A report on Carcinogen and Carcinogenesis

Cigarettes have been known carcinogens for at least 65 years.
Cancers and tumors are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Longitudinally opened freshly resected colon segment showing a cancer and four polyps. Plus a schematic diagram indicating a likely field defect (a region of tissue that precedes and predisposes to the development of cancer) in this colon segment. The diagram indicates sub-clones and sub-sub-clones that were precursors to the tumors.
Tissue can be organized in a continuous spectrum from normal to cancer.
Many tumor suppressor genes effect signal transduction pathways that regulate apoptosis, also known as "programmed cell death".
Multiple mutations in cancer cells

A carcinogen is any substance, radionuclide, or radiation that promotes carcinogenesis, the formation of cancer.

- Carcinogen

In addition, environmental factors such as carcinogens and radiation cause mutations that may contribute to the development of cancer.

- Carcinogenesis
Cigarettes have been known carcinogens for at least 65 years.

2 related topics with Alpha

Overall

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver

Cancer

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Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

Group of diseases involving abnormal cell growth with the potential to invade or spread to other parts of the body.

A coronal CT scan showing a malignant mesothelioma
Legend: → tumor ←, ✱ central pleural effusion, 1 & 3 lungs, 2 spine, 4 ribs, 5 aorta, 6 spleen, 7 & 8 kidneys, 9 liver
Symptoms of cancer metastasis depend on the location of the tumor.
The GHS Hazard pictogram for carcinogenic substances
Share of cancer deaths attributed to tobacco in 2016.
The incidence of lung cancer is highly correlated with smoking.
Cancers are caused by a series of mutations. Each mutation alters the behavior of the cell somewhat.
The central role of DNA damage and epigenetic defects in DNA repair genes in carcinogenesis
Chest X-ray showing lung cancer in the left lung
Three measures of global cancer mortality from 1990 to 2017
Engraving with two views of a Dutch woman who had a tumor removed from her neck in 1689
University of Florida Cancer Hospital
CancerTreeMammal
An invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast (pale area at the center) surrounded by spikes of whitish scar tissue and yellow fatty tissue
An invasive colorectal carcinoma (top center) in a colectomy specimen
A squamous-cell carcinoma (the whitish tumor) near the bronchi in a lung specimen
A large invasive ductal carcinoma in a mastectomy specimen

These substances are called carcinogens.

Several studies have indicated that the enzyme sirtuin 6 is selectively inactivated during oncogenesis in a variety of tumor types by inducing glycolysis.

Definition of transitions and transversions. They are a common mutation caused by genotoxic compounds.

Genotoxicity

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Property of chemical agents that damage the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.

Property of chemical agents that damage the genetic information within a cell causing mutations, which may lead to cancer.

Definition of transitions and transversions. They are a common mutation caused by genotoxic compounds.
Ames test procedure to test for gene mutations present in the various bacterial strains
Overview of the use of the SOS response for genotoxicity testing

For example, the transition metal chromium interacts with DNA in its high-valent oxidation state so to incur DNA lesions leading to carcinogenesis.

The result of the test detects the majority of genotoxic carcinogens and genetic changes; the types of mutations detected are frame shifts and base substitutions.