A report on Fossil fuelCarbon cycle and Kerogen

Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries
Fast carbon cycle showing the movement of carbon between land, atmosphere, and oceans in billions of tons (gigatons) per year. Yellow numbers are natural fluxes, red are human contributions, white are stored carbon. The effects of the slow carbon cycle, such as volcanic and tectonic activity are not included.
Structure of a vanadium porphyrin compound (left) extracted from petroleum by Alfred E. Treibs, father of organic geochemistry. The close structural similarity of this molecule and chlorophyll a (right) helped establish that petroleum was derived from plants.
A petrochemical refinery in Grangemouth, Scotland, UK
Detail of anthropogenic carbon flows, showing cumulative mass in gigatons during years 1850-2018 (left) and the annual mass average during 2009-2018 (right).
An oil well in the Gulf of Mexico
CO2 concentrations over the last 800,000 years as measured from ice cores (blue/green) and directly (black)
The Global Carbon Project shows how additions to since 1880 have been caused by different sources ramping up one after another.
Amount of carbon stored in Earth's various terrestrial ecosystems, in gigatonnes.
Global surface temperature reconstruction over the last 2000 years using proxy data from tree rings, corals, and ice cores in blue. Directly observational data is in red, with all data showing a 5 year moving average.
A portable soil respiration system measuring soil CO2 flux.
In 2020, renewables overtook fossil fuels as the European Union's main source of electricity for the first time.
Diagram showing relative sizes (in gigatonnes) of the main storage pools of carbon on Earth. Cumulative changes (thru year 2014) from land use and emissions of fossil carbon are included for comparison.
Carbon is tetrahedrally bonded to oxygen
Knowledge about carbon in the core can be gained by analysing shear wave velocities
Schematic representation of the overall perturbation of the global carbon cycle caused by anthropogenic activities, averaged from 2010 to 2019.
The pathway by which plastics enter the world's oceans.
Carbon stored on land in vegetation and soils is aggregated into a single stock ct. Ocean mixed layer carbon, cm, is the only explicitly modelled ocean stock of carbon; though to estimate carbon cycle feedbacks the total ocean carbon is also calculated.
Epiphytes on electric wires. This kind of plant takes both CO{{sub|2}} and water from the atmosphere for living and growing.
CO{{sub|2}} in Earth's atmosphere if half of global-warming emissions are not absorbed.<ref name="NASA-20151112-ab" /><ref name="NASA-20151112b" /><ref name="NYT-20151110" /><ref name="AP-20151109" /> (NASA computer simulation).

Natural processes on Earth, mostly absorption by the ocean, can only remove a small part of this.

- Fossil fuel

The sediments, including fossil fuels, freshwater systems, and non-living organic material.

- Carbon cycle

The resulting high temperature and pressure caused the organic matter to chemically alter, first into a waxy material known as kerogen, which is found in oil shales, and then with more heat into liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons in a process known as catagenesis.

- Fossil fuel

When heated to the right temperatures in the earth's crust, (oil window c. 50–150 °C, gas window c. 150–200 °C, both depending on how quickly the source rock is heated) some types of kerogen release crude oil or natural gas, collectively known as hydrocarbons (fossil fuels).

- Kerogen

The remaining 20% is stored as kerogens formed through the sedimentation and burial of terrestrial organisms under high heat and pressure.

- Carbon cycle

The diagram on the right shows the organic carbon cycle with the flow of kerogen (black solid lines) and the flow of biospheric carbon (green solid lines) showing both the fixation of atmospheric CO2 by terrestrial and marine primary productivity.

- Kerogen
Since oil fields are located only at certain places on earth, only some countries are oil-independent; the other countries depend on the oil-production capacities of these countries

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