Cantonese

Cantonese languageCantonese ChineseStandard CantoneseGuangzhou dialectYueCantonese romanisationCantonese-languageCantonese dialectCantonese romanizationCantonese-speaking
Cantonese is a variety of Chinese originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) and its surrounding area in Southeastern China.wikipedia
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Cantonese people

CantoneseCantonese immigrantsCanton
Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong, and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.
Although more accurately, "Cantonese" refers only to the people from Guangzhou and its satellite cities and towns and/or native speakers of Standard Cantonese, rather than simply and generally referring to the people of the Liangguang region.

Taishanese

Taishan dialectTaishanToisan
While the term Cantonese specifically refers to the prestige variety, it is often used to refer to the entire Yue subgroup of Chinese, including related but largely mutually unintelligible languages and dialects such as Taishanese.
The dialect is related to and is often referred to as Cantonese but has little mutual intelligibility with the latter.

Guangzhou

CantonGuangzhou, ChinaCanton, China
Cantonese is a variety of Chinese originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) and its surrounding area in Southeastern China.
As an adjective, it is still used in describing the people, language, cuisine and culture of Guangzhou and the surrounding Liangguang region.

Overseas Chinese

ChineseChinese diasporaChinese immigrants
Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong, and Macau, as well as in overseas communities. Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia, as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world.
Overseas Chinese who are ethnically Han Chinese, such as Cantonese, Hoochew, Hokkien, Hakka or Teochew refer to themselves as undefined (Tángrén), pronounced tòhng yàn in Cantonese, toung ning in Hoochew, Tn̂g-lâng in Hokkien and tong nyin in Hakka.

Yue Chinese

CantoneseYueYue dialects
It is the traditional prestige variety of the Yue Chinese dialect group, which has about 68 million native speakers.
Most later migrants have been speakers of Cantonese.

Pearl River Delta

Pearl River estuaryPearl RiverPearl River Basin
In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong (being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta) and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi.
Its dominant language is Cantonese.

Guangxi

Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous RegionGuangxi ProvinceKwangsi
In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong (being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta) and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi.
Various regional languages and dialects such as Pinghua, Zhuang, Cantonese, Hakka and Min are spoken alongside Mandarin Chinese.

Guangdong

Guangdong ProvinceCantonKwangtung
In mainland China, it is the lingua franca of the province of Guangdong (being the majority language of the Pearl River Delta) and neighbouring areas such as Guangxi.
With the outward movement of the Guangdong people, the Hakka and Cantonese languages, music, cuisine, opera and tea ceremony have been spread throughout the nation, Southeast Asia and other countries.

Chinese language

ChineseChinese:Regional dialect
The official languages of Hong Kong are Chinese and English, as defined in the Hong Kong Basic Law.
Currently, most classifications posit 7 to 13 main regional groups, based on often superficial phonetic developments, of which the most populous by far is Mandarin (about 800 million speakers, e.g. Southwestern Mandarin), followed by Min (75 million, e.g. Southern Min), Wu (74 million, e.g. Shanghainese), Yue (68 million, e.g. Cantonese).

Varieties of Chinese

ChineseSiniticChinese varieties
Cantonese is a variety of Chinese originating from the city of Guangzhou (also known as Canton) and its surrounding area in Southeastern China.
Outside China and Taiwan, the only varieties of Chinese commonly taught in university courses are Standard Mandarin and Cantonese.

Chinese as a foreign language

Chinese as a second languageTeaching Chinese as a Foreign Languageany understanding of Chinese
Furthermore, it is also a medium of instruction in select academic curricula, including some university elective courses and Chinese as a foreign language programs.
Other than Standard Mandarin, Cantonese is also widely taught as a foreign language.

Malaysian Chinese

ChineseChinese Malaysianethnic Chinese
In Malaysia, Cantonese is widely spoken amongst the Malaysian Chinese community in the capital city of Kuala Lumpur and the surrounding areas in the Klang Valley (Petaling Jaya, Ampang, Cheras, Selayang, Sungai Buloh, Puchong, Shah Alam, Kajang, Bangi, and Subang Jaya).
Most of the Chinese in Malaysia are of Min (e.g. Hokkien), Yue (Cantonese), Hakka and Teochew ancestry, and different towns and cities in Malaysia are dominated by different Chinese dialects among Chinese speakers; for example Cantonese in Kuala Lumpur, Hokkien in George Town and Kuching, Hakka in Kota Kinabalu, Teochew in Johor Bahru, Foochow in Sibu while Hainanese in Kuala Terengganu; although Mandarin is now widely used as a working language among the different Chinese ethnicities.

Guangzhou Television Cantonese controversy

2010 Pro-Cantonese rally2010 rallycontroversial proposal to switch some programming on Guangzhou local television
A 2010 proposal to switch some programming on Guangzhou television from Cantonese to Mandarin was abandoned following massive public protests, the largest since the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989.
The proposal sparked widespread controversy, met with fierce criticism in native Cantonese-speaking cities including Guangzhou and Hong Kong, which eventually triggered a mass protest in the former city.

