A report on Carbohydrate

Lactose is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage.
D-glucose is an aldohexose with the formula (C·H2O)6. The red atoms highlight the aldehyde group and the blue atoms highlight the asymmetric center furthest from the aldehyde; because this -OH is on the right of the Fischer projection, this is a D sugar.
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Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Sucrose, also known as table sugar, is a common disaccharide. It is composed of two monosaccharides: D-glucose (left) and D-fructose (right).
Grain products: rich sources of carbohydrates
Glucose tablets

Biomolecule consisting of carbon , hydrogen (H) and oxygen (O) atoms, usually with a hydrogen–oxygen atom ratio of 2:1 (as in water) and thus with the empirical formula Cm(H2O)n (where m may or may not be different from n).

- Carbohydrate
Lactose is a disaccharide found in animal milk. It consists of a molecule of D-galactose and a molecule of D-glucose bonded by beta-1-4 glycosidic linkage.

71 related topics with Alpha

Overall

Mutarotation: -glucose molecules exist as cyclic hemiacetals that are epimeric (= diastereomeric) to each other. The epimeric ratio α:β is 36:64. In the α-D-glucopyranose (left), the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in the axial position at the anomeric centre, whereas in the β-D-glucopyranose (right) the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in equatorial position at the anomeric centre.

Glucose

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Simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

Simple sugar with the molecular formula C6H12O6.

Mutarotation: -glucose molecules exist as cyclic hemiacetals that are epimeric (= diastereomeric) to each other. The epimeric ratio α:β is 36:64. In the α-D-glucopyranose (left), the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in the axial position at the anomeric centre, whereas in the β-D-glucopyranose (right) the blue-labelled hydroxy group is in equatorial position at the anomeric centre.
Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Widely proposed arrow-pushing mechanism for acid-catalyzed dynamic equilibrium between the α- and β- anomers of D-glucopyranose
Glucose-Fructose-Mannose-isomerisation
Glucose metabolism and various forms of it in the process.Glucose-containing compounds and isomeric forms are digested and taken up by the body in the intestines, including starch, glycogen, disaccharides and monosaccharides.Glucose is stored in mainly the liver and muscles as glycogen. It is distributed and used in tissues as free glucose.
Diagram showing the possible intermediates in glucose degradation; Metabolic pathways orange: glycolysis, green: Entner-Doudoroff pathway, phosphorylating, yellow: Entner-Doudoroff pathway, non-phosphorylating
Glucose, 5% solution for infusions
Glucose tablets
Relative sweetness of various sugars in comparison with sucrose

Glucose is the most abundant monosaccharide, a subcategory of carbohydrates.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism

Metabolism

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Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Set of life-sustaining chemical reactions in organisms.

Simplified view of the cellular metabolism
Structure of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), a central intermediate in energy metabolism
Structure of a triacylglycerol lipid
This is a diagram depicting a large set of human metabolic pathways.
Glucose can exist in both a straight-chain and ring form.
Structure of the coenzyme acetyl-CoA.The transferable acetyl group is bonded to the sulfur atom at the extreme left.
The structure of iron-containing hemoglobin. The protein subunits are in red and blue, and the iron-containing heme groups in green. From.
A simplified outline of the catabolism of proteins, carbohydrates and fats
Mechanism of ATP synthase. ATP is shown in red, ADP and phosphate in pink and the rotating stalk subunit in black.
Plant cells (bounded by purple walls) filled with chloroplasts (green), which are the site of photosynthesis
Simplified version of the steroid synthesis pathway with the intermediates isopentenyl pyrophosphate (IPP), dimethylallyl pyrophosphate (DMAPP), geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) and squalene shown. Some intermediates are omitted for clarity.
Effect of insulin on glucose uptake and metabolism. Insulin binds to its receptor (1), which in turn starts many protein activation cascades (2). These include: translocation of Glut-4 transporter to the plasma membrane and influx of glucose (3), glycogen synthesis (4), glycolysis (5) and fatty acid synthesis (6).
Evolutionary tree showing the common ancestry of organisms from all three domains of life. Bacteria are colored blue, eukaryotes red, and archaea green. Relative positions of some of the phyla included are shown around the tree.
Metabolic network of the Arabidopsis thaliana citric acid cycle. Enzymes and metabolites are shown as red squares and the interactions between them as black lines.
Aristotle's metabolism as an open flow model
Santorio Santorio in his steelyard balance, from Ars de statica medicina, first published 1614

The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of the energy in food to energy available to run cellular processes; the conversion of food to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of metabolic wastes.

