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Financial market

financial marketsmarketmarkets
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.

U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission

Securities and Exchange CommissionSECUnited States Securities and Exchange Commission
Financial regulators like Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Bank of England (BoE) and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversee capital markets to protect investors against fraud, among other duties.
Its goal was to increase public trust in the capital markets by requiring uniform disclosure of information about public securities offerings.

Primary market

bring a security issue to the marketoriginal issuesprimary
A capital market can be either a primary market or a secondary market.
The primary market is the part of the capital market that deals with the issuance and sale of equity-backed securities to investors directly by the issuer.

Money market

short-term debtmoney market tradingmoney
The money markets are used for the raising of short-term finance, sometimes for loans that are expected to be paid back as early as overnight.
Money markets, which provide liquidity for the global financial system including for capital markets, are part of the broader system of financial markets.

Stock market

equity marketstock marketsstock
A second important division falls between the stock markets (for equity securities, also known as shares, where investors acquire ownership of companies) and the bond markets (where investors become creditors).
While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully fledged capital market: the stock market.

International financial institutions

development bankmultilateral development bankinternational financial institution
For developing countries, a multilateral development bank would sometimes provide an additional layer of underwriting, resulting in risk being shared between the investment bank(s), the multilateral organization, and the end investors.

Financial centre

financial centerfinancial centresfinancial
Physically, the systems are hosted all over the world, though they tend to be concentrated in financial centres like London, New York, and Hong Kong.

Investment banking

investment bankinvestment bankerinvestment banks
In the 20th and early 21st centuries, many governments would use investment banks to organize the sale of their bonds.
Corporate finance is the aspect of investment banks, which involves helping customers raise funds in capital markets and giving advice on mergers and acquisitions (M&A); this may involve subscribing investors to a security issuance, coordinating with bidders, or negotiating with a merger target.

Capital account

financial accountcapital inflowscapital
Capital controls are measures imposed by a state's government aimed at managing capital account transactions – in other words, capital market transactions where one of the counter-parties involved is in a foreign country.

Stock exchange

stock exchangesexchangebourse
While the Italian city-states produced the first transferable government bonds, they did not develop the other ingredient necessary to produce a fully-fledged capital market: the stock market in its modern sense.

Debt

debtsprincipalborrowing
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.

Equity (finance)

equityshareholders' equityequity capital
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.

Security (finance)

securitiessecuritydebt securities
A capital market is a financial market in which long-term debt (over a year) or equity-backed securities are bought and sold.

Securities and Exchange Board of India

SEBISecurities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI) Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI)
Financial regulators like Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Bank of England (BoE) and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversee capital markets to protect investors against fraud, among other duties.

Bank of England

The Bank of EnglandBankAsset Purchase Facility
Financial regulators like Securities and Exchange Board of India (SEBI), Bank of England (BoE) and the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) oversee capital markets to protect investors against fraud, among other duties.

Electronic trading platform

electronic tradingtrading platformonline trading
Modern capital markets are almost invariably hosted on computer-based electronic trading platforms; most can be accessed only by entities within the financial sector or the treasury departments of governments and corporations, but some can be accessed directly by the public.

TreasuryDirect

Treasury Direct
As an example, in the United States, any American citizen with an internet connection can create an account with TreasuryDirect and use it to buy bonds in the primary market, though sales to individuals form only a tiny fraction of the total volume of bonds sold.

Secondary market

aftermarketsecondary tradingmarket for resale
A capital market can be either a primary market or a secondary market.

Pension fund

pension fundsretirement fundsuperannuation fund
The main entities purchasing the bonds or stock include pension funds, hedge funds, sovereign wealth funds, and less commonly wealthy individuals and investment banks trading on their own behalf.

Hedge fund

hedge fundshedge fund managerhedge-fund
The main entities purchasing the bonds or stock include pension funds, hedge funds, sovereign wealth funds, and less commonly wealthy individuals and investment banks trading on their own behalf.

Sovereign wealth fund

sovereign wealth fundsNational Wealth FundSovereign fund
The main entities purchasing the bonds or stock include pension funds, hedge funds, sovereign wealth funds, and less commonly wealthy individuals and investment banks trading on their own behalf.

Exchange (organized market)

exchangeexchangestrading venue
In the secondary market, existing securities are sold and bought among investors or traders, usually on an exchange, over-the-counter, or elsewhere.

Over-the-counter (finance)

over-the-counterOTCover the counter
In the secondary market, existing securities are sold and bought among investors or traders, usually on an exchange, over-the-counter, or elsewhere.

Bond market

credit marketcredit marketsdebt market
A second important division falls between the stock markets (for equity securities, also known as shares, where investors acquire ownership of companies) and the bond markets (where investors become creditors).