Medium of instruction

mediumlanguage of instructioninstruction
It is also used as the medium of instruction in schools, alongside English.

Mandarin Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin dialects
Although Cantonese shares a lot of vocabulary with Mandarin, the two varieties are mutually unintelligible because of differences in pronunciation, grammar, and lexicon.
In Hong Kong and Macau, because of their colonial and linguistic history, the sole language of education, the media, formal speech and everyday life remains the local Cantonese.

Macau

MacaoMacau, ChinaMacanese
Cantonese is viewed as a vital and inseparable part of the cultural identity for its native speakers across large swaths of Southeastern China, Hong Kong, and Macau, as well as in overseas communities.
The predominant language is Cantonese, a variety of Chinese originating in Guangdong.

Cantopop

Canto-popFour Heavenly KingsFour Heavenly Kings (Hong Kong)
Forms of popular culture from Hong Kong, such as television series, cinema and pop music have become popular in Singaporean society, and non-dubbed original versions of the media became widely available.
Cantopop (, a contraction of "Cantonese pop music") or HK-pop (short for "Hong Kong pop music") is a genre of popular music written in standard modern Chinese but sung in Cantonese.

Hokkien

Hokkien ChineseHokkien languageHokkien dialect
Cantonese has historically served as a lingua franca among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, who speak a variety of other forms of Chinese including Hokkien, Teochew, and Hakka. Although Hokkien is the most spoken variety of Chinese and Mandarin is the medium of education at Chinese-language schools, Cantonese is largely influential in the local Chinese-language media and is used in commerce by Chinese Malaysians.
Hokkien has one of the most diverse phoneme inventories among Chinese varieties, with more consonants than Standard Mandarin, Cantonese and Shanghainese.

Chinese school

Chinese schoolsChinese Language SchoolsChinese language school
Although Hokkien is the most spoken variety of Chinese and Mandarin is the medium of education at Chinese-language schools, Cantonese is largely influential in the local Chinese-language media and is used in commerce by Chinese Malaysians.
A Chinese school is a school that is established for the purpose of teaching the varieties of Chinese (in particular, Mandarin and Cantonese), though the purpose can vary to teaching different aspects of Chinese culture such as Chinese art, calligraphy, history and martial arts.

Southeast Asia

South East AsiaSouth-East AsiaSoutheast Asian
Cantonese is also widely spoken amongst Overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia (most notably in Vietnam and Malaysia, as well as in Singapore and Cambodia to a lesser extent) and throughout the Western world.

Teochew dialect

TeochewChaozhouTeochew language
Cantonese has historically served as a lingua franca among overseas Chinese in Southeast Asia, who speak a variety of other forms of Chinese including Hokkien, Teochew, and Hakka.
It is sometimes referred to as Chiuchow, its Cantonese name, due to the English romanisation by colonial officials and explorers.

Standard Chinese

MandarinChineseMandarin Chinese
Cantonese remained a dominant and influential language in southeastern China until the establishment of the People's Republic of China in 1949 and its promotion of Standard Mandarin Chinese as the sole official language of the nation throughout the last half of the 20th century, although its influence still remains strong within the region.
In the summer of 2010, reports of increasing the use of the Pǔtōnghuà in local TV broadcasting in Guangdong lead to thousands of Cantonese-speaking citizens in demonstration on the street.

Kampar, Perak

KamparBandar Baru Kampar
Sabak Bernam located in the northern part of Selangor state and also in the state of Perak, especially in the state capital city of Ipoh and its surrounding towns of Gopeng, Batu Gajah, and Kampar of the Kinta Valley region plus the towns of Tapah and Bidor in the southern part of the Perak state, and also widely spoken in the eastern Sabahan town of Sandakan as well as the towns of Kuantan, Raub, Bentong, and Mentakab in Pahang state, and they are also found in other areas such as Sarikei, Sarawak, and Mersing, Johor.
The local Chinese community had the impression it came from the Cantonese word kam pou as it means "precious gold" (referring to the town's previously large tin reserves, because of the Chinese people also speak in Cantonese only, although there are two dialect groups of the local Chinese populace dominating this town, notably the main Cantonese majority alongside with the Hakkas, which constitute the two largest ethnicities of the local Chinese population).

Hong Kong television drama

Hong Kong televisiontelevision dramaCantonese TV series
Forms of popular culture from Hong Kong, such as television series, cinema and pop music have become popular in Singaporean society, and non-dubbed original versions of the media became widely available.
Locally produced television dramas have helped contribute to a unique cultural identity among the Hong Kong population and serve as a cultural resource for the Cantonese Chinese speaking community worldwide.

Speak Mandarin Campaign

deliberate policy to encourage MandarinPinyinizationprogramme to promote Mandarin
In Singapore, Mandarin is the official variety of the Chinese language used by the government, which has a Speak Mandarin Campaign (SMC) seeking to actively promote the use of Mandarin at the expense of other Chinese varieties.
It was later determined that the learning of Mandarin among Singaporean Chinese was hindered by home use of native Chinese varieties, such as Hokkien, Teochew, Cantonese and Hakka.