A report on VolcanoLava and Carbonatite

Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.
10 m lava fountain in Hawaii, United States
Carbonatite from Jacupiranga, Brazil. This rock is a mixture of calcite, magnetite, and olivine.
Cordillera de Apaneca volcanic range in El Salvador. The country is home to 170 volcanoes, 23 which are active, including two calderas, one being a supervolcano. El Salvador has earned the epithets endearment La Tierra de Soberbios Volcanes, (The Land of Magnificent Volcanoes).
Lava flow during a rift eruption at Krafla, Iceland in 1984
Carbonatite lava at Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano, Tanzania
Sabancaya volcano erupting, Peru in 2017
Pāhoehoe and ʻaʻā lava flows side by side in Hawaii, September 2007
Magnesiocarbonatite, from Verity-Paradise Carbonatite Complex of British Columbia. Specimen is 75 mm wide.
Cleveland Volcano in the Aleutian Islands of Alaska photographed from the International Space Station, May 2006
Toes of a pāhoehoe advance across a road in Kalapana on the east rift zone of Kīlauea Volcano in Hawaii, United States
Okaite, an ultramafic rock found near the carbonatite of the Oka Carbonatite Complex, Oka, Quebec
An eruption of Mount Pinatubo on June 12, 1991, three days before its climactic eruption
Columnar jointing in Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland
Thin section of apatite-rich carbonatite in cross polarised transmitted light. The sample is from Siilinjärvi apatite mine.
Fountain of lava erupting from a volcanic cone in Hawaii, 1983
Lava entering the sea to expand the big island of Hawaii, Hawaii Volcanoes National Park
Aerial view of the Barren Island, Andaman Islands, India, during an eruption in 1995. It is the only active volcano in South Asia.
Lava enters the Pacific at the Big Island of Hawaii
Map showing the divergent plate boundaries (oceanic spreading ridges) and recent sub-aerial volcanoes (mostly at convergent boundaries)
Glowing aā flow front advancing over pāhoehoe on the coastal plain of Kilauea in Hawaii, United States
Lakagigar fissure vent in Iceland, the source of the major world climate alteration of 1783–84, has a chain of volcanic cones along its length.
Pāhoehoe lava from Kīlauea volcano, Hawaii, United States
Skjaldbreiður, a shield volcano whose name means "broad shield"
Block lava at Fantastic Lava Beds near Cinder Cone in Lassen Volcanic National Park
Izalco volcano, the youngest volcano in El Salvador. Izalco erupted almost continuously from 1770 (when it formed) to 1958, earning it the nickname of "Lighthouse of the Pacific".
Pillow lava on the ocean floor near Hawaii
Cross-section through a stratovolcano (vertical scale is exaggerated):
Arenal Volcano, Costa Rica, is a stratovolcano.
Satellite images of the 15 January 2022 eruption of Hunga Tonga-Hunga Haʻapai
A forested lava dome in the midst of the Valle Grande, the largest meadow in the Valles Caldera National Preserve, New Mexico, United States
Pāhoehoe lava flow on Hawaii. The picture shows overflows of a main lava channel.
Shiprock, New Mexico, United States: a volcanic neck in the distance, with a radiating dike on its south side
The Stromboli stratovolcano off the coast of Sicily has erupted continuously for thousands of years, giving rise to its nickname "Lighthouse of the Mediterranean"
450 m-high lava fountain at Kilauea
Columnar-jointed basalt lava erupted from a volcano, South Penghu Marine National Park in Taiwan
Lava can easily destroy entire towns. This picture shows one of over 100 houses destroyed by the lava flow in Kalapana, Hawaii, United States, in 1990.
Light-microscope image of tuff as seen in thin section (long dimension is several mm): The curved shapes of altered glass shards (ash fragments) are well preserved, although the glass is partly altered. The shapes were formed around bubbles of expanding, water-rich gas.
Fresco with Mount Vesuvius behind Bacchus and Agathodaemon, as seen in Pompeii's House of the Centenary
Narcondam Island, India, is classified as a dormant volcano by the Geological Survey of India
Fourpeaked volcano, Alaska, in September 2006 after being thought extinct for over 10,000 years
Mount Rinjani eruption in 1994, in Lombok, Indonesia
Shiprock in New Mexico, US
Capulin Volcano National Monument in New Mexico, US
Koryaksky volcano towering over Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky on Kamchatka Peninsula, Far Eastern Russia
Schematic of volcano injection of aerosols and gases
Solar radiation graph 1958–2008, showing how the radiation is reduced after major volcanic eruptions
Sulfur dioxide concentration over the Sierra Negra Volcano, Galapagos Islands, during an eruption in October 2005
Comparison of major United States supereruptions (VEI 7 and 8) with major historical volcanic eruptions in the 19th and 20th century. From left to right: Yellowstone 2.1 Ma, Yellowstone 1.3 Ma, Long Valley 6.26 Ma, Yellowstone 0.64 Ma . 19th century eruptions: Tambora 1815, Krakatoa 1883. 20th century eruptions: Novarupta 1912, St. Helens 1980, Pinatubo 1991.
The Tvashtar volcano erupts a plume 330 km (205 mi) above the surface of Jupiter's moon Io.
Olympus Mons (Latin, "Mount Olympus"), located on the planet Mars, is the tallest known mountain in the Solar System.