A sugarloaf was a traditional form for sugar from the 17th to 19th centuries. Sugar nips were required to break off pieces.

Sucrose

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Sugar composed of glucose and fructose subunits.

Sugar composed of glucose and fructose subunits.

A sugarloaf was a traditional form for sugar from the 17th to 19th centuries. Sugar nips were required to break off pieces.
A table sugar factory in England. The tall diffusers are visible to the middle left where the harvest transforms into a sugar syrup. The boiler and furnace are in the center, where table sugar crystals form. An expressway for transport is visible in the lower left.
Harvested sugarcane from Venezuela ready for processing
Sugar beets
Grainy raw sugar
Sugars; clockwise from top left: Refined, unrefined, brown, unprocessed cane
Brown sugar crystals
Granulated sucrose

Like other carbohydrates, it combusts to carbon dioxide and water.

Sugars (clockwise from top-left): white refined, unrefined, unprocessed cane, brown

Sugar

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Sugars (clockwise from top-left): white refined, unrefined, unprocessed cane, brown
German sugar sculpture, 1880
Sugar cane plantation
Two elaborate sugar triomfi of goddesses for a dinner given by the Earl of Castlemaine, British Ambassador in Rome, 1687
Close-up image of sugar cane; demand for sugar contributed to creating colonial systems in areas where cultivation of sugar cane was profitable.
Hacienda La Fortuna. A sugar mill complex in Puerto Rico, painted by Francisco Oller in 1885, Brooklyn Museum
German chemists Andreas Sigismund Marggraf and Franz Karl Achard (pictured) both laid the foundation of the modern sugar industry
Sucrose: a disaccharide of glucose (left) and fructose (right), important molecules in the body.
Magnification of grains of refined sucrose, the most common free sugar.
World production of raw sugar, main producers
Misri crystals
Rock candy coloured with green dye.
Sugar cubes
Brown sugar examples: Muscovado (top), dark brown (left), light brown (right)
A jar of honey with a dipper and a biscuit
Brown sugar crystals
Whole date sugar
Whole cane sugar (grey), vacuum-dried
Whole cane sugar (brown), vacuum-dried
alt=raw sugar closeup|Raw crystals of unrefined, unbleached sugar

Sugar is the generic name for sweet-tasting, soluble carbohydrates, many of which are used in food.

Structure of the amylose molecule

Starch

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Structure of the amylose molecule
Structure of the amylopectin molecule
Starch mill at Ballydugan (Northern Ireland), built in 1792
West Philadelphia Starch works at Philadelphia (Pennsylvania), 1850
Faultless Starch Company at Kansas City
potato starch granules in cells of the potato
starch in endosperm in embryonic phase of maize seed
Corn starch, 800x magnified, under polarized light, showing characteristic extinction cross
Rice starch seen on light microscope. Characteristic for the rice starch is that starch granules have an angular outline and some of them are attached to each other and form larger granules
Granules of wheat starch, stained with iodine, photographed through a light microscope
Sago starch extraction from palm stems
Glucose syrup
Karo corn syrup advert 1917
Niagara corn starch advert 1880s
Pacific Laundry and Cooking Starch advert 1904
Starch adhesive
Gentleman with starched ruff in 1560
Kingsford Oswego Starch advertising, 1885
Rice starch for ironing

Starch or amylum is a polymeric carbohydrate consisting of numerous glucose units joined by glycosidic bonds.

Gerty Cori and Carl Cori jointly won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of the Cori cycle at RPMI.

