cantons of Zurich, Thurgau and Geneva; mostly situated within the Swiss Plateau are the cantons of Lucerne, Aargau, Solothurn, Bern, Fribourg and Vaud; small portions of the Swiss Plateau are situated in the cantons of Neuchâtel, Zug, Schwyz, St. Gallen and Schaffhausen.

The "Thirteen-Canton Confederation" of the Old Swiss Confederacy (1513–1798)

Cantons of Switzerland

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The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton; canton ; cantone; Sursilvan and Surmiran: cantun; Vallader and Puter: Chantun; Sutsilvan: cantùn; Rumantsch Grischun: chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

The 26 cantons of Switzerland (Kanton; canton ; cantone; Sursilvan and Surmiran: cantun; Vallader and Puter: Chantun; Sutsilvan: cantùn; Rumantsch Grischun: chantun) are the member states of the Swiss Confederation.

The "Thirteen-Canton Confederation" of the Old Swiss Confederacy (1513–1798)
The 22 cantonal coats of arms (all but Jura, with the half-cantons represented jointly) in stained glass set in the dome of the Federal Palace of Switzerland (c. 1900)
Caricature of the division of Basel, 1833

Geneva (formally République et canton de Genève, 'Republic and canton of Geneva'), Jura, Neuchâtel, Valais, Vaud and Ticino.

In the 16th century, the Old Swiss Confederacy was composed of 13 sovereign confederate allies (the Thirteen Cantons; Die Dreizehn Alten Orte), and there were two different kinds: five rural states (Länder) – Uri, Schwyz (which became eponymous of the confederacy), Unterwalden, Glarus, Appenzell – and eight urban states (Städte) – Zürich, Bern, Luzern, Zug, Basel, Fribourg, Solothurn, Schaffhausen.

The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps. It is also one of the remotest locations in Switzerland

Bernese Alps

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The Bernese Alps (Berner Alpen, Alpes bernoises, Alpi bernesi) are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland.

The Bernese Alps (Berner Alpen, Alpes bernoises, Alpi bernesi) are a mountain range of the Alps, located in western Switzerland.

The Finsteraarhorn is the highest mountain in the Bernese Alps. It is also one of the remotest locations in Switzerland
Jungfrau-Aletsch area seen from space
The Aletsch Glacier is the largest glacier in the Alps
Oeschinensee
The road of the Grimsel Pass is the only one connecting the cantons of Bern and Valais

Although the name suggests that they are located in the Berner Oberland region of the canton of Bern, portions of the Bernese Alps are in the adjacent cantons of Valais, Fribourg and Vaud, the latter being usually named Fribourg Alps and Vaud Alps respectively.

With Lakes Biel and Morat in the background

Lake Neuchâtel

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Lake primarily in Romandy, in the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

Lake primarily in Romandy, in the French-speaking part of Switzerland.

With Lakes Biel and Morat in the background
Cantonal participation of Lake Neuchâtel

The lake lies mainly in the canton of Neuchâtel, but is also shared by the cantons of Vaud, Fribourg, and Bern.

Satellite image of Switzerland in October 2002. On the north side of the Alps, the regions located above 2000m are covered by snow. The canton of Ticino (on the south side) is almost snow-free in early autumn.

Swiss Alps

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The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen, Alpes suisses, Alpi svizzere, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions.

The Alpine region of Switzerland, conventionally referred to as the Swiss Alps (Schweizer Alpen, Alpes suisses, Alpi svizzere, Alps svizras), represents a major natural feature of the country and is, along with the Swiss Plateau and the Swiss portion of the Jura Mountains, one of its three main physiographic regions.

Satellite image of Switzerland in October 2002. On the north side of the Alps, the regions located above 2000m are covered by snow. The canton of Ticino (on the south side) is almost snow-free in early autumn.
Swiss Alps seen from the Swiss Jura in December 2010
Map of the western Swiss Alps
Map of the eastern Swiss Alps
Rhine Gorge in Graubünden
The Lac des Dix in Valais
Lauterbrunnen Valley in the Bernese Alps, a deep U-shaped valley that resulted from erosion by glaciers
Tree line in the national park
Liskamm (4,527 m), above the Gorner Glacier
Glacier 3000
Highest ski area in Europe above Zermatt
Due to strong political will by the citizenry, Zermatt remains car-free and retains much of its original character
The Glacier Express on the Landwasser Viaduct, Albula Range
Lötschberg railway line
The Alps are featured on the Swiss fifty-franc banknote since 2016.

The Alpine cantons (from highest to lowest) are Valais, Bern, Graubünden, Uri, Glarus, Ticino, St. Gallen, Vaud, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Schwyz, Appenzell Innerrhoden, Appenzell Ausserrhoden, Fribourg, Lucerne and Zug.

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Sonderbund War

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Civil war in Switzerland, then still a relatively loose confederacy of cantons.

Civil war in Switzerland, then still a relatively loose confederacy of cantons.

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Distribution of confessions at the start of the 19th century.
The general staff of the federal army: Kurz, Minscher, Enloff, Bontemps, Gerwer, Müller, Ziegler, Bourkhardt, Dufour, Rilliet de Constant, Luvini, Donats, Ochsenbein and Gmür
Swiss Army uniforms of the Sonderbund War
The battle of Airolo in Ticino
Rust's battery at the battle of Gisikon
The 2nd Division crosses the Emme river into Littau.
Jean-Ulrich de Salis-Soglio
Josef Franz Karl Amrhyn
Charles Neuhaus
Heinrich Titot
Jean-Marc Mousson
Constantin Siegwart-Mueller
Col Burkardt
Rageth Abys
Bernard von Meyer

The Sonderbund consisted of the cantons of Lucerne, Fribourg, Valais, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Zug, all predominantly Catholic and governed by conservative administrations.

After publishing a proclamation on October 26, Dufour appointed as division commanders: Peter Ludwig von Donatz (Grisons), Johannes Burckhardt and Eduard Ziegler (Zürich) from among the Conservatives and Louis Rilliet de Constant (Vaud), Dominik Gmür, Giacomo Luvini (Ticino) and Ochsenbein (Bern) from among the Radicals.

Saane/Sarine

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Major river of Switzerland.

Major river of Switzerland.

Downstream of Saanen, at 982 m, it enters the Canton of Vaud, passing Rougemont, Château-d'Œx and Rossinière, forming the Lac du Vernex at 859 m.At 833, it traverses the Creux de l'Enfer and enters the Canton of Fribourg, forming Lac de Montbovon at 777 m.From this point, it more or less follows the linguistic boundary between French- and German-speaking Switzerland across the bilingual canton of Fribourg (and is often identified as the geographic representation of the Röstigraben division of Switzerland).