Carbon group

group 1414group IVTetrel14 (Carbon group)carbon elementscarbon familycrystallogengroup 14 elementIII-IV
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).wikipedia
244 Related Articles

Silicon

Sisilicon revolutionsilicium
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). These elements, especially carbon and silicon, have a strong propensity for covalent bonding, which usually brings the outer shell to eight electrons.
It is a member of group 14 in the periodic table: carbon is above it; and germanium, tin, and lead are below it.

Germanium

GeGe diodesGerman
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). Silicon and germanium, both metalloids, each can form +4 ions.
It is a lustrous, hard-brittle, grayish-white metalloid in the carbon group, chemically similar to its group neighbours silicon and tin.

Tin

SnGray tintinfoil
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). Tin and lead both are metals, while flerovium is a synthetic, radioactive (its half life is very short) element that may have a few noble gas-like properties, though it is still most likely a post-transition metal.
Tin is a post-transition metal in group 14 of the periodic table of elements.

Lead

Pblead orelead mining
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). Tin and lead both are metals, while flerovium is a synthetic, radioactive (its half life is very short) element that may have a few noble gas-like properties, though it is still most likely a post-transition metal.
Compounds of lead are usually found in the +2 oxidation state rather than the +4 state common with lighter members of the carbon group.

Flerovium

Fl114element 114
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).
It is a member of the 7th period and is the heaviest known member of the carbon group; it is also the heaviest element whose chemistry has been investigated.

Semiconductor

semiconductorssemiconductingsemiconductor material
In the field of semiconductor physics, it is still universally called Group IV.

Valence electron

valencevalence orbitaloutermost electron
The group was once also known as the tetrels (from the Greek word tetra, which means four), stemming from the Roman numeral IV in the group names, or (not coincidentally) from the fact that these elements have four valence electrons (see below).

Diamond cubic

diamonddiamond latticediamond crystal
Silicon and germanium have diamond cubic crystal structures, as does tin at low temperatures (below 13.2 °C).
While the first known example was diamond, other elements in group 14 also adopt this structure, including α-tin, the semiconductors silicon and germanium, and silicon/germanium alloys in any proportion.

Noble gas

noble gasesrare gas18
Tin and lead both are metals, while flerovium is a synthetic, radioactive (its half life is very short) element that may have a few noble gas-like properties, though it is still most likely a post-transition metal.
Preliminary chemistry experiments have indicated this element may be the first superheavy element to show abnormal noble-gas-like properties, even though it is a member of group 14 on the periodic table.

Block (periodic table)

d-blockp-blockf-block
It lies within the p-block.
The p-block elements can be described on a group-by-group basis as: group 13, the icosagens; 14, the crystallogens; 15, the pnictogens; 16, the chalcogens; 17, the halogens; and 18, the helium group, composed of the noble gases and oganesson.

Atomic radius

atomic radiiatomicatomic size
The atomic radii of the carbon group elements tend to increase with increasing atomic number.

Metalloid

metalloidsMetallicmetalloid staircase
Silicon and germanium, both metalloids, each can form +4 ions.
Both form type III-V semiconductors (such as GaAs, AlSb or GaInAsSb) in which the average number of valence electrons per atom is the same as that of Group 14 elements.

Organogermanium compound

organogermaniumOrganogermanium chemistryGe(CH 3 ) 4
Organogermanium compounds are also found in seawater.
Germanium shares group 14 in the periodic table with silicon, tin and lead, and not surprisingly the chemistry of organogermanium is in between that of organosilicon compounds and organotin compounds.

Graphene

anomalous quantum Hall effectDirac pointGraphene acquisition
For single bonds, a typical arrangement has four pairs of sp 3 electrons, although other cases exist too, such as three sp 2 pairs in graphene and graphite.
Under heating, the functional carbon groups decompose into graphene, while the nanotubes partially split and form in-plane covalent bonds with the graphene, adding strength.

Hypothetical types of biochemistry

alternative biochemistryazotosomeSilicon-based life
Silicon-based life's feasibility is commonly discussed.
The silicon atom has been much discussed as the basis for an alternative biochemical system, because silicon has many chemical properties similar to those of carbon and is in the same group of the periodic table, the carbon group.

Group (periodic table)

groupgroupsChemical series
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl).

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
The carbon group is a periodic table group consisting of carbon (C), silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), tin (Sn), lead (Pb), and flerovium (Fl). These elements, especially carbon and silicon, have a strong propensity for covalent bonding, which usually brings the outer shell to eight electrons.

International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry

IUPACInternational Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC)International Congress of Applied Chemistry
In modern IUPAC notation, it is called Group 14.

Electron configuration

electronic configurationconfigurationelectronic structure
Like other groups, the members of this family show patterns in electron configuration, especially in the outermost shells, resulting in trends in chemical behavior:

Chemical element

elementelementschemical elements
Each of the elements in this group has 4 electrons in its outer shell.

Electron

electronse − electron mass
Each of the elements in this group has 4 electrons in its outer shell.

Electron shell

valence shellshellshells
Each of the elements in this group has 4 electrons in its outer shell.

Covalent bond

covalentcovalentlycovalently bonded
These elements, especially carbon and silicon, have a strong propensity for covalent bonding, which usually brings the outer shell to eight electrons.

Octet rule

octetduet ruleoctet (8-electron) rule
These elements, especially carbon and silicon, have a strong propensity for covalent bonding, which usually brings the outer shell to eight electrons.

Orbital hybridisation

hybridizationhybridizedorbital hybridization
Bonds in these elements often lead to hybridisation where distinct s and p characters of the orbitals are erased.