Carbonari

CarboneriaCarbonarismCarbonaroItalian Nationalism1820-1821 Neapolitan insurrectionsCarbonari rebellionCarbonari revolutionCarbonari Uprisings of 1820-1821Carbonari uprisings of 1820–1821Carbonaria
The Carbonari (Italian for "charcoal makers") was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831.wikipedia
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Secret society

secret societiessecret organizationsecret
The Carbonari (Italian for "charcoal makers") was an informal network of secret revolutionary societies active in Italy from about 1800 to 1831.
Barrett's definition would rule out many organizations called secret societies; graded teaching is usually not part of the American college fraternities, the Carbonari, or the 19th-century Know Nothings.

Italian unification

Risorgimentounification of ItalyKingdom of Italy
Members of the Carbonari, and those influenced by them, took part in important events in the process of Italian unification (called the Risorgimento), especially the failed Revolution of 1820, and in the further development of Italian nationalism.
One of the most influential revolutionary groups was the Carboneria, a secret political discussion group formed in Southern Italy early in the 19th century; the members were called Carbonari.

Alta Vendita

The controversial document Alta Vendita, which called for a liberal or modernist takeover of the Catholic Church, was attributed to the Sicilian Carbonari.
The Permanent Instruction of the Alta Vendita (commonly called the Alta Vendita) is a document, originally published in Italian in 1859, produced by the highest lodge of the Italian Carbonari and written by "Piccolo Tigre" ("Little Tiger"), which, according to George F. Dillon, was supposedly the pseudonym of a Jewish Freemason.

Ecclesiam a Jesu Christo

Pius VII (1821)
The Papal constitution Ecclesiam a Jesu Christo and the encyclical Qui pluribus were directed against them.
It also linked Freemasonry with the Carbonari, an anti-clerical revolutionary group active in Italy.

Revolutions of 1820

18201820-1821 RevolutionItalian revolutions of 1820
Members of the Carbonari, and those influenced by them, took part in important events in the process of Italian unification (called the Risorgimento), especially the failed Revolution of 1820, and in the further development of Italian nationalism.
This success inspired Carbonari in the north of Italy to revolt too.

Gabriele Rossetti

RossettiGabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossettihis father
Clyde Hyder suspects that the model for Prof. Pesca was Gabriele Rossetti, who was a member of the Carbonari, as well as an Italian teacher resident in London during the 1840s.
Gabriele Pasquale Giuseppe Rossetti (28 February 1783 – 24 April 1854) was an Italian nobleman, poet, constitutionalist, scholar, and founder of the secret society Carbonari who emigrated to England.

Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies

Ferdinand IVFerdinand IV of NaplesFerdinand I
The Bourbon king, Ferdinand I of the Two Sicilies, was opposed to them.
The suppression of liberal opinion caused an alarming spread of the influence and activity of the secret society of the Carbonari, which in time affected a large part of the army.

Amand Bazard

Saint-Amand BazardSaint-Armand Bazard
Saint-Amand Bazard (18 September 1791 – 29 July 1832) was a French socialist, the founder of a secret society in France corresponding to the Carbonari of Italy.

Giuseppe Mazzini

MazziniMazzinianJoseph Mazzini
The more astute members realised they could never take on the Austrian army in open battle and joined a new movement, Giovane Italia ("Young Italy") led by the nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini.
In 1827 Mazzini travelled to Tuscany, where he became a member of the Carbonari, a secret association with political purposes.

Napoleon III

Napoléon IIILouis NapoleonNapoleon III of France
He was reunited with his older brother Napoléon Louis, and together they became involved with the Carbonari, secret revolutionary societies fighting Austria's domination of northern Italy.

Louis Auguste Blanqui

Auguste BlanquiBlanquiLouis-Auguste Blanqui
A member of the Carbonari society since 1824, he took an active part in most republican conspiracies during this period.

Giuseppe Garibaldi

GaribaldiGaribaldianGaribaldine
Giuseppe Garibaldi has been called the "Hero of the Two Worlds" because of his military enterprises in Brazil, Uruguay and Europe.
He joined the Carbonari revolutionary association, and in February 1834 participated in a failed Mazzinian insurrection in Piedmont.

Victor Emmanuel I of Sardinia

Victor Emmanuel IVictor EmmanuelVittorio Emanuele I
In Piedmont, King Vittorio Emanuele I, undecided what to do, abdicated in favor of his brother Charles Felix of Sardinia; but Charles Felix, more resolute, invited an Austrian military intervention.
In March 1821, a liberal revolution exploded in Italy, largely the work of the Carbonari and it seemed that the anti-Austrian attitude of the revolutionaries matched that of Victor Emmanuel.

Silvio Pellico

Among the principal leaders of the Carbonari, Morelli and Silvati were sentenced to death; Pepe went into exile; Federico Confalonieri, Silvio Pellico, and Piero Maroncelli were imprisoned.
In October 1820, Pellico was arrested on the charge of carbonarism and conveyed to the Santa Margherita prison.

Guglielmo Pepe

General PepeGuglielmoLieutenant-General Pepe
On July 1, two officers, Michele Morelli and Joseph Silvati, (who had been part of the army of Murat under Guglielmo Pepe), marched towards the town of Nola in Campania at the head of their regiments of cavalry.
While engaged in suppressing brigandage in the Capitanata, Pepe organized the carbonari into a national militia, intending to use them for political purposes.

Brno

BrünnBrno, Czech RepublicBrunn
Špilberk Castle, originally a royal castle founded in the 13th century, was from the 17th century a fortress and feared prison (e.g. Carbonari).

Bartolomeo Pacca

Cardinal PaccaPacca
On 15 August 1814, Cardinals Ercole Consalvi and Bartolomeo Pacca issued an edict forbidding all secret societies, to become members of these secret associations, to attend their meetings, or to furnish a meeting-place for such, under severe penalties.
He resigned the office of Camerlengo in 1824, when Pope Leo XII appointed him pro-datary, he was the first to hold the post of cardinal legate of Velletri, and he was active against the Carbonari.

Špilberk Castle

ŠpilberkSpielbergSpielberg fortress
More than a quarter of a century later, from 1822 on, specially constructed cells for "state prisoners" in the northern wing of the former fortress were filled with Italian patriots known as Carbonari, who had fought for the unification, freedom and independence of their country.

Vanina Vanini

novellaof the same name
The story Vanina Vanini by Stendhal involved a hero in the Carbonari and a heroine who became obsessed by this.
Set in 1820s during the early Risorgimento, when Italy was under Austrian control, it concerns the love affair of a young Roman princess and a revolutionary carbonaro.

Young Italy (historical)

Young ItalyGiovine ItaliaGiovane Italia
The more astute members realised they could never take on the Austrian army in open battle and joined a new movement, Giovane Italia ("Young Italy") led by the nationalist Giuseppe Mazzini.

Gilbert du Motier, Marquis de Lafayette

Marquis de LafayetteLafayetteGeneral Lafayette
He was involved in the various Charbonnier plots, and agreed to go to the city of Belfort, where there was a garrison of French troops, and assume a major role in the revolutionary government.

Committee of Union and Progress

CUPIttihadistCommittee for Union and Progress
The organisation was based upon the revolutionary Italian Carbonari.

Anthony Panizzi

Antonio PanizziA PanizziPanizzi
It was during this time that a charge was brought against Panizzi that he was a Carbonaro, that is, a member of a secret society that opposed the current political regime.

Ciro Menotti

A member of the Carboneria since 1817, he was a fervent democratic and patriot.

The Stress of Her Regard

They feature in Tim Powers' The Stress of Her Regard as opponents of the vampire-backed Austrian Empire.