Carbon monoxide

COcarbon monoxide (CO)carbon monoxide poisoningcarbon monoxide, COcarbon-monoxidegasbottled gascarbon monixideCarbon monoxide lasercarbon monoxide,
Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, and tasteless flammable gas that is slightly less dense than air.wikipedia
1,938 Related Articles

Oxocarbon

oxide of carboncarbon oxidecarbon oxides
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen.
The simplest and most common oxocarbons are carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ).

Carbon

Ccarbonaceouscarbon atom
Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond. The gas was identified as a compound containing carbon and oxygen by the Scottish chemist William Cruickshank in 1800. Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), such as when operating a stove or an internal combustion engine in an enclosed space.
The most common oxidation state of carbon in inorganic compounds is +4, while +2 is found in carbon monoxide and transition metal carbonyl complexes.

Cyanide

cyanocyanogenicCN
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen.
The cyanide ion is isoelectronic with carbon monoxide and with molecular nitrogen.

Nitrogen

NN 2 dinitrogen
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen.
The extremely strong triple bond in elemental nitrogen (N≡N), the second strongest bond in any diatomic molecule after carbon monoxide (CO), dominates nitrogen chemistry.

Gasification

gasifierbiomass gasificationgasified
External (with a few exceptions) charcoal or wood gas generators were fitted, and the mixture of atmospheric nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of other gases produced by gasification was piped to a gas mixer.
Gasification is a process that converts organic- or fossil fuel-based carbonaceous materials into carbon monoxide, hydrogen and carbon dioxide.

Wood gas generator

wood gasifiergas producergazogène
External (with a few exceptions) charcoal or wood gas generators were fitted, and the mixture of atmospheric nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of other gases produced by gasification was piped to a gas mixer.
A wood gas generator is a gasification unit which converts timber or charcoal into wood gas, a syngas consisting of atmospheric nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen, traces of methane, and other gases, which - after cooling and filtering - can then be used to power an internal combustion engine or for other purposes.

Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules

Carbon monoxide releasingtherapeutic gases
Other natural sources of CO include volcanoes, forest fires, other forms of combustion, and carbon monoxide-releasing molecules.
Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) are chemical compounds designed to release controlled amounts of carbon monoxide (CO).

Coal gas

town gasgascoal-gas
Coal gas, which was widely used before the 1960s for domestic lighting, cooking, and heating, had carbon monoxide as a significant fuel constituent.
Coal gas contains a variety of calorific gases including hydrogen, carbon monoxide, methane, ethylene and volatile hydrocarbons together with small quantities of non-calorific gases such as carbon dioxide and nitrogen.

Carbon monoxide poisoning

carbon monoxideCarbon monoxide inhalationcarbon monoxide toxicity
Too much carbon monoxide causes carbon monoxide poisoning.
Carbon monoxide poisoning typically occurs from breathing in carbon monoxide (CO) at excessive levels.

Heme oxygenase

heme oxygenase-1heme oxygenase (decyclizing)HSP32
In biology, carbon monoxide is naturally produced by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown.
This produces biliverdin, ferrous iron, and carbon monoxide.

Tropospheric ozone

ground-level ozoneground level ozoneozone
In the atmosphere, it is spatially variable and short lived, having a role in the formation of ground-level ozone.
This reaction initiates the chain of chemical reactions that remove carbon monoxide, methane, and other hydrocarbons from the atmosphere via oxidation.

Wood gas

woodgascarbon monoxide fuelcharcoal gas
The gas mixture produced by this process is known as wood gas.
During the production process biomass or other carbon-containing materials are gasified within the oxygen-limited environment of a wood gas generator to produce hydrogen and carbon monoxide.

Carboxyhemoglobin

carboxyhaemoglobin(Carboxyl-hemoglobin
This process produces a certain amount of carboxyhemoglobin in normal persons, even if they do not breathe any carbon monoxide.
Carboxyhemoglobin or carboxyhaemoglobin (symbol COHb or HbCO) is a stable complex of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin (Hb) that forms in red blood cells upon contact with carbon monoxide (CO).

Neurotransmitter

neurotransmittersexcitatory neurotransmitterneurotransmitter system
Following the first report that carbon monoxide is a normal neurotransmitter in 1993, as well as one of three gases that naturally modulate inflammatory responses in the body (the other two being nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfide), carbon monoxide has received a great deal of clinical attention as a biological regulator.
Single ions (such as synaptically released zinc) are also considered neurotransmitters by some, as well as some gaseous molecules such as nitric oxide (NO), carbon monoxide (CO), and hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S).

