Capitalization

capitalizedcapitalisationmixed casecapitalcapitalisedcapital lettercapital letterscapitalization in other languagescapitalization of all nounscapitalize
Capitalization, or capitalisation (in British English) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (uppercase letter) and the remaining letters in lower case, in writing systems with a case distinction.wikipedia
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Orthography

orthographicorthographiesorthographically
Conventional writing systems (orthographies) for different languages have different conventions for capitalization.
It includes norms of spelling, hyphenation, capitalization, word breaks, emphasis, and punctuation.

Demonym

gentilicdemonymsinhabitants are called
In English, the names of days of the week, months and languages are capitalized, as are demonyms like Englishman, Arab. In other languages, practice varies, but most languages other than German (which capitalizes all nouns) do not.
In English, demonyms are capitalized and are often the same as the adjectival form of the place, e.g. Egyptian, Japanese, or Greek.

Swedish language

SwedishSwedish-languageSwedish-speaking
Swedish, during the 17th and 18th centuries
Capitalization during this time was not standardized.

German nouns

nounall nounsalso
The various languages and dialects in the High German family, including Standard German and Luxembourgish, are the only major languages using the Latin alphabet in which all nouns are generally capitalized. This was also practiced in other Germanic languages (mainly due to German influence):
German, along with other High German languages, such as Luxembourgish, is unique among major languages using the Latin alphabet in that all nouns, both proper and common, are capitalized (for example, "the book" is always written as "das Buch"). Only a handful of other languages generally capitalize their nouns, mainly regional languages inspired by German such as Saterland Frisian.

Czech language

CzechcsCzech-language
In formally written Polish, Czech, Slovak and Latvian, most notably in letters and e-mails, all pronouns referring to the addressee are capitalized. This includes Ty ("thou") and all its related forms such as Twój and Ciebie. This principle extends to nouns used formally to address the addressee of a letter, such as Pan ("sir") and Pani ("madam").
Proper nouns, honorifics, and the first letters of quotations are capitalized, and punctuation is typical of other Latin European languages.

Latin alphabet

LatinRomanLatin letters
The various languages and dialects in the High German family, including Standard German and Luxembourgish, are the only major languages using the Latin alphabet in which all nouns are generally capitalized. This was also practiced in other Germanic languages (mainly due to German influence):
The rules for capitalization have changed over time, and different languages have varied in their rules for capitalization.

All caps

all-capsall capitalsall capital letters
Also known/written as "all-caps". Capital letters only.
In typography, all caps (short for "all capitals") refers to text or a font in which all letters are capital letters, for example:.

Life stance

lifestancelife stance orthographylife stances
In life stance orthography, in order to distinguish life stances from general -isms. For instance, Humanism is distinguished from humanism.
A life stance may be distinguished from general support of a cause by capitalization of the first letter.

DŽDž džDŽ/Dž/dž
A converse exception exists in the Croatian alphabet, where digraph letters (Dž, Lj, Nj) have mixed-case forms even when written as ligatures. With typewriters and computers, these "title-case" forms have become less common than 2-character equivalents; nevertheless they can be represented as single title-case characters in Unicode .
Dž (titlecase form; all-capitals form DŽ, lowercase dž) is the seventh letter of the Gaj's Latin alphabet for Serbo-Croatian (Bosnian, Croatian, Montenegrin and Serbian), after D and before Đ.

Acronym

initialismacronymsinitials
While acronyms have historically been written in all-caps, British usage is moving towards capitalizing only the first letter in cases when these are pronounced as words (e.g. Unesco and Nato), reserving all-caps for initialisms (e.g. UK, USA, UNHCR).
The most common capitalization scheme seen with acronyms is all-uppercase (all-caps), except for those few that have linguistically taken on an identity as regular words, with the acronymous etymology of the words fading into the background of common knowledge, such as has occurred with the words "scuba", "laser", and "radar"—these are known as anacronyms.

Proper noun

proper namecommon nounproper nouns
The capitalization of geographic terms in English text generally depends on whether the author perceives the term as a proper noun, in which case it is capitalized, or as a combination of an established proper noun with a normal adjective or noun, in which case the latter are not capitalized.
In languages that use alphabetic scripts and that distinguish lower and upper case, there is usually an association between proper names and capitalization.

