A report on Capital punishment and Murder

Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894
Murder in the House by Jakub Schikaneder
The Christian Martyrs' Last Prayer, by Jean-Léon Gérôme (1883). Roman Circus Maximus.
Aaron Alexis holding a shotgun during his rampage
Beheading of John the Baptist, woodcut by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860
A group of Thugs strangling a traveller on a highway in the early 19th century.
The Death of Socrates (1787), in the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City.
International murder rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 2011
The breaking wheel was used during the Middle Ages and was still in use into the 19th century.
UNODC : Per 100,000 population (2011)
The burning of Jakob Rohrbach, a leader of the peasants during the German Peasants' War.
Lake Bodom murders in Espoo, Finland is the most famous unsolved homicide cases in Finnish criminal history. The tent is investigated immediately after the murders in 1960.
Antiporta of Dei delitti e delle pene (On Crimes and Punishments), 1766 ed.
The scene of a murder in Rio de Janeiro. More than 800,000 people were murdered in Brazil between 1980 and 2004.
Mexican execution by firing squad, 1916
Intentional homicide rate per 100,000 inhabitants, 2009
50 Poles tried and sentenced to death by a Standgericht in retaliation for the assassination of 1 German policeman in Nazi-occupied Poland, 1944
The historical homicide rate in Stockholm since 1400 AD. The murder rate was very high in the Middle Ages. The rate has declined greatly: from 45/100,000 to a low of 0.6 in the 1950s. The last decades have seen the homicide rate rise slowly.
Emperor Shomu banned the death penalty in Japan in 724.
Peter Leopold II abolished the death penalty throughout Tuscany in 1786, making it the first nation in modern history to do so.
Mother Catherine Cauchés (center) and her two daughters Guillemine Gilbert (left) and Perotine Massey (right) with her infant son burning for heresy
The Red Guard prisoners are being executed by the Whites in Varkaus, North Savonia, during the 1918 Finnish Civil War.
A sign at the Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport warns arriving travelers that drug trafficking is a capital crime in the Republic of China (photo taken in 2005)
Execution of a war criminal in Germany in 1946
A gurney at San Quentin State Prison in California formerly used for executions by lethal injection
Capital punishment was abolished in the United Kingdom in part because of the case of Timothy Evans, who was executed in 1950 after being wrongfully convicted of two murders that had in fact been committed by his landlord, John Christie. The case was considered vital in bolstering opposition, which limited the scope of the penalty in 1957 and abolished it completely, for murder, in 1965.
Article 2 of the Charter of Fundamental Rights of the European Union affirms the prohibition on capital punishment in the EU
Signatories to the Second Optional Protocol to the ICCPR: parties in dark green, signatories in light green, non-members in grey
Abolitionist countries: 109	
Abolitionist-in-law countries for all crimes except those committed under exceptional circumstances (such as crimes committed in wartime): 7	
Abolitionist-in-practice countries (have not executed anyone during the past 10 years or more and are believed to have a policy or established practice of not carrying out executions): 25
Retentionist countries: 54
Number of abolitionist and retentionist countries by year
Number of retentionist countries
Number of abolitionist countries
A map showing U.S. states where the death penalty is authorized for certain crimes, even if not recently used. The death penalty is also authorized for certain federal and military crimes.
States with a valid death penalty statute
States without the death penalty
Same-sex intercourse illegal: Death penalty for homosexuality
Death penalty in legislation, but not applied

Crimes that are punishable by death are known as capital crimes, capital offences, or capital felonies, and vary depending on the jurisdiction, but commonly include serious crimes against the person, such as murder, mass murder, aggravated cases of rape (often including child sexual abuse), terrorism, aircraft hijacking, war crimes, crimes against humanity, and genocide, along with crimes against the state such as attempting to overthrow government, treason, espionage, sedition, and piracy, among other crimes.

- Capital punishment

In most countries, a person convicted of murder generally faces a long-term prison sentence, a life sentence, or capital punishment.

