Capacitor

capacitorscapacitivecondensercapacitanceparallel-plate capacitorcapacitivelycondensersparallel plate capacitorelectrical capacitorElectrical capacitors
A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field.wikipedia
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Capacitance

capacitiveself-capacitanceelectrical capacitance
The effect of a capacitor is known as capacitance.
The notion of mutual capacitance is particularly important for understanding the operations of the capacitor, one of the three elementary linear electronic components (along with resistors and inductors).

Electrical network

circuitelectrical circuitelectric circuit
While some capacitance exists between any two electrical conductors in proximity in a circuit, a capacitor is a component designed to add capacitance to a circuit.
An electrical network is an interconnection of electrical components (e.g., batteries, resistors, inductors, capacitors, switches, transistors) or a model of such an interconnection, consisting of electrical elements (e.g., voltage sources, current sources, resistances, inductances, capacitances).

Leyden jar

Leyden jarsLeiden jarelectric cell
The earliest forms of capacitors were created in the 1740s, when European experimenters discovered that electric charge could be stored in water-filled glass jars that came to be known as Leyden jars. The following year, the Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented a similar capacitor, which was named the Leyden jar, after the University of Leiden where he worked.
It was the original form of the capacitor (also called condenser).

Electronic circuit

circuitcircuitryelectronic circuits
Today, capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass.
An electronic circuit is composed of individual electronic components, such as resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow.

LC circuit

tuned circuitLCresonant circuit
In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies.
An LC circuit, also called a resonant circuit, tank circuit, or tuned circuit, is an electric circuit consisting of an inductor, represented by the letter L, and a capacitor, represented by the letter C, connected together.

Analogue filter

analog filteranalogvoice frequency telegraphy
In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies.
Passive linear electronic analogue filters are those filters which can be described with linear differential equations (linear); they are composed of capacitors, inductors and, sometimes, resistors (passive) and are designed to operate on continuously varying (analogue) signals.

Passivity (engineering)

passiveactiveactive component
It is a passive electronic component with two terminals.
Under this methodology, voltage and current sources are considered active, while resistors, capacitors, inductors, transistors, tunnel diodes, metamaterials and other dissipative and energy-neutral components are considered passive.

Capacitor types

Types of capacitorPaper capacitorsa type of capacitor
The physical form and construction of practical capacitors vary widely and many types of capacitor are in common use.
Capacitors are manufactured in many forms, styles, lengths, girths, and from many materials.

Electrolytic capacitor

electrolytic capacitorselectrolyticAluminum capacitors
Charles Pollak (born Karol Pollak), the inventor of the first electrolytic capacitors, found out that the oxide layer on an aluminum anode remained stable in a neutral or alkaline electrolyte, even when the power was switched off.
An electrolytic capacitor (occasionally abbreviated e-cap) is a polarized capacitor whose anode or positive plate is made of a metal that forms an insulating oxide layer through anodization.

Film capacitor

filmfilm capacitorsPlastic film capacitors
One very early development in film capacitors was described in British Patent 587,953 in 1944.
Film capacitors, plastic film capacitors, film dielectric capacitors, or polymer film capacitors, generically called "film caps" as well as power film capacitors, are electrical capacitors with an insulating plastic film as the dielectric, sometimes combined with paper as carrier of the electrodes.

Pieter van Musschenbroek

MusschenbroekPetrus van MusschenbroekPieter van Musschenbroeck
The following year, the Dutch physicist Pieter van Musschenbroek invented a similar capacitor, which was named the Leyden jar, after the University of Leiden where he worked.
He is credited with the invention of the first capacitor in 1746: the Leyden jar.

Electrostatic generator

electrostatic machineinfluence machinefriction machine
In October 1745, Ewald Georg von Kleist of Pomerania, Germany, found that charge could be stored by connecting a high-voltage electrostatic generator by a wire to a volume of water in a hand-held glass jar.
This early form of the capacitor, with conductive coatings on either side of the glass, can accumulate a charge of electricity when connected with a source of electromotive force.