Camel case

camelCasecapitalisedinternal capitalization
Most brand names and trademarks are capitalized (e.g., Coca-Cola, Pepsi), although some have chosen to deviate from standard rules (e.g., easyJet, id Software, eBay, iPod) to be distinctive. When capitals occur within a word, it is sometimes referred to as camel case.
Camel case (stylized as camelCase; also known as camel caps or more formally as medial capitals) is the practice of writing phrases such that each word or abbreviation in the middle of the phrase begins with a capital letter, with no intervening spaces or punctuation.

Emphasis (typography)

boldboldfaceemphasis
In professional documents, a commonly preferred alternative to all–caps text is the use of small caps to emphasize key names or acronyms, or the use of italics or (more rarely) bold.
Of these methods, italics, small capitals and capitalisation are oldest, with bold type and sans-serif typefaces not arriving until the nineteenth century.

Line (poetry)

linelinesline of verse
Traditionally, the first words of a line of verse are capitalized in English, e.g.: ''Meanwhile the winged Heralds, by command Of sovereign power, with awful ceremony And trumpet's sound, throughout the host proclaim A solemn council forthwith to be held At Pandemonium, the high capital Of Satan and his peers. [...]'' (Milton, Paradise Lost I:752–756)
One visual convention that is optionally used to convey a traditional use of line in printed settings (in languages represented by alphabetic scripts) is capitalisation of the first letter of the first word of each line regardless of other punctuation in the sentence, but it is not necessary to adhere to this.

Capitalization in English

capitalization
Capitalization in English
English usage varies from capitalization in other languages.

Ancient Greek

GreekClassical GreekGr.
The first word of a sentence is not capitalized in most modern editions of ancient Greek and, to a lesser extent, Latin texts. The distinction between lower and upper case was not introduced before the Middle Ages; in antiquity only the capital forms of letters were used.
Modern editions of Ancient Greek texts are usually written with accents and breathing marks, interword spacing, modern punctuation, and sometimes mixed case, but these were all introduced later.

Small caps

small capitalssmall capital
In professional documents, a commonly preferred alternative to all–caps text is the use of small caps to emphasize key names or acronyms, or the use of italics or (more rarely) bold.
Mixed case

Letter case

minusculemajusculelowercase
Capitalization, or capitalisation (in British English) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (uppercase letter) and the remaining letters in lower case, in writing systems with a case distinction.
This differs from usual title casing conventions, such as the English convention in which minor words are not capitalised.

Letter (alphabet)

letterlettersbookstaff
Capitalization, or capitalisation (in British English) is writing a word with its first letter as a capital letter (uppercase letter) and the remaining letters in lower case, in writing systems with a case distinction.

Alphabetical order

ordered alphabeticallyalphabeticallyalphabetic order
In some written languages, it is not obvious what is meant by the "first letter": for example, the South-Slavic digraph "nj" is considered as a single letter for the purpose of alphabetical ordering (a situation that occurs in many other languages) and can be represented by a single Unicode character, but at the start of a word it is written "Nj": only the "N" is capitalized.

Unicode

Unicode StandardUU+
In some written languages, it is not obvious what is meant by the "first letter": for example, the South-Slavic digraph "nj" is considered as a single letter for the purpose of alphabetical ordering (a situation that occurs in many other languages) and can be represented by a single Unicode character, but at the start of a word it is written "Nj": only the "N" is capitalized.

Dutch language

DutchDutch-languagenl
In contrast, in Dutch, when a word starts with the digraph "ij", capitalization is applied to both letters, such as in the name of the city of IJmuiden.

IJmuiden

IJmuidenIJmuiden, Netherlands
In contrast, in Dutch, when a word starts with the digraph "ij", capitalization is applied to both letters, such as in the name of the city of IJmuiden.

Language

languageslinguisticlinguistic diversity
In English, the names of days of the week, months and languages are capitalized, as are demonyms like Englishman, Arab. In other languages, practice varies, but most languages other than German (which capitalizes all nouns) do not. The generally accepted rules of capitalization vary between different written languages.

English language

EnglishEnglish-languageen
The full rules of capitalization for English are complicated.