Capital city

Capitaladministrative centerDistrict seatCapital ofseat of governmentseatAdmin. centercapitalsnational capitalcapital cities
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.wikipedia
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Province

ProvincialprovincesProvincial Reserved
A capital city (or simply capital) is the municipality exercising primary status in a country, state, province, or other administrative region, usually as its seat of government.
In some countries with no actual provinces, "the provinces" is a metaphorical term meaning "outside the capital city".

List of countries with multiple capitals

country with multiple capitalsjudicial capitalsecond capital
In some cases, a distinction is made between the official (constitutional) capital and the seat of government, which is in another place.
There are also cases where there is a single legally defined capital, but one or more other cities operate as the seat of government of some or all parts of the national government.

Athens

Athens, GreeceAthenianAthenians
Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo.
Athens (Αθήνα ; (pl.) ) is the capital and largest city of Greece.

Copenhagen

Copenhagen, DenmarkKøbenhavnKopenhagen
Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo.
Copenhagen (København ) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark.

Cairo

Cairo, EgyptCaireneAbbaseya
Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo.
Cairo is the capital of Egypt and the largest city in the Arab world.

London

London, EnglandLondon, United KingdomLondon, UK
Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo. (The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin. Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such: for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, and Wellington.
London is the capital and largest city of England and the United Kingdom.

Mexico City

Federal DistrictMexico City, MexicoDistrito Federal
Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo.
Mexico City, or the City of Mexico (Ciudad de México, ; abbreviated as CDMX, Āltepētl Mēxihco), is the capital of Mexico and the most populous city in North America.

Paris

Paris, FranceParísParisian
Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo. (The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin. Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such: for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, and Wellington.
Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 km2 and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019.

Seoul

Seoul, South KoreaSeoul, KoreaHanseong
Examples are Athens, Bangkok, Brussels, Copenhagen, Cairo, London, Mexico City, Paris, Lima, Seoul and Tokyo.
Seoul (, like soul; 서울 ; ), officially the Seoul Special City, is the capital and largest metropolis of South Korea.

County seat

seatparish seatshire town
In several English-speaking states, the terms county town and county seat are also used in lower subdivisions.
A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or civil parish.

Rome

Rome, ItalyRomanRoma
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin.
Rome (Latin and Roma ) is the capital city and a special comune of Italy (named Comune di Roma Capitale).

Itinerant court

itineranciesitinerant (wandering) governmenttravelling from country to country with no single fixed capital city
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin.
The modern capital city has, historically, not always existed.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin. Some of these cities are or were also religious centres, e.g. Constantinople (more than one religion), Rome (the Roman Catholic Church), Jerusalem (more than one religion), Ancient Babylon, Moscow (the Russian Orthodox Church), Belgrade (the Serbian Orthodox Church), Paris, and Peking.
Constantinople (Cōnstantīnopolis) was the capital city of the Roman Empire (330–395), of the Eastern Roman (Byzantine) Empire (395–1204 and 1261–1453), of the brief Crusader state known as the Latin Empire (1204–1261) and of the Ottoman Empire (1453–1923).

Chang'an

ChanganChang-AnChang’an
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin.
Chang'an was an ancient capital of more than ten dynasties in Chinese history, today known as Xi'an.

Moscow

Moscow, RussiaMoscow, Soviet UnionMoskva
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin.
Moscow (, in US mainly: ; ) is the capital and most populous city of Russia, with approximately 15.1 million residents within the city limits, 17 million within the urban area and 25 million within the metropolitan area.

Berlin

Berlin, GermanyState of BerlinGerman capital
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin.
Berlin is the capital and largest city of Germany by both area and population.

Madrid

Madrid, SpaincapitalCity of Madrid
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin.
As the capital city of Spain, seat of government, and residence of the Spanish monarch, Madrid is also the political, economic and cultural centre of the country.

Beijing

Beijing, ChinaPekingPeking, China
(The modern capital city has, however, not always existed: in medieval Western Europe, an itinerant (wandering) government was common.) Examples are Ancient Babylon, Abbasid Baghdad, Ancient Athens, Rome, Constantinople, Chang'an, Ancient Cusco, Madrid, Paris, London, Moscow, Beijing, Tokyo, Vienna, Lisbon and Berlin. Some of these cities are or were also religious centres, e.g. Constantinople (more than one religion), Rome (the Roman Catholic Church), Jerusalem (more than one religion), Ancient Babylon, Moscow (the Russian Orthodox Church), Belgrade (the Serbian Orthodox Church), Paris, and Peking.
Beijing (, ; Mandarin pronunciation: ), alternately romanized as Peking, is the capital of the People's Republic of China, the world's third most populous city proper, and most populous capital city.

Jerusalem

Jerusalem, IsraelAl-QudsQuds
Some of these cities are or were also religious centres, e.g. Constantinople (more than one religion), Rome (the Roman Catholic Church), Jerusalem (more than one religion), Ancient Babylon, Moscow (the Russian Orthodox Church), Belgrade (the Serbian Orthodox Church), Paris, and Peking.
Both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim Jerusalem as their capital, as Israel maintains its primary governmental institutions there and the State of Palestine ultimately foresees it as its seat of power; however, neither claim is widely recognized internationally.

List of capitals in the United States

state capitalcapitalcapital city
Traditional capitals may be economically eclipsed by provincial rivals, e.g. Nanking by Shanghai, Quebec City by Montreal, and numerous US state capitals.
This is a list of capital cities of the United States, including places that serve or have served as federal, state, insular area, territorial, colonial, and Native American capitals.

Edinburgh

Edinburgh, ScotlandCity of EdinburghEdinburgh, United Kingdom
Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such: for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, and Wellington.
Edinburgh ( Dùn Èideann ; Edinburgh) is the capital of Scotland and one of its 32 council areas.

Bern

BerneBern, SwitzerlandBerne, Switzerland
Although many capitals are defined by constitution or legislation, many long-time capitals have no legal designation as such: for example Bern, Edinburgh, Lisbon, London, Paris, and Wellington.
Bern or Berne (Bern ; ; Berne ; Berna ; Berna ) is the de facto capital of Switzerland, referred to by the Swiss as their "federal city", in German Bundesstadt, French ville fédérale, and Italian città federale.

Ottawa

Ottawa, OntarioOttawa, CanadaOttawa, ON
In Canada, there is a federal capital, while the ten provinces and three territories all have capital cities.
Ottawa is the capital city of Canada.

Mexico

MexicanMéxicoMEX
The states of such countries as Mexico, Brazil (including the famous cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, capitals of their respective states), and Australia all have capital cities.
Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states plus Mexico City (CDMX), which is the capital city and its most populous city.

São Paulo

Sao PauloSão Paulo, BrazilSao Paulo, Brazil
The states of such countries as Mexico, Brazil (including the famous cities of Rio de Janeiro and São Paulo, capitals of their respective states), and Australia all have capital cities.
The city is the capital of the surrounding state of São Paulo, the most populous and wealthiest state in Brazil.