Biochemistry

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Study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

Study of chemical processes within and relating to living organisms.

Gerty Cori and Carl Cori jointly won the Nobel Prize in 1947 for their discovery of the Cori cycle at RPMI.
DNA structure
The main elements that compose the human body shown from most abundant (by mass) to least abundant.
Structures of some common lipids. At the top are cholesterol and oleic acid. The middle structure is a triglyceride composed of oleoyl, stearoyl, and palmitoyl chains attached to a glycerol backbone. At the bottom is the common phospholipid, phosphatidylcholine.
The general structure of an α-amino acid, with the amino group on the left and the carboxyl group on the right.
Generic amino acids (1) in neutral form, (2) as they exist physiologically, and (3) joined together as a dipeptide.
A schematic of hemoglobin. The red and blue ribbons represent the protein globin; the green structures are the heme groups.
Examples of protein structures from the Protein Data Bank
Members of a protein family, as represented by the structures of the isomerase domains
The structure of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), the picture shows the monomers being put together.
Structural elements of common nucleic acid constituents. Because they contain at least one phosphate group, the compounds marked nucleoside monophosphate, nucleoside diphosphate and nucleoside triphosphate are all nucleotides (not simply phosphate-lacking nucleosides).
Schematic relationship between biochemistry, genetics, and molecular biology.

Much of biochemistry deals with the structures, bonding, functions, and interactions of biological macromolecules, such as proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and lipids.

3D structure of cellulose, a beta-glucan polysaccharide

Polysaccharide

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3D structure of cellulose, a beta-glucan polysaccharide
Amylose is a linear polymer of glucose mainly linked with α(1→4) bonds. It can be made of several thousands of glucose units. It is one of the two components of starch, the other being amylopectin.
Some important natural structural polysaccharides
Schematic 2-D cross-sectional view of glycogen. A core protein of glycogenin is surrounded by branches of glucose units. The entire globular granule may contain approximately 30,000 glucose units.<ref>{{cite book | url = https://books.google.com/books?id=SRptlOx7yj4C | page = 12 | title = Exercise physiology: energy, nutrition, and human performance | vauthors = McArdle WD, Katch FI, Katch VL | edition = 6th | publisher = Lippincott Williams & Wilkins | date = 2006 | isbn = 978-0-7817-4990-9 }}</ref>
A view of the atomic structure of a single branched strand of glucose units in a glycogen molecule.

Polysaccharides, or polycarbohydrates, are the most abundant carbohydrates found in food.

- and -glucose

Monosaccharide

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- and -glucose
Conversion between the furanose, acyclic, and pyranose forms of -glucose
Pyranose forms of some pentose sugars
Pyranose forms of some hexose sugars
α-{{sc|D}}-Glucopyranose
β-{{sc|D}}-Glucopyranose

Monosaccharides (from Greek monos: single, sacchar: sugar), also called simple sugars, are the simplest forms of sugar and the most basic units (monomers) from which all carbohydrates are built.

Sucrose, a disaccharide formed from condensation of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose

Disaccharide

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Sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage.

Sugar formed when two monosaccharides are joined by glycosidic linkage.

Sucrose, a disaccharide formed from condensation of a molecule of glucose and a molecule of fructose

Disaccharides are one of the four chemical groupings of carbohydrates (monosaccharides, disaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides).

Generic hydrolysis reaction. (The 2-way yield symbol indicates an equilibrium in which hydrolysis and condensation are reversible.)

Hydrolysis

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Any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds.

Any chemical reaction in which a molecule of water breaks one or more chemical bonds.

Generic hydrolysis reaction. (The 2-way yield symbol indicates an equilibrium in which hydrolysis and condensation are reversible.)
Mechanism for acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of an amide.
Sucrose. The glycoside bond is represented by the central oxygen atom, which holds the two monosaccharide units together.

When a carbohydrate is broken into its component sugar molecules by hydrolysis (e.g., sucrose being broken down into glucose and fructose), this is recognized as saccharification.