A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object, such as Earth, that allows hot lava, volcanic ash, and gases to escape from a magma chamber below the surface.

- Volcano

Lava may be erupted at a volcano or through a fracture in the crust, on land or underwater, usually at temperatures from 800 to 1200 C. The volcanic rock resulting from subsequent cooling is also often called lava.

- Lava

This is because carbonatite lava flows, being composed largely of soluble carbonates, are easily weathered and are therefore unlikely to be preserved in the geologic record.

- Carbonatite

Only one carbonatite volcano is known to have erupted in historical time, the active Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania.

- Carbonatite

However, rifting often fails to completely split the continental lithosphere (such as in an aulacogen), and failed rifts are characterized by volcanoes that erupt unusual alkali lava or carbonatites.

- Volcano

Carbonatite and natrocarbonatite lavas are known from Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, which is the sole example of an active carbonatite volcano. Carbonatites in the geologic record are typically 75% carbonate minerals, with lesser amounts of silica-undersaturated silicate minerals (such as micas and olivine), apatite, magnetite, and pyrochlore. This may not reflect the original composition of the lava, which may have included sodium carbonate that was subsequently removed by hydrothermal activity, though laboratory experiments show that a calcite-rich magma is possible. Carbonatite lavas show stable isotope ratios indicating they are derived from the highly alkaline silicic lavas with which they are always associated, probably by separation of an immiscible phase. Natrocarbonatite lavas of Ol Doinyo Lengai are composed mostly of sodium carbonate, with about half as much calcium carbonate and half again as much potassium carbonate, and minor amounts of halides, fluorides, and sulphates. The lavas are extremely fluid, with viscosities only slightly greater than water, and are very cool, with measured temperatures of 491 to 544 C.

- Lava
Bromo volcano in Indonesia. This country has more than 130 active volcanoes, one of which is a supervolcano, making Indonesia the country with the most active volcanoes in the world.

1 related topic with Alpha

Overall

Lava flow on Hawaii. Lava is the extrusive equivalent of magma.

Magma

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Molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rocks are formed.

Molten or semi-molten natural material from which all igneous rocks are formed.

Lava flow on Hawaii. Lava is the extrusive equivalent of magma.
Phase diagram for the diopside-anorthite system
Schematic diagrams showing the principles behind fractional crystallisation in a magma. While cooling, the magma evolves in composition because different minerals crystallize from the melt. 1: olivine crystallizes; 2: olivine and pyroxene crystallize; 3: pyroxene and plagioclase crystallize; 4: plagioclase crystallizes. At the bottom of the magma reservoir, a cumulate rock forms.
A single silica tetrahedron
Two silica tetrahedra joined by a bridging oxygen ion (tinted pink)

Following its ascent through the crust, magma may feed a volcano and be extruded as lava, or it may solidify underground to form an intrusion, such as a dike, a sill, a laccolith, a pluton, or a batholith.

Carbonatite and natrocarbonatite lavas are known from Ol Doinyo Lengai volcano in Tanzania, which is the sole example of an active carbonatite volcano. Carbonatites in the geologic record are typically 75% carbonate minerals, with lesser amounts of silica-undersaturated silicate minerals (such as micas and olivine), apatite, magnetite, and pyrochlore. This may not reflect the original composition of the lava, which may have included sodium carbonate that was subsequently removed by hydrothermal activity, though laboratory experiments show that a calcite-rich magma is possible. Carbonatite lavas show stable isotope ratios indicating they are derived from the highly alkaline silicic lavas with which they are always associated, probably by separation of an immiscible phase. Natrocarbonatite lavas of Ol Doinyo Lengai are composed mostly of sodium carbonate, with about half as much calcium carbonate and half again as much potassium carbonate, and minor amounts of halides, fluorides, and sulphates. The lavas are extremely fluid, with viscosities only slightly greater than water, and are very cool, with measured temperatures of 491 to 544 C.