Cape Dutch

Cape-DutchDutch communitiesearly Cape settlersvrijburghers
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historic socioeconomic class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.wikipedia
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Afrikaners

AfrikanerAfrikaansAfrikaner people
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historic socioeconomic class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.
At one time, burghers merely denoted Cape Dutch, settlers who were influential in the administration, able to participate in urban affairs, and did so regularly.

Afrikaans

Afrikaans-speakingAfrikaans-languageAfrikaans language
Today, the Cape Dutch are credited with helping shape and a promote a unique Afrikaner cultural identity through their formation of civic associations such as the Afrikaner Bond, and promotion of the Afrikaans language.
Hence, it is a daughter language of Dutch, and was previously referred to as "Cape Dutch" (a term also used to refer collectively to the early Cape settlers) or "kitchen Dutch" (a derogatory term used to refer to Afrikaans in its earlier days).

Great Trek

voortrekkervoortrekkersBoer Trek
The terms have been evoked to describe an affluent, apolitical section of the Cape Colony's Afrikaner population which did not participate in the Great Trek or the subsequent founding of the Boer republics.
Cleavages were likelier to occur along social and economic lines; broadly speaking, the Cape colonists were delineated into Boers, poor farmers who settled directly on the frontier, and the more affluent, predominantly urbanised Cape Dutch.

Huguenots

HuguenotFrench HuguenotFrench Huguenots
In 1805, a relative majority still represented old Dutch families brought to the Cape during the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries; however, close to one-fourth of this demographic was of German origin and one-sixth, French Huguenot descent. Reflecting the multi-national character of the Company's workforce and overseas settlements, smaller numbers of German and French Huguenot immigrants were also allowed to settle in South Africa, and by 1691 over a quarter of the Cape's European population was not ethnically Dutch.
The official policy of the Dutch East India governors was to integrate the Huguenot and the Dutch communities.

Alfred Milner, 1st Viscount Milner

Lord MilnerAlfred MilnerSir Alfred Milner
As the Cape Dutch controlled over half the colonial legislature in the Cape Colony at the time, the perceived proliferation of pro-Boer sentiments led to unsuccessful attempts by Governor Lord Milner to disenfranchise them.
To better understand the point of view of the Cape Dutch and the burghers of the Transvaal and Orange Free State, Milner also during this period learned both Dutch and the South African "Taal" Afrikaans.

De Zuid-Afrikaan

In 1830, De Zuid-Afrikaan was started as a Dutch-language newspaper to counter the dominant influence of English journalism in the Western Cape.
The paper was founded by the advocate Christoffel Johan Brand on 9 April 1830 and played a major role in providing a mouthpiece for the more educated sections of the Cape Dutch community.

Christoffel Brand

Christoffel J. BrandChristoffel Johan BrandCJ Brand
Christoffel Brand, son of a former Dutch colonial official and first Speaker of the Parliament of the Cape of Good Hope, was one of the most outspoken proponents for a unique Cape Dutch ethnic consciousness.
Brand was bitterly disillusioned by the manner in which he perceived the British government to have marginalized the Cape Dutch community, treating them on an unequal basis with British colonists.

Parliament of the Cape of Good Hope

Cape ParliamentCape Legislative AssemblyCape House of Assembly
Christoffel Brand, son of a former Dutch colonial official and first Speaker of the Parliament of the Cape of Good Hope, was one of the most outspoken proponents for a unique Cape Dutch ethnic consciousness.
British moves against the Boer republics and perceptions of exclusion caused growing resentment in the Afrikaner or "Cape Dutch" population.

Western Cape

WesternWestern Cape ProvinceWestern Province
Cape Dutch, also commonly known as Cape Afrikaners, were a historic socioeconomic class of Afrikaners who lived in the Western Cape during the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Cape Colony

Cape of Good HopeCapeGovernor of the Cape of Good Hope
The terms have been evoked to describe an affluent, apolitical section of the Cape Colony's Afrikaner population which did not participate in the Great Trek or the subsequent founding of the Boer republics.

Boer Republics

Boer RepublicrepublicBoer
The terms have been evoked to describe an affluent, apolitical section of the Cape Colony's Afrikaner population which did not participate in the Great Trek or the subsequent founding of the Boer republics.

Afrikaner Bond

Today, the Cape Dutch are credited with helping shape and a promote a unique Afrikaner cultural identity through their formation of civic associations such as the Afrikaner Bond, and promotion of the Afrikaans language.

Dutch Reformed Church

Dutch ReformedReformedReformed Church
Nevertheless, to the British authorities they represented a rather homogeneous bloc which could be easily distinguished by their common use of the Dutch language and shared adherence to the Dutch Reformed Church.

Dutch East India Company

VOCDutchDutch VOC
Following the establishment of the Dutch East India Company's initial settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, it became home to a large population of "vrijlieden", also known as "vrijburgers" (free citizens).

Cape of Good Hope

Capethe CapeGood Hope
Following the establishment of the Dutch East India Company's initial settlement at the Cape of Good Hope in 1652, it became home to a large population of "vrijlieden", also known as "vrijburgers" (free citizens).

Morgen

morgmorgamorgens
In exchange they received plots of thirteen and a half morgen apiece, a twelve-year exemption from property taxes, and loans of seeds and agricultural implements.

Germans

Germanethnic Germanethnic Germans
Reflecting the multi-national character of the Company's workforce and overseas settlements, smaller numbers of German and French Huguenot immigrants were also allowed to settle in South Africa, and by 1691 over a quarter of the Cape's European population was not ethnically Dutch.

Cultural assimilation

assimilationassimilatedassimilate
Nevertheless, there was a degree of cultural assimilation due to intermarriage, and the almost universal adoption of the Dutch language.

Boer

Boerstrekboerswhite farmers
Among the colonists themselves there had developed a notion of a Boer people; although the term could denote any Dutch-speaking white settler it was usually only the impoverished pastoral farmers on the colony's frontier who applied this concept to themselves and formed a unique subgroup accordingly.

Great Britain

BritishBritainGBR
The Netherlands formally ceded its South African colony to Great Britain around 1815.

Cecil Rhodes

RhodesCecil John RhodesCecil
This policy began to dissolve after 1895, when local political leaders sought to distance themselves from Britain's imperial agenda and what they perceived as unwanted interference by English capitalists such as Cecil Rhodes in the legal and constitutional traditions of the colony.

Afrikaner nationalism

Afrikaner nationalistAfrikaner nationalistsnationalist
Popular affectation for British imperial traditions, culture, and patriotism among the Cape Dutch was rapidly replaced by a more exclusive commitment to a greater Afrikaner nationalism.

Second Boer War

Boer WarAnglo-Boer WarSouth African War
The outbreak of hostilities between the British government and the Boer republics during the Second Boer War deeply split Cape Dutch society.

Disfranchisement

disenfranchiseddisenfranchisementdisenfranchise
As the Cape Dutch controlled over half the colonial legislature in the Cape Colony at the time, the perceived proliferation of pro-Boer sentiments led to unsuccessful attempts by Governor Lord Milner to disenfranchise them.

Gerrymandering

gerrymandergerrymanderedgerrymanders
Milner believed that most Cape Dutch secretly supported the Boer cause, and sought to ensure the local English-speaking population achieved political dominance through excessive gerrymandering.