Capillary fringe

The capillary fringe is the subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action to fill pores.wikipedia
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Water table

watertablegroundwater tableperched lake
The capillary fringe is the subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action to fill pores.
Within an aquifer, the water table is rarely horizontal, but reflects the surface relief due to the capillary effect (capillary fringe) in soils, sediments and other porous media.

Capillary action

capillaritycapillarycapillary tube
The capillary fringe is the subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action to fill pores.

Soil

soilsdirtsoil moisture
In soils with a wide range in pore size, the unsaturated zone can be several times thicker than the saturated zone.
Rapid salination occurs when the land surface is within the capillary fringe of saline groundwater.

Groundwater

ground waterunderground waterpore water
The capillary fringe is the subsurface layer in which groundwater seeps up from a water table by capillary action to fill pores.

Vadose zone

vadoseunsaturated zonesaturated
Capillary action supports a vadose zone above the saturated base within which water content decreases with distance above the water table.

Phreatic

phreasphreatic zonephreatomagmatic
In soils with a wide range in pore size, the unsaturated zone can be several times thicker than the saturated zone.

Bioremediation

biotreatmentbiological remediationbio-remediation
This is the preferred definition among workers dealing with the remediation of salt affected soils as well as those dealing with the vapor phase of soil processes and bioremediation.

Phreatophyte

phreatophytic
A phreatophyte is a deep-rooted plant that obtains a significant portion of the water that it needs from the phreatic zone (zone of saturation) or the capillary fringe above the phreatic zone.

Chott

salt lakesseasonal lakeShaṭṭ
The elevation of a chott surface is controlled by the position of the water table and capillary fringe, with sediment deflation occurring when the water table falls and sediment accumulation occurring when the water table rises.

Aquifer

aquifersaquitardaquiclude
The water content in the unsaturated zone is held in place by surface adhesive forces and it rises above the water table (the zero-gauge-pressure isobar) by capillary action to saturate a small zone above the phreatic surface (the capillary fringe) at less than atmospheric pressure.

Groundwater remediation

bioventingbiospargingbioslurping
Biosparging can be used to reduce concentrations of petroleum constituents that are dissolved in groundwater, adsorbed to soil below the water table, and within the capillary fringe.

Septic drain field

leach fielddrain fielddrain fields
Molecular diffusion controls the mixing of soluble organic compounds into the groundwater and the transport of oxygen from underlying groundwater or the capillary fringe of the groundwater surface, to micro-organisms capable of catabolizing dissolved organic compounds remaining in the effluent plume.

DPHM-RS

The transmission zone lies between the base of the active layer and the top of the capillary fringe and so it more characterizes the seasonal (instead of transient) changes of soil moisture.

Water content

moisture contentwater saturationsoil moisture
Above a capillary fringe, pore spaces have air in them too.

Gypcrust

The first stage is primary crystallization of the surface brines or groundwater; the second stage is transportation and redeposition by wind or water; and the third stage is post-depositional alteration above or below the capillary fringe.