A report on Carbon

Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon, from 1989. Newer work indicates that the melting point of diamond (top-right curve) does not go above about 9000 K.
A large sample of glassy carbon
Some allotropes of carbon: a) diamond; b) graphite; c) lonsdaleite; d–f) fullerenes (C60, C540, C70); g) amorphous carbon; h) carbon nanotube
Comet C/2014 Q2 (Lovejoy) surrounded by glowing carbon vapor
Graphite ore, shown with a penny for scale
Raw diamond crystal
"Present day" (1990s) sea surface dissolved inorganic carbon concentration (from the GLODAP climatology)
Diagram of the carbon cycle. The black numbers indicate how much carbon is stored in various reservoirs, in billions tonnes ("GtC" stands for gigatonnes of carbon; figures are circa 2004). The purple numbers indicate how much carbon moves between reservoirs each year. The sediments, as defined in this diagram, do not include the ≈70 million GtC of carbonate rock and kerogen.
Structural formula of methane, the simplest possible organic compound.
Correlation between the carbon cycle and formation of organic compounds. In plants, carbon dioxide formed by carbon fixation can join with water in photosynthesis ( green ) to form organic compounds, which can be used and further converted by both plants and animals.
This anthracene derivative contains a carbon atom with 5 formal electron pairs around it.
Antoine Lavoisier in his youth
Carl Wilhelm Scheele
Diamond output in 2005
Pencil leads for mechanical pencils are made of graphite (often mixed with a clay or synthetic binder).
Sticks of vine and compressed charcoal
A cloth of woven carbon fibres
Silicon carbide single crystal
The C60 fullerene in crystalline form
Tungsten carbide endmills
Worker at carbon black plant in Sunray, Texas (photo by John Vachon, 1942)

Chemical element with the symbol C and atomic number 6.

- Carbon
Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon, from 1989. Newer work indicates that the melting point of diamond (top-right curve) does not go above about 9000 K.

137 related topics with Alpha

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The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.

Hydrogen

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Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

Chemical element with the symbol H and atomic number 1.

The Space Shuttle Main Engine burnt hydrogen with oxygen, producing a nearly invisible flame at full thrust.
Depiction of a hydrogen atom with size of central proton shown, and the atomic diameter shown as about twice the Bohr model radius (image not to scale)
Hydrogen gas is colorless and transparent, here contained in a glass ampoule.
Phase diagram of hydrogen. The temperature and pressure scales are logarithmic, so one unit corresponds to a 10x change. The left edge corresponds to 105 Pa, which is about atmospheric pressure.
A sample of sodium hydride
Hydrogen discharge (spectrum) tube
Deuterium discharge (spectrum) tube
Antoine-Laurent de Lavoisier
Hydrogen emission spectrum lines in the visible range. These are the four visible lines of the Balmer series
NGC 604, a giant region of ionized hydrogen in the Triangulum Galaxy
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Hydrogen forms a vast array of compounds with carbon called the hydrocarbons, and an even vaster array with heteroatoms that, because of their general association with living things, are called organic compounds.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table

Chemical element

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Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

Species of atoms that have a given number of protons in their nuclei, including the pure substance consisting only of that species.

The chemical elements ordered in the periodic table
Estimated distribution of dark matter and dark energy in the universe. Only the fraction of the mass and energy in the universe labeled "atoms" is composed of chemical elements.
Periodic table showing the cosmogenic origin of each element in the Big Bang, or in large or small stars. Small stars can produce certain elements up to sulfur, by the alpha process. Supernovae are needed to produce "heavy" elements (those beyond iron and nickel) rapidly by neutron buildup, in the r-process. Certain large stars slowly produce other elements heavier than iron, in the s-process; these may then be blown into space in the off-gassing of planetary nebulae
Abundances of the chemical elements in the Solar System. Hydrogen and helium are most common, from the Big Bang. The next three elements (Li, Be, B) are rare because they are poorly synthesized in the Big Bang and also in stars. The two general trends in the remaining stellar-produced elements are: (1) an alternation of abundance in elements as they have even or odd atomic numbers (the Oddo-Harkins rule), and (2) a general decrease in abundance as elements become heavier. Iron is especially common because it represents the minimum energy nuclide that can be made by fusion of helium in supernovae.
Mendeleev's 1869 periodic table: An experiment on a system of elements. Based on their atomic weights and chemical similarities.
Dmitri Mendeleev
Henry Moseley

The history of the discovery and use of the elements began with primitive human societies that discovered native minerals like carbon, sulfur, copper and gold (though the concept of a chemical element was not yet understood).