- Murder
Anarchist Auguste Vaillant about to be guillotined in France in 1894

4 related topics with Alpha

Overall

The spiked heads of executed criminals once adorned the gatehouse of the medieval London Bridge.

Crime

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Unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

Unlawful act punishable by a state or other authority.

The spiked heads of executed criminals once adorned the gatehouse of the medieval London Bridge.
Kang Kek Iew before the Cambodian Genocide Tribunal on July 20, 2009
Religious sentiment often becomes a contributory factor of crime. In the 1819 anti-Jewish Hep-Hep riots in Würzburg, rioters attacked Jewish businesses and destroyed property.

The notion that acts such as murder, rape, and theft are to be prohibited exists worldwide.

If found guilty, an offender may be sentenced to a form of reparation such as a community sentence, or, depending on the nature of their offence, to undergo imprisonment, life imprisonment or, in some jurisdictions, death.

Mugshot of Burton Phillips, sentenced to life imprisonment for bank robbery, 1935

Life imprisonment

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Any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted people are to remain in prison for the rest of their natural lives or indefinitely until pardoned, paroled, or otherwise commuted to a fixed term.

Any sentence of imprisonment for a crime under which convicted people are to remain in prison for the rest of their natural lives or indefinitely until pardoned, paroled, or otherwise commuted to a fixed term.

Mugshot of Burton Phillips, sentenced to life imprisonment for bank robbery, 1935
Life imprisonment laws around the world: 
Life imprisonment is a legal penalty
Life imprisonment is a legal penalty, but with certain restrictions
Life imprisonment is illegal
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Crimes for which, in some countries, a person could receive this sentence include murder, torture, terrorism, child abuse resulting in death, rape, espionage, treason, drug trafficking, drug possession, human trafficking, severe fraud and financial crimes, aggravated criminal damage, arson, kidnapping, burglary, and robbery, piracy, aircraft hijacking, and genocide, crimes against humanity, war crimes or any three felonies in case of three-strikes law.

Pope Francis called for the abolition of both capital punishment and life imprisonment in a meeting with representatives of the International Association of Penal Law.

Cain kills Abel by Gustave Dore

Homicide

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Homicide occurs when a person kills another person.

Homicide occurs when a person kills another person.

Cain kills Abel by Gustave Dore

Homicides can be divided into many overlapping legal categories, including murder, manslaughter, justifiable homicide, assassination, killing in war (either following the laws of war or as a war crime), euthanasia, and capital punishment, depending on the circumstances of the death.

Public punishment of adulterers in Venice, 17th century

Adultery

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Extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.

Extramarital sex that is considered objectionable on social, religious, moral, or legal grounds.

Public punishment of adulterers in Venice, 17th century
Susannah accused of adultery, by Antoine Coypel
Anne Boleyn was found guilty of adultery and treason and executed in 1536. There is controversy among historians as to whether she had actually committed adultery.
Le supplice des adultères, by Jules Arsène Garnier, showing two adulterers being punished
Man and woman undergoing public exposure for adultery in Japan, around 1860
'Thou shalt not commit adultery' (Nathan confronts David); bronze bas-relief on the door of the La Madeleine, Paris, Paris.
An Aztec adulterer being stoned to death; Florentine Codex
According to legend, after being accused of adultery, Cunigunde of Luxembourg proved her innocence by walking over red-hot ploughshares.
Joan II of Navarre – her paternity and succession rights were disputed her whole life because her mother Margaret of Burgundy was claimed to have committed adultery.
Inca woman and man to be stoned for adultery, by Huamán Poma
Jesus and the woman taken in adultery by Julius Schnorr von Karolsfeld, 1860, where Jesus said that the man who was without sin should throw the first stone.
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Historically, many cultures considered adultery a very serious crime, some subject to severe punishment, usually for the woman and sometimes for the man, with penalties including capital punishment, mutilation, or torture.

Historically, female adultery often resulted in extreme violence, including murder (of the woman, her lover, or both, committed by her husband).