Charge-coupled device

CCDCCD cameraCCDs
The MOS capacitor was later widely adopted as a storage capacitor in memory chips, and as the basic building block of the charge-coupled device (CCD) in image sensor technology.
In a CCD image sensor, pixels are represented by p-doped metal–oxide–semiconductor (MOS) capacitors.

Silver mica capacitor

Clamped mica capacitormicamica capacitors
On the receiver side smaller mica capacitors were used for resonant circuits.
Silver mica capacitors are high precision, stable and reliable capacitors.

Dynamic random-access memory

DRAMvideo memorydynamic RAM
In dynamic random-access memory (DRAM), each memory cell typically consists of a MOSFET and MOS capacitor.
Dynamic random-access memory (DRAM) is a type of random access semiconductor memory that stores each bit of data in a memory cell consisting of a tiny capacitor and a transistor, both typically based on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) technology.

Electronic component

electronic componentscomponentscomponent
It is a passive electronic component with two terminals.

Coulomb

CPicoCoulomBExacoulomb
:A capacitance of one farad (F) means that one coulomb of charge on each conductor causes a voltage of one volt across the device.
Thus, it is also the amount of excess charge on a capacitor of one farad charged to a potential difference of one volt:

Electrical breakdown

dielectric breakdownbreakdowndisruptive discharge
A parallel plate capacitor can only store a finite amount of energy before dielectric breakdown occurs.
Electrical breakdown is often associated with the failure of solid or liquid insulating materials used inside high voltage transformers or capacitors in the electricity distribution grid, usually resulting in a short circuit or a blown fuse.

Electric charge

chargeelectrical chargecharged
(See Non-ideal behavior) When an electric potential, a voltage, is applied across the terminals of a capacitor, for example when a capacitor is connected across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate.
In some contexts it is meaningful to speak of fractions of a charge; for example in the charging of a capacitor, or in the fractional quantum Hall effect.

Electric field

electricelectrostatic fieldelectrical field
(See Non-ideal behavior) When an electric potential, a voltage, is applied across the terminals of a capacitor, for example when a capacitor is connected across a battery, an electric field develops across the dielectric, causing a net positive charge to collect on one plate and net negative charge to collect on the other plate. A capacitor is a device that stores electrical energy in an electric field.
It can be approximated by placing two conducting plates parallel to each other and maintaining a voltage (potential difference) between them; it is only an approximation because of boundary effects (near the edge of the planes, electric field is distorted because the plane does not continue).

Mica

micaceousmicasMica group
Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, air, and oxide layers.
Only high-quality muscovite film mica, which is variously called India ruby mica or ruby muscovite mica, is used as a dielectric in capacitors.

Direct current

DCdirect-currentDC current
Today, capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass.
If a capacitor or inductor is added to a DC circuit, the resulting circuit is not, strictly speaking, a DC circuit.

Equivalent series resistance

ESREquivalent Series Resistance (ESR)resistance
This is specified as the equivalent series resistance or ESR of a component.
Practical capacitors and inductors as used in electric circuits are not ideal components with only capacitance or inductance.

Coulomb's law

Coulomb forceelectrostatic forceCoulomb interaction
From Coulomb's law a charge on one conductor will exert a force on the charge carriers within the other conductor, attracting opposite polarity charge and repelling like polarity charges, thus an opposite polarity charge will be induced on the surface of the other conductor.
Early investigators of the 18th century who suspected that the electrical force diminished with distance as the force of gravity did (i.e., as the inverse square of the distance) included Daniel Bernoulli and Alessandro Volta, both of whom measured the force between plates of a capacitor, and Franz Aepinus who supposed the inverse-square law in 1758.

Ceramic

ceramicsceramic materialsceramicist
Materials commonly used as dielectrics include glass, ceramic, plastic film, paper, mica, air, and oxide layers.