The most important resonance form of carbon monoxide is –C≡O+. An important minor resonance contributor is the non-octet carbenic structure :C=O.

Carbon monoxide

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Colorless, highly poisonous, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air.

Colorless, highly poisonous, odorless, tasteless, flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air.

The most important resonance form of carbon monoxide is –C≡O+. An important minor resonance contributor is the non-octet carbenic structure :C=O.
Carbon monoxide concentrations in Northern Hemisphere spring as measured with the MOPITT instrument
Energy level scheme of the σ and π orbitals of carbon monoxide
The HOMO of CO is a σ MO.
The LUMO of CO is a π* antibonding MO.
Structure of iron pentacarbonyl.
Iron pentacarbonyl.

Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom connected by a triple bond.

Methane, CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds.

Organic compound

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Methane, CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds.
The L -isoleucine molecule, C6H13NO2, showing features typical of organic compounds. Carbon atoms are in black, hydrogens gray, oxygens red, and nitrogen blue.

In chemistry, organic compounds are generally any chemical compounds that contain carbon-hydrogen or carbon-carbon bonds.

Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered the silicon element in 1823.

Silicon

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Chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14.

Chemical element with the symbol Si and atomic number 14.

Jöns Jacob Berzelius discovered the silicon element in 1823.
The MOSFET, also known as the MOS transistor, is the key component of the Silicon Age. It was invented by Mohamed M. Atalla and Dawon Kahng at Bell Labs in 1959.
Silicon crystallizes in a diamond cubic crystal structure by forming sp3 hybrid orbitals.
Phase diagram of the Fe–Si system
Condensed polysilicic acid
A typical zeolite structure
Silicon carbide
A hydrosilylation reaction, in which Si–H is added to an unsaturated substrate
Structure of polydimethylsiloxane, the principal component of silicones
Olivine
Ferrosilicon alloy
Silicon wafer with mirror finish
A diatom, enclosed in a silica cell wall
Quartz
Agate
Tridymite
Cristobalite
Coesite

It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, lead, and flerovium are below it.

Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.

Oxygen

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Chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8.

Chemical element with the symbol O and atomic number 8.

Joseph Priestley is usually given priority in the discovery.
Antoine Lavoisier discredited the phlogiston theory.
Robert H. Goddard and a liquid oxygen-gasoline rocket
An experiment setup for preparation of oxygen in academic laboratories
Orbital diagram, after Barrett (2002), showing the participating atomic orbitals from each oxygen atom, the molecular orbitals that result from their overlap, and the aufbau filling of the orbitals with the 12 electrons, 6 from each O atom, beginning from the lowest-energy orbitals, and resulting in covalent double-bond character from filled orbitals (and cancellation of the contributions of the pairs of σ and σ* and π and π* orbital pairs).
Liquid oxygen, temporarily suspended in a magnet owing to its paramagnetism
Space-filling model representation of dioxygen (O2) molecule
Oxygen discharge (spectrum) tube
Late in a massive star's life, 16O concentrates in the O-shell, 17O in the H-shell and 18O in the He-shell.
Cold water holds more dissolved.
500 million years of climate change vs. 18O
Photosynthesis splits water to liberate and fixes into sugar in what is called a Calvin cycle.
build-up in Earth's atmosphere: 1) no produced; 2) produced, but absorbed in oceans & seabed rock; 3)  starts to gas out of the oceans, but is absorbed by land surfaces and formation of ozone layer; 4–5)  sinks filled and the gas accumulates
Hofmann electrolysis apparatus used in electrolysis of water.
Oxygen and MAPP gas compressed-gas cylinders with regulators
An oxygen concentrator in an emphysema patient's house
Low pressure pure is used in space suits.
Most commercially produced is used to smelt and/or decarburize iron.
Water is the most familiar oxygen compound.
Oxides, such as iron oxide or rust, form when oxygen combines with other elements.
Main symptoms of oxygen toxicity
The interior of the Apollo 1 Command Module. Pure at higher than normal pressure and a spark led to a fire and the loss of the Apollo 1 crew.

In this process, is injected through a high-pressure lance into molten iron, which removes sulfur impurities and excess carbon as the respective oxides, and.

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen

Nitrogen

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Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Chemical element with the symbol N and atomic number 7.

Daniel Rutherford, discoverer of nitrogen
The shapes of the five orbitals occupied in nitrogen. The two colours show the phase or sign of the wave function in each region. From left to right: 1s, 2s (cutaway to show internal structure), 2px, 2py, 2pz.
Table of nuclides (Segrè chart) from carbon to fluorine (including nitrogen). Orange indicates proton emission (nuclides outside the proton drip line); pink for positron emission (inverse beta decay); black for stable nuclides; blue for electron emission (beta decay); and violet for neutron emission (nuclides outside the neutron drip line). Proton number increases going up the vertical axis and neutron number going to the right on the horizontal axis.
Molecular orbital diagram of dinitrogen molecule, N2. There are five bonding orbitals and two antibonding orbitals (marked with an asterisk; orbitals involving the inner 1s electrons not shown), giving a total bond order of three.
Solid nitrogen on the plains of Sputnik Planitia on Pluto next to water ice mountains
Structure of [Ru(NH3)5(N2)]2+ (pentaamine(dinitrogen)ruthenium(II)), the first dinitrogen complex to be discovered
Mesomeric structures of borazine, (–BH–NH–)3
Standard reduction potentials for nitrogen-containing species. Top diagram shows potentials at pH 0; bottom diagram shows potentials at pH 14.
Nitrogen trichloride
Nitrogen dioxide at −196 °C, 0 °C, 23 °C, 35 °C, and 50 °C. converts to colourless dinitrogen tetroxide at low temperatures, and reverts to  at higher temperatures.
Fuming nitric acid contaminated with yellow nitrogen dioxide
Schematic representation of the flow of nitrogen compounds through a land environment
A container vehicle carrying liquid nitrogen.

(The light noble gases, helium, neon, and argon, would presumably also be more electronegative, and in fact are on the Allen scale.) Following periodic trends, its single-bond covalent radius of 71 pm is smaller than those of boron (84 pm) and carbon (76 pm), while it is larger than those of oxygen (66 pm) and fluorine (57 pm).

Charcoal

Charcoal

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Charcoal
Charcoal burning
Wood pile before covering it with turf or soil, and firing it (circa 1890)
An abandoned charcoal kiln near Walker, Arizona, USA.
Charcoal under a microscope.
Binchōtan, Japanese high grade charcoal made from ubame oak
Ogatan, charcoal briquettes made from sawdust
Grill charcoal made from coconut shell
Activated carbon
Charcoal for dehumidification and air purification in bathroom.
Four sticks of vine charcoal and four sticks of compressed charcoal
Two charcoal pencils in paper sheaths that are unwrapped as the pencil is used, and two charcoal pencils in wooden sheaths
Charcoal pile

Charcoal is a lightweight black carbon residue produced by strongly heating wood (or other animal and plant materials) in minimal oxygen to remove all water and volatile constituents.

Coal

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Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams.

Combustible black or brownish-black sedimentary rock, formed as rock strata called coal seams.

Example chemical structure of coal
Coastal exposure of the Point Aconi Seam in Nova Scotia
Coal ranking system used by the United States Geological Survey
Chinese coal miners in an illustration of the Tiangong Kaiwu encyclopedia, published in 1637
Coal miner in Britain, 1942
Coke oven at a smokeless fuel plant in Wales, United Kingdom
Production of chemicals from coal
Castle Gate Power Plant near Helper, Utah, US
Coal rail cars
Bulldozer pushing coal in Ljubljana Power Station, Slovenia
Extensive coal docks seen in Toledo, Ohio, 1895
Coal production by region
Aerial photograph of the site of the Kingston Fossil Plant coal fly ash slurry spill taken the day after the event
Protesting damage to the Great Barrier Reef caused by climate change in Australia
Tree houses for protesting the felling of part of Hambach Forest for the Hambach surface mine in Germany: after which the felling was suspended in 2018
A coal mine in Wyoming, United States. The United States has the world's largest coal reserves.

Coal is mostly carbon with variable amounts of other elements, chiefly hydrogen, sulfur, oxygen, and nitrogen.

Graphite specimen

Graphite

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Graphite specimen
Theoretically predicted phase diagram of carbon
Molar volume against pressure at room temperature
Graphite plates and sheets, 10–15 cm high; mineral specimen from Kimmirut, Baffin Island
Grey Knotts mountain in the English Lake District. The graphite mine was just up the valley to the left; the hamlet of Seatoller can be seen at right.
Graphited Wood Grease 1908 ad in the Electric Railway Review
Graphite pencils
Structure of CaC6
Large graphite specimen. Naturalis Biodiversity Center, Leiden, Netherlands.
Graphite output in 2005
Scanning tunneling microscope image of graphite surface
Side view of ABA layer stacking
Plane view of layer stacking
Alpha graphite's unit cell
Advert for Crane's Black Lead, c. 1905

Graphite is a crystalline form of the element carbon.