Carbohydrate

carbohydratessaccharidecomplex carbohydratescomplex carbohydratesaccharidessugarsugarscarbscarbrefined carbohydrates
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula C m (H 2 O) n (where m may be different from n).wikipedia
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Oxygen

OO 2 molecular oxygen
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula C m (H 2 O) n (where m may be different from n).
Dioxygen is used in cellular respiration and many major classes of organic molecules in living organisms contain oxygen, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and fats, as do the major constituent inorganic compounds of animal shells, teeth, and bone.

Monosaccharide

monosaccharidessimple sugarsimple sugars
This formula holds true for monosaccharides.
Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugar, are the simplest form of sugar and the most basic units of carbohydrates.

Sugar

sugarssugar tradesugar cube
The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

Starch

starcheswheat starchrice starch
The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose. Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g. cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods).
Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate produced by most green plants as energy storage.

Polysaccharide

polysaccharidesheteropolysaccharidecomplex carbohydrates
The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Polysaccharides are polymeric carbohydrate molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharide units bound together by glycosidic linkages, and on hydrolysis by amylase enzymes give the constituent monosaccharides or oligosaccharides.

Biochemistry

biochemistbiochemicalbiological chemistry
The term is most common in biochemistry, where it is a synonym of saccharide, a group that includes sugars, starch, and cellulose.
Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, functions and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates and lipids, which provide the structure of cells and perform many of the functions associated with life.

Oligosaccharide

oligosaccharidesoligo-complex carbohydrates
The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
An oligosaccharide (/ˌɑlɪgoʊˈsækəˌɹaɪd/ ; from the Greek ὀλίγος olígos, "a few", and σάκχαρ sácchar, "sugar") is a saccharide polymer containing a small number (typically three to ten ) of monosaccharides (simple sugars).

Glucose

dextroseD-glucose D -glucose
While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose, as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose (cane or beet sugar) and lactose (milk sugar).
Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates.

Ribose

D-riboseribofuranoseribose sugar
The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA.
Ribose is a naturally-occurring carbohydrate with the formula C 5 H 10 O 5 ; specifically, it is a pentose monosaccharide (simple sugar) with linear form H−(C=O)−(CHOH) 4 −H, which has all the hydroxyl groups on the same side in the Fischer projection.

Disaccharide

disaccharidesbiosidedi-
The saccharides are divided into four chemical groups: monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.
Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides).

DNA

deoxyribonucleic aciddouble-stranded DNAdsDNA
Some exceptions exist; for example, deoxyribose, a sugar component of DNA, has the empirical formula C 5 H 10 O 4.
The backbone of the DNA strand is made from alternating phosphate and sugar residues.

Biomolecule

biochemicalbiomoleculesbiomolecular
A carbohydrate is a biomolecule consisting of carbon (C), hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula C m (H 2 O) n (where m may be different from n).
Biomolecules include large macromolecules (or polyanions) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids, as well as small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products.

Sucrose

cane sugarsugarcaster sugar
While the scientific nomenclature of carbohydrates is complex, the names of the monosaccharides and disaccharides very often end in the suffix -ose, as in the monosaccharides fructose (fruit sugar) and glucose (starch sugar) and the disaccharides sucrose (cane or beet sugar) and lactose (milk sugar).
Like other carbohydrates, it combusts to carbon dioxide and water.

RNA

ribonucleic aciddsRNAdouble-stranded RNA
The 5-carbon monosaccharide ribose is an important component of coenzymes (e.g. ATP, FAD and NAD) and the backbone of the genetic molecule known as RNA.
RNA and DNA are nucleic acids, and, along with lipids, proteins and carbohydrates, constitute the four major macromolecules essential for all known forms of life.

Metabolism

metabolicmetabolizedmetabolic pathways
Other polysaccharides contained in dietary fiber include resistant starch and inulin, which feed some bacteria in the microbiota of the large intestine, and are metabolized by these bacteria to yield short-chain fatty acids.
The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of nitrogenous wastes.

Hydrate

hydrousdihydratemonohydrate
The carbohydrates are technically hydrates of carbon; structurally it is more accurate to view them as aldoses and ketoses.
Glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6, was originally thought of as C 6 (H 2 O) 6 and described as a carbohydrate.

Acetic acid

aceticglacial acetic acidacetate
This includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not normally considered carbohydrates.
When bound to coenzyme A, it is central to the metabolism of carbohydrates and fats.

Food energy

energycaloriescalorie
It also includes dietary fiber which is a carbohydrate but which does not contribute much in the way of food energy (kilocalories), even though it is often included in the calculation of total food energy just as though it were a sugar.
Foods are composed chiefly of carbohydrates, fats, proteins, water, vitamins, and minerals.

Flour

farinaceouswhite flourpotato flour
It is abundant in cereals (wheat, maize, rice), potatoes, and processed food based on cereal flour, such as bread, pizza or pasta.
Flour contains a high proportion of starches, which are a subset of complex carbohydrates also known as polysaccharides.

Trehalose

α,α-trehaloseC12 α,α-trehaloseD-trehalose
Trehalose, a major sugar of insects, is rapidly hydrolyzed into two glucose molecules to support continuous flight.
Trehalose is a sugar consisting of two molecules of glucose.

Galactose

galactose metabolismD-galactoseGal
Galactose, a component of milk sugar lactose, is found in galactolipids in plant cell membranes and in glycoproteins in many tissues.
Galactose (, galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar") sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 65% as sweet as sucrose.

Energy

energy transferenergiestotal energy
Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g. cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods).
Energy is thus often said to be stored by cells in the structures of molecules of substances such as carbohydrates (including sugars), lipids, and proteins, which release energy when reacted with oxygen in respiration.

Lactic acid

lactatelacticblood lactate
This includes chemical compounds such as acetic or lactic acid, which are not normally considered carbohydrates.
In industry, lactic acid fermentation is performed by lactic acid bacteria, which convert simple carbohydrates such as glucose, sucrose, or galactose to lactic acid.

Glycogen

glycogen depositsglycogen (n)glycogen deposits
Polysaccharides serve for the storage of energy (e.g. starch and glycogen) and as structural components (e.g. cellulose in plants and chitin in arthropods).
As a meal containing carbohydrates or protein is eaten and digested, blood glucose levels rise, and the pancreas secretes insulin.

Hydrolysis

hydrolyzedhydrolysehydrolyze
Monosaccharides are the simplest carbohydrates in that they cannot be hydrolyzed to smaller carbohydrates.
When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g. sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is recognized as saccharification.