Isoelectronicity

isoelectronicvalence isoelectronicisoelectronic molecules
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen.
CO,,, and are isoelectronic because each has two nuclei and 10 valence electrons, with each atom considered to have 5 of them (a lone-pair and a triple-bond).

William Cruickshank (chemist)

William CruickshankW. CruikshankWilliam Cruikshank
The gas was identified as a compound containing carbon and oxygen by the Scottish chemist William Cruickshank in 1800.
He identified carbon monoxide as a compound containing carbon and oxygen in 1800.

Diesel fuel

dieseldiesel oilgas oil
During World War II, a gas mixture including carbon monoxide was used to keep motor vehicles running in parts of the world where gasoline and diesel fuel were scarce.
Use of biodiesel also results in reductions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide (CO), and particulate matter.

Hemoglobin

haemoglobinoxyhemoglobindeoxyhemoglobin
In biology, carbon monoxide is naturally produced by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown. It is toxic to animals that use hemoglobin as an oxygen carrier (both Invertebrate and vertebrate) when encountered in concentrations above about 35 ppm, although it is also produced in normal animal metabolism in low quantities, and is thought to have some normal biological functions.
Besides the oxygen ligand, which binds to hemoglobin in a cooperative manner, hemoglobin ligands also include competitive inhibitors such as carbon monoxide (CO) and allosteric ligands such as carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) and nitric oxide (NO).

Triple bond

tripletriple-bondtriple bonds
Carbon monoxide consists of one carbon atom and one oxygen atom, connected by a triple bond that consists of two covalent bonds as well as one dative covalent bond.
Some diatomic molecules, such as dinitrogen and carbon monoxide, are also triple bonded.

Carbon dioxide

CO 2 CO2carbon dioxide (CO 2 )
Carbon monoxide is produced from the partial oxidation of carbon-containing compounds; it forms when there is not enough oxygen to produce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), such as when operating a stove or an internal combustion engine in an enclosed space.
The reduction of to CO is ordinarily a difficult and slow reaction:

Isocyanide

isonitrileisonitrilesIsocyanides
Isocyanides are compounds in which the O is replaced by an NR (R = alkyl or aryl) group and have a similar bonding scheme.
Akin to carbon monoxide, isocyanides are described by two resonance structures, one with a triple bond between the nitrogen and the carbon and one with a double bond between.

Aktion T4

Action T4T-4 Euthanasia Programeuthanasia
Carbon monoxide was also used on a large scale during the Holocaust at some Nazi German extermination camps, the most notable by gas vans in Chełmno, and in the Action T4 "euthanasia" program.
The first experiments with the gassing of patients were conducted in October 1939 at Fort VII in Posen (occupied Poznań), where hundreds of prisoners were killed by means of carbon monoxide poisoning, in an improvised gas chamber developed by Dr Albert Widmann, chief chemist of the German Criminal Police (Kripo).

Atmosphere of Mars

Martian atmosphereatmosphereMars
Carbon monoxide/oxygen engines have been suggested for early surface transportation use as both carbon monoxide and oxygen can be straightforwardly produced from the atmosphere of Mars by zirconia electrolysis, without using any Martian water resources to obtain hydrogen, which would be needed to make methane or any hydrogen-based fuel.
It also contains trace levels of water vapor, oxygen, carbon monoxide, hydrogen and other noble gases.

Chełmno extermination camp

ChełmnoChelmno extermination campChelmno
Carbon monoxide was also used on a large scale during the Holocaust at some Nazi German extermination camps, the most notable by gas vans in Chełmno, and in the Action T4 "euthanasia" program.
The exhaust gases causing death by asphyxia were tested by a chemist from the mass murder operation Action T4 to make sure they contained large enough amounts of carbon monoxide (or 1% concentration), to form carboxyhaemoglobin, a deadly blood agent, in combining with haemoglobin in the cells.

Nitrosonium

nitrosonium ionNO +
It is the simplest oxocarbon and is isoelectronic with other triply-bonded diatomic molecules having ten valence electrons, including the cyanide anion, the nitrosonium cation and molecular nitrogen.
NO + is isoelectronic with CO, CN